Untitled timeline



1265 - 1321

An italian poet who wrote the Divine Comedy


1304 - 1374

Italian scholar, known as the father of humanism

Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity):

1309 - 1376

Avignon became where the popes resided, creating a conflict with the French monarch.


1313 - 1375

Rennaisance humanist

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The midevil war between France and England

The Black Death:

1348 - 1350

A mass pandemic that spread through Europe, and killed many people

The Golden Bull


Constitution issued by Emperor Charles IV intended to eliminate papal interference with German governments.

The Great Schism:

1378 - 1417

Two men declared themselves pope. After a three councils, and another pope election, the schism was solved.



The french peasant revolts that was caused by the direct taxation on the peasants, the taille

Lollards- John Wycliffe


Looked to the scriptures as main source of belief

Decline of Gothic Art


The dissapearance of midevil art

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

This council ended the Great Schism, in which three pope were elected.

Hussites: John Huss:


Christian movement following John Huss

Printing Press- Guttenberg-


Guttenberg invented the printing press, which greatly affected the reformation by allowing mass communication

Ferdinand and Isabella

1451 - 1504

The two married to expand their empire, uniting Aragon and Castille, forming modern Spain.

Northern Renessaince

1465 - 1560

Religious and education reforms influenced by Northern Humanists


1466 - 1536

Dutch humanist


1473 - 1543

Rennaissance astronomer and first person to advocate the heliocentric model

Witch Hunts:


The execution of alleged witches.

Commercial Revolution


The rise of mercantilism and trade, as well as joint stock companies

Columbian Exchange


The exchange of goods through the new world and Europe following Colombian's voyages.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire


Columbus found new land, expanding the Spanish empire and increrasing trade

Rennesaince in Italy

1500 - 1600

The transition from medevil europe to 'modern' europe. New art, economic, and political systems based on Humanism ideals,

Pope Julius II r

1503 - 1513


John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

Calvin and his theories later produced the religion Calvanism. Calvin ruled a city, Geneva, by a very strict set of rules that reflected his beliefs.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Isssued Act of Supremacy, declaring Henry the head of the state and church

The Prince, Machiavelli


Niccolo Machiavellis philosiphies on how to be the best ruler-- 'do the ends justify the means' philosiphy


1517 - 1563

A reformation spread, challenging the Renessaince, and created new religions.

Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis


Martin Luther criticizes the clerical abuses and the sale of indulgences.


1520 - 1580

New art style that gave artists more freedom and room for abstract painting

Luther- 95 thesis, diet of worms


Diet of worms condemns luther and his 95 thesis

Diet of Worms:


German imperial diet, or assembly that adressed the results of the Reformation

German Peasant revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants revolted, believing they had the support of Luther-- no support from luther

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch Revolt

Mary I (England)

1533 - 1558

Mary re-established catholicism in England with forceful tactics, giving her the name of 'bloody mary'

Jesuits- Society of Jesus


Men who act as 'gods warriors'

Council of Trent:

1545 - 1563

Reformed the Catholic church

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Astronomer who researched his work to justify Copernican model

Peace of Augsburg:

September 25 1555

A treaty Charles V issued in Germany, allowing the rulers of each land to decide religion

Elizabeth (England) I r.

1558 - 1603

Established the 39 articles, which seperated England from the church and formed a more protestand religion.

Dutch Revolt

1559 - 1581

Philip attempts to control the Netherlands, and they respond with a revolt. ten provinces unified against spain in the Pacification of Ghent. The union of utrecht was a union of the northern provinces against Spain.


1564 - 1616

A great English poet and playwriter

Kepler: The New Astronomy:

1571 - 1630

Provieded strong evidence for heliocentric model

Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre:

August 22 1572

French huguenots were killed and attacked

Mary Stuart executed


Executed after a trial confirmed she was plotting against Elizabeth's life

Spanish Armada


The spanish fleet that went against England in attempt to overthrow Elizabeth I

Hobbes: Leviathan

1588 - 1679

Argued for a social contract

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Declared Edict of Nantes, allowing religious toleration in France

Consumer Revolution


Increase in consumption of goods

Edict of Nantes


Henry IV gave religious toleration to French protestants

Baroque Art:


Period of exaggerated, extravagant art during the Reformation

James I (Eng)

1603 - 1625

Succesor to Mary of Scotts

Cervantes: Don Quixote


The satired book by Cervantes criticizes religious idealism

Louis XIII:

1610 - 1643

Louis and Richelue set foundations for limiting nobility

The Thirty Years War:

1618 - 1648

War fought between many european powers, ended with the treaty of westphalia

Bacon: Novum Organum:


Believed in inductive reasoning

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Laid the foundations for modern mathamatics

Charles I (Eng)

1625 - 1649

Already rooted religious distrust, he fought the parliment in the English civil war

Galileo Condemned


condemned for his belief that the earth moved around the sun

Descartes: Discourse on Method


He believes doubt everything, except your exsistence

Long Parliament/Short Parl.


Parliments called by King Charles

English Civil War

1642 - 1701

The struggle for power between the monarchy and parlament. After parliment 'wins', they set up a Puritan Republic, which fails. After a restoration of monarchy, comes the period of a Glorius Revolution, which ends with the parliment instituting an English bill of rights, ensuring their rights

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Moved his monarchy and nobility to Versaille, extemely limiting the nobilities power

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1648 - 1700

Skilled workers migrating to Netherlands, cheap energy sources, and trade

The Fronde:

1649 - 1652

A civil war in france between parlements and the nobles

Charles II (Eng)

1660 - 1685

Returned stability after Walpole

Academies of Science:


Gathering place to share Enlightened ideas

Decline of Netherlands


Netherlands began to lose their edge in ship building, their tulip bubble had burst

Locke: Treatises on Gov’t


Believed in natural rights and tabula rassa

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Louis XIV renounced Edict

James II (Eng)

1685 - 1688

Led a catholic to line of heir, so every called William of Orange, causing James to flee England

Newton: Principia Mathematica


explains many laws of Newton, including the Law of Gravitation

End of the Witch Hunts


Witch hunts dissipate, and eventually end


1694 - 1778

French enlightened writer who criticized organized religion



Enlightment art, used aspects of classic art

Agricultural Revolution-


Devolpment in agriculture. It produced more food because of better food production, due to the enclosure method.

Emergence of Rococo


A extravagant version of baroque art

The Great Northern War:

1700 - 1721

A war between a Swedish alliance and Russia

Age of Mercantilism:


The late renassaince brought a new economic system, Mercantilism, which allowed a government monopoly on trade

Act of Settlement


Act to secure Protestant succession in England

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issued the pragmatic sanction, ensuring his daughter would have line to the throne after his death

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:

1712 - 1778

The philosiphy that we must enter a social contract with society,a do what is best for the whole

Treaty of Utrecht


Ended Spanish War of Succession

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole


Prime minsiter of England.

Death of Louis XIV:


Caused France to be lost since the nobility no longer had the pwoer

Mississippi Bubble

1718 - 1720

The Mississippi Company issued too many shares, causing the financial 'bubble' to burst

War of Jenkins’s Ear-

1739 - 1748

conflict between Spain and England

Frederick II (The Great)

1740 - 1786

Instituted a strict and successful military in Prussia

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Took throne with the help of the Pragmatic Sanction, however other nations ignored the Pragmatic Sanction and attempted to overthrow her

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia attempted to invade Hapsburg lands, sparking a war

Catherine the Great (Rus)

1745 - 1796

One of the three enlightened despots, though she was the least enlightened

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

A period of advancements and inventions that allowed for the production of goods to increase, and move from the home into factories.

Diplomatic Revolution


The shift of alliances between britain, austria, france, and prussia

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

One of the three enlightened rulers

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Increased national debt of Britain

Smith- Wealth of Nations


supported the mercantilistic system

French Revolution

Storming of the Bastille

july 14 789

Rallied peasants got together a mob and stormed the Bastille, letting out the prisoners


1759 - 1797

Advocated womens rights

Nobles renounce their privleges


Renounced their priveleges due to fear..

Estates General called/Meets

May 5 1789

Summoned by the king to give propisitions to fix the financial problems

Tennis Court Oath

june 20 1789

Agreeal not to disband until a constitution had been written, first revolutionary act

Great fear

july 1789 - august 1789

peasants feared royal troops would be sent into rural areas.

rights of man and citizen

august 26 1789

Men are born free and equal

March of the fishwives

October 5 1789 - October 6 1789

parisian armed women march into versaille and demand that king return to paris

Legislative assembly meets

october 1 1791

New official government

Levee en masse


Draft for the war with austria.. caused them to win

Cult of Reason


Atheistic belief system intended to replace christianity

Tulleries stormed/ king captive

August 10 1792

A mob stormed through the Kings palace, and arrested him. End of monarchy

Louis XVI executed

January 1 1793

Tried on being the king

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Enemies of the revolution must be killed

Cult of the supreme being


Intended to be the state religion of France

Danton executed

April 1794

Executed for being an enemy of the revolution

Fall of Robespierre

July 26 1794

Gives a speech that someone in the room is a counterrevolutionary, causes fear within people, next day he is executed.

Consititution of the Year III

August 22 1795

Ended the revolution



Napolean takes over the coo