An italian poet who wrote the Divine Comedy
Italian scholar, known as the father of humanism
Avignon became where the popes resided, creating a conflict with the French monarch.
The midevil war between France and England
A mass pandemic that spread through Europe, and killed many people
Constitution issued by Emperor Charles IV intended to eliminate papal interference with German governments.
Two men declared themselves pope. After a three councils, and another pope election, the schism was solved.
The french peasant revolts that was caused by the direct taxation on the peasants, the taille
Looked to the scriptures as main source of belief
The dissapearance of midevil art
This council ended the Great Schism, in which three pope were elected.
Christian movement following John Huss
Guttenberg invented the printing press, which greatly affected the reformation by allowing mass communication
The two married to expand their empire, uniting Aragon and Castille, forming modern Spain.
Religious and education reforms influenced by Northern Humanists
Rennaissance astronomer and first person to advocate the heliocentric model
The execution of alleged witches.
The rise of mercantilism and trade, as well as joint stock companies
The exchange of goods through the new world and Europe following Colombian's voyages.
Columbus found new land, expanding the Spanish empire and increrasing trade
The transition from medevil europe to 'modern' europe. New art, economic, and political systems based on Humanism ideals,
Calvin and his theories later produced the religion Calvanism. Calvin ruled a city, Geneva, by a very strict set of rules that reflected his beliefs.
Isssued Act of Supremacy, declaring Henry the head of the state and church
Niccolo Machiavellis philosiphies on how to be the best ruler-- 'do the ends justify the means' philosiphy
A reformation spread, challenging the Renessaince, and created new religions.
Martin Luther criticizes the clerical abuses and the sale of indulgences.
New art style that gave artists more freedom and room for abstract painting
Diet of worms condemns luther and his 95 thesis
German imperial diet, or assembly that adressed the results of the Reformation
Peasants revolted, believing they had the support of Luther-- no support from luther
Main leader of the Dutch Revolt
Mary re-established catholicism in England with forceful tactics, giving her the name of 'bloody mary'
Men who act as 'gods warriors'
Reformed the Catholic church
Astronomer who researched his work to justify Copernican model
A treaty Charles V issued in Germany, allowing the rulers of each land to decide religion
Established the 39 articles, which seperated England from the church and formed a more protestand religion.
Philip attempts to control the Netherlands, and they respond with a revolt. ten provinces unified against spain in the Pacification of Ghent. The union of utrecht was a union of the northern provinces against Spain.
A great English poet and playwriter
Provieded strong evidence for heliocentric model
French huguenots were killed and attacked
Executed after a trial confirmed she was plotting against Elizabeth's life
The spanish fleet that went against England in attempt to overthrow Elizabeth I
Argued for a social contract
Declared Edict of Nantes, allowing religious toleration in France
Increase in consumption of goods
Henry IV gave religious toleration to French protestants
Period of exaggerated, extravagant art during the Reformation
Succesor to Mary of Scotts
The satired book by Cervantes criticizes religious idealism
Louis and Richelue set foundations for limiting nobility
War fought between many european powers, ended with the treaty of westphalia
Believed in inductive reasoning
Laid the foundations for modern mathamatics
Already rooted religious distrust, he fought the parliment in the English civil war
condemned for his belief that the earth moved around the sun
He believes doubt everything, except your exsistence
Parliments called by King Charles
The struggle for power between the monarchy and parlament. After parliment 'wins', they set up a Puritan Republic, which fails. After a restoration of monarchy, comes the period of a Glorius Revolution, which ends with the parliment instituting an English bill of rights, ensuring their rights
Moved his monarchy and nobility to Versaille, extemely limiting the nobilities power
Skilled workers migrating to Netherlands, cheap energy sources, and trade
A civil war in france between parlements and the nobles
Returned stability after Walpole
Gathering place to share Enlightened ideas
Netherlands began to lose their edge in ship building, their tulip bubble had burst
Believed in natural rights and tabula rassa
Louis XIV renounced Edict
Led a catholic to line of heir, so every called William of Orange, causing James to flee England
explains many laws of Newton, including the Law of Gravitation
Witch hunts dissipate, and eventually end
French enlightened writer who criticized organized religion
Enlightment art, used aspects of classic art
Devolpment in agriculture. It produced more food because of better food production, due to the enclosure method.
A extravagant version of baroque art
A war between a Swedish alliance and Russia
The late renassaince brought a new economic system, Mercantilism, which allowed a government monopoly on trade
Act to secure Protestant succession in England
fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.
Issued the pragmatic sanction, ensuring his daughter would have line to the throne after his death
The philosiphy that we must enter a social contract with society,a do what is best for the whole
Ended Spanish War of Succession
Prime minsiter of England.
Caused France to be lost since the nobility no longer had the pwoer
The Mississippi Company issued too many shares, causing the financial 'bubble' to burst
conflict between Spain and England
Instituted a strict and successful military in Prussia
Took throne with the help of the Pragmatic Sanction, however other nations ignored the Pragmatic Sanction and attempted to overthrow her
Prussia attempted to invade Hapsburg lands, sparking a war
One of the three enlightened despots, though she was the least enlightened
A period of advancements and inventions that allowed for the production of goods to increase, and move from the home into factories.
The shift of alliances between britain, austria, france, and prussia
One of the three enlightened rulers
Increased national debt of Britain
supported the mercantilistic system
Rallied peasants got together a mob and stormed the Bastille, letting out the prisoners
Advocated womens rights
Renounced their priveleges due to fear..
Summoned by the king to give propisitions to fix the financial problems
Agreeal not to disband until a constitution had been written, first revolutionary act
peasants feared royal troops would be sent into rural areas.
Men are born free and equal
parisian armed women march into versaille and demand that king return to paris
New official government
Draft for the war with austria.. caused them to win
Atheistic belief system intended to replace christianity
A mob stormed through the Kings palace, and arrested him. End of monarchy
Tried on being the king
Enemies of the revolution must be killed
Intended to be the state religion of France
Executed for being an enemy of the revolution
Gives a speech that someone in the room is a counterrevolutionary, causes fear within people, next day he is executed.
Ended the revolution
Napolean takes over the coo