European History Events

General Political History

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

War between France and England.
Consequences:-
1) Hurt population of France
2) Created Crisis with in the church
3) Strengethed power of the king
4) Distabilizes banking system

The Black Death

1347 - 1352

This was a period were the Bubonic Plague hit Europe killing over 25 million of the population. This led to a hurt economy and hurt the landowners.

The golden bull

1356

Established a seven member electoral college that functioned as an administrative body that elected the emperor in the Holy Roman Empire.

Jacquerie

1358

After the Plague, the french nobles taxed the peasants and they revolted.

Witch Hunts:

1400 - 1700

People killed for apparently having "evil magical powers". Women were the common victims, especially widows.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

This was made to end the Great Schism. They made the conflicting popes resign and replaced them with one pope.

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1700

The Commercial Revolution caused the expansion of European Economy and the creation of colonies to further their wealth. It also began the idea of mercantilism.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

1492

Accidentally found the americas while trying to find a route to India by the Atlantic route.

Columbian Exchange…

1492 - 1914

The period of wide spread trading of animals, plants, humans, and culture between the Americas and Europe.

Italy and it's invasions

1494 - 1527

Italy declined because of the French invading.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

King of England. In order to get male heir, breaks away from church and passes the Act of Supremacy. Declares himself the head of English Church.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Powerful religious movement that started in Germany and moved rapidly thorughtout Northen Europe.
- Simplified religion
- Encouraged education
- challenged the church less political influence

Diet of Worms:

1521

addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.

German peasants revolt

1524 - 1525

Peasants revolt against their landlords asking for release from sefdom taking Luther's name. About 70,000- 100,000 killed.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1544 - 1584

Major leader for Nethrlands revolt against Spain. Helped Netherlands to victory.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Strengthed the authority of local bishops so they can discipline religious practices.

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

As known as Bloody Mary, becasue she was a devoted Catholic and Hundreds of protestants were killed during her reign.

Elizabeth (England) I r.

1558 - 1603

Stabilized England After MaryI's rule. One of the major Politiques. Passed the 39 articles(The 39 Articles of Religion are the essential beliefs of the Anglican church codified).

Dutch Revolt( Against Spain)

1559 - 1609

For religious conformity, dutch revolt the spain. With William of Orange leading, they gained peace and independence. Pacification of Ghent:-
declared regional soverginty in matters of religion.
Union of Utrecht:-
made a national identity of the Netherlands.

James I (Eng)

1567 - 1603

King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

The netherlands are rising to the top economicaly :- tulips,banking ,Dutch india trading company

Pacification of Ghent

1576

It was an alliance of the provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands for the purpose of driving mutinying Spanish mercenary troops from the country and promoting a peace treaty with the rebelling provinces Holland and Zeeland.

Mary Stuart executed

1587

Excecuted by Elizabeth for plotting against her.

Spanish Armada

1588

Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands. Results in the English victory.

Henry IV (France) (r..)

1589 - 1610

Henry Navarre paired up with Henry III to protect France from catholic radicals. After Henry III died, Henry IV took over and amended with the catholic church. Ssaid “Paris is worth a mass.”

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

raised standards of living and more consumers for goods

Age of Mercantilism:

1600 - 1800

Government controls trade. and the belief in the idea that resources are scarce and a monopolization on resources.

Louis XIII: r (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

Louis XIII- King of france
Richlieu- Prime minister of the king anf he sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state

Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated

1610

A Catholic kills Henry IV. After his death, the gocvernment suffered from corruption and mismanagement.

Charles I (Eng) r.

1625 - 1649

had problems with the parliament because he was levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, so they saw them as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. Later excecuted.

long/short parliament

1640 - 1660

in shorT parliamentary, charles disbanded imediatly
and long was after long call to figure out taxation and funds

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

James I added extra parliamentary taxes, Charles I wanted to fund the wars so they needed more taxes but he fought with parliament but only parliament controlled taxes so Charels did it without the parliament's consent. Charels lost against Cromwell. Cromwell turned into a millitary dictatorship. Later, Cromwell dies and Charles II came back and restored England. Then William the III and Mary invaded England and took over, became The king of England. then issued the English Bill of Rights.

Louis XIV r.

1643 - 1715

An absolute ruler of france called the "Sun King". Said I am the State.

The Fronde:

1649 - 1652

Parisian mobs used to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin

Decline of Netherlands

1650 - 1750

Competition in naval merchants and in ship building from england contributed to the decline of the netherlands

Charles II (Eng) r.

1660 - 1685

Restored the monarchy after Cromwell

Academies of Science: (London First)

1660

Group of natural philosophers, meeting at variety of locations to discuss scientific thoughts.

Peter the Great r.

1682 - 1725

led a cultural revolution that replaced the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system in Russia

James II (Eng) r.

1685 - 1688

Replaced by william of Orange III and Mary.

The English Bill of RIghts

1689

RIghts of the Parliament

Act of Settlement (GB)

1701

Was passes to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns and thrones on the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James I) and her Protestant heirs.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole:

1701 - 1745

the first Prime Minister of Great Britain and consolidated power in the paliament

(death of Wm. III of England)

1702

brought an end to the Dutch House of Orange

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor. Due to his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.

Frederick Wilhelm r

1713 - 1740

King of prussia . Lot of military display

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Signed by European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war of Spanish Succession.

Death of Louis XIV:

1715

After he died Louis XV took over whose decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and may have contributed to the French Revolution,

Mississippi Bubble

1716 - 1720

A financial scheme in 18th-century France that triggered a speculative frenzy and ended in financial collapse.

War of Jenkins’s Ear-

1739 - 1748

When Spain attacked the English smugglers and England rallied behind Jenkins and went to war
also the start of public opinion

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Was the leader of Austria due to the pragmatic sanction. Also
Mother of Joseph the second, a enlightened despot.

Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia) r.

1740 - 1786

Enlightened despot that called himself "the first servant of the state". He codified laws to improve education and have religious toleration.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The period in which companies were revolutionized into efficient, mass producting businesses. This was due to new technologies.

Agricultural Revolution-

1750 - 1900

New techniques and technology for farming was invented. Such as the encloser system which allowed more food to be produced leading to a great increase in population.

Seven Years’ war:

1754 - 1763

England used Prussia to attack France in the Americas

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

A reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances which were upheld until the War of the Austrian Succession and then reversed in the Seven Years' War. Britain and Austria versus France and Prussia became France and Austria versus Britain and Prussia.

Catherine the Great (Rus) r.

1762 - 1796

Enlightened Despot .Pugachevs rebellion(peasants rebellion) stopped her from going foreward. Made serfdom worse

(Treaty of Paris)

1763

Signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. Formal end to the 7 years war

Spinning Jenny

1764

It was invented byJames Hargreaves The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.

Steam Engine

1765

Perfected by James Watt. FIrst source of steady and unlimited power.

Joseph II (Austria) r

1765 - 1790

A Enlightened despot. Made Equal taxation, abolished serfdom
made church a arm of state

The water frame

1768

Invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibers such as wool or cotton in a mechanized way. It was developed in 18th-century Britain by Richard Arkwright and John Kay.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

America Revolts from the new taxation that England places on them.

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas…

Dante

1265 - 1321

major Italian poet of the Middle Ages. Wrote Dantes inferno.

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Considered "Father of humanism." First great humanist thinker and a scholar of Latin.

Boccaccio

1315 - 1375

Italian author and poet, a friend and student of petrarch. Wrote the Decameron.

Printing Press- Guttenberg-

1450

This allowed books and reading materials to be printed faster. This led to increase in knowledge in Europe.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

A humanist and an early proponent of religious toleration, and often called "Prince of the Humanists"

The Prince by Machiavelli

1532

In the Prince, Machiavelli writes about the science of politics which would be used for centuries to come.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres:

1543

Shared the heliocentric views of copernicus opposing the common Ptolemy's geocentric system.

Shakespeare:

1564 - 1616

Wrote comedy, tragedy and morality plays.

Bacon: Novum Organum:

1603 - 1626

advocated the scientific method during the scientific revolution which supports coming to a conclusion based on measurable data.

Cervantes : Don Quixote

1605

In Don Quixote, Cervantes Satirized the chivalry of the spanish court and the medieval institutions of the state.

Kepler: The New Astronomy:

1609

provided strong arguments for heliocentrism and contributed valuable insight into the movement of the planets, including the first mention of their elliptical path and the change of their movement to the movement of free floating bodies as opposed to objects on rotating spheres

Tycho Brahe

1609

Found the ellipses in the planets rotations and proved the heliocentric view using Brahe's data.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

a French Jansenist mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.Pascal also wrote of the scientific method. Said believe in god just in case.

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

Deductive reasoning ideas of rene.

Hobbes: Leviathan:

1651

The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory

Locke: Treatises on Gov’t (1st & 2nd)

1671 - 1704

known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher. His ideas included the freedom of life,liberty and Property. He called men a "tabula rasa" (or blank page in the state of nature)

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687

The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Later, this inspired thinkers to believe if the world was rational, so too should the society.

Voltaire- Candide

1759

French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment to mock optimistic views.

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:

1762

The Social Contract argued against the idea that monarchs were divinely empowered to legislate

Smith- Wealth of Nations

1776

free markets and cappitalism

Malthus- Principle of Population-

1798

Human suffering is unevietable and there isn't enough resources to supply the society.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages

1817

Idea on Lazza faire.

Religion

Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity):

1309 - 1377

Pope moves to Avignon because of conflict in Italy.

John Wycliff's Lollards

1320 - 1384

Wycliff wanted to get rid of the of the political influence of the church. Church should be based on merit not title.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

John Huss was a religous reformer. His ideas were similar to Wycliff. He was killed fo speaking out against the church.

The Great Schism:

1378 - 1417

Two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). The simultaneous claims to the papal chair of two different men hurt the reputation of the office.

Council of Trent:

1414 - 1418

Ended the Great Schism and made one pope (Martin V).

Pope Julius II r

1503 - 1513

"The Warrior Pope" He was an opponet of the borgia family and drove venetians out of Romagna.

Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis

1517

The protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.

Luther-95 Thesis

1517

Luther Attacks the selling of indulgences (remission of sins).

Diet of Worms

1521

Luther denies the infallibility of the pope was ordered to recant ideas, but didn't and was kicked out. Spread his ideas even further after this.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1534 - 1600

Ignatius found the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by unquestioning obedience to the Catholic Church's authority and hierarchy.

Calvin/Geneva:

1536 - 1564

Developed the idea that one's destiny is already decided. Formed the idea of the "Elect"- the one's already decided to go to heaven. His ideas formed into the religion of Calvanism.

Peace of Augsburg:

1555

Decided that the ruler picked the religion( cius religio, eius religio) but between lutheranism and catholism.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

In order to gain power over king, feudal lords become hugenot to resist king.
St. Bartholomew's day 1572 - 3000 huguenots killed by the catholic militant family, "Cruise".

Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre:

1572

3000 huguenots killed by the militant Catholic family "Cruise"

Edict of Nantes

1598

This gave the protestants in france civil liberties and ended the French Wars of religion.

The 30 years of war

1618 - 1648

Religion wars between Catholic vs. Protestants and Calvinist and Lutherans.
4 periods :-
bohemian, danish, swedish, swedish-french.

Galileo Condemned

1633

Condemned by the church for opposing their ideas.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

Louis XIV, the grandson of Henry IV, drove an exodus of Protestants, and increased the hostility of Protestant nations bordering France.

Art

Decline of Gothic Art

1150 - 1500

style of Medieval art that developed in France out of Romanesque art in the mid-12th century,

Italian Renaissance

1450 - 1550

Humanism begins to emerge. Lots of art and education.

Northern Renaissance(Art)

1450 - 1550

More about religion than the southern. Based on Italian learning.

Mannerism: (until the Baroque)

1520 - 1580

Artists:- Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.

Baroque Art: (Catholic Nations)

1600 - 1700

style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail. The palace of Versailles is a prime example.

Neoclassicism

1700 - 1900

art that drew inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome

Emergence of Rococo-

1700

Art that was ornate and made strong usage of creamy, pastel-like colours, asymmetrical designs, curves and gold. Unlike the more politically focused Baroque, the Rococo had more playful and often witty artistic themes.

The french Revolution

March of the fishwives

1789

About 7000 fishwives marched to Versailles demanding more bread.

RIghts of man and Citizen

1789

drew on political language of the enlightenment. Equality among everyone.

Nobles renounce feudal priveledge

1789

To stop the riots, nobles gave up their rights. THis made everyone "equal".

The great fear

1789

fear that the royal trrops would be sent to rural areas
-peasants burned records of feudal dues
-attacked nobles

Tennis Court Oath

1789

The new Natonal Assembly agreed not to disband until a constitution had been written.

- Estates General called/Meets-

1789

Forced to call the Estates because the bank refused to grant the king short-term credit . King agreed to meet with the Estates General through his advisor, Brienne.

Storming of the Bastille

1789

Ist of many Journees. The people of Paris storm down the Bastille killing troops and freeing 7 prisoners.

Civil constitution of clergy

1790

Transformed church into a arm of state. The clergy who rejected were called "refractory". French citizens were divided in two.

Legislative assembly meets

1791

The national constituent assembly as a whole.

War with Austria

1791 - 1794

Reign of terror

1792 - 1794

Started after the King was executed
-Robespierre declared that all rights to a significant trial with much evidence were suspended
-Many people fall victim to the guillotine

Convention meets- Monarch Abolished

1792

the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792 and created a first republic.

Tuileries Stormed- King captive-

1792

- Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rts of Women-

1792

-Wrote women instead of men in the declaration od men and citizen.
-Was angry at the idea that men and women have different spehres.

cult of reason

1793

an atheistic belief system established in France and intended as a replacement for Christianity during the French Revolution.

Levee en masse

1793

a military conscription of all males

Louis XVI executed-

1793

The king killed by the guillotene

Fall of Robiesperre

1794

People started seeing him as a dictator so he was eventually killed.

DAnton Executed

1794

killed becuase of being insufficiently militant on the war.

- Cult of the Supreme Being-

1794

orm of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution. It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic.

The directory

1795 - 1799

-Replaced the monarchy after the Constitution of Year III

- Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established-

1795

Monarchy ended.

Napolean- Coup brumaire

1799

Overthrew the Directory for power