War between France and England.
1) Hurt population of France
2) Created Crisis with in the church
3) Strengethed power of the king
4) Distabilizes banking system
The Black Death
1347 - 1352
This was a period were the Bubonic Plague hit Europe killing over 25 million of the population. This led to a hurt economy and hurt the landowners.
The golden bull
Established a seven member electoral college that functioned as an administrative body that elected the emperor in the Holy Roman Empire.
After the Plague, the french nobles taxed the peasants and they revolted.
1400 - 1700
People killed for apparently having "evil magical powers". Women were the common victims, especially widows.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
This was made to end the Great Schism. They made the conflicting popes resign and replaced them with one pope.
1450 - 1700
The Commercial Revolution caused the expansion of European Economy and the creation of colonies to further their wealth. It also began the idea of mercantilism.
1492 - 1914
The period of wide spread trading of animals, plants, humans, and culture between the Americas and Europe.
Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire
Accidentally found the americas while trying to find a route to India by the Atlantic route.
Italy and it's invasions
1494 - 1527
Italy declined because of the French invading.
1509 - 1547
King of England. In order to get male heir, breaks away from church and passes the Act of Supremacy. Declares himself the head of English Church.
1517 - 1648
Powerful religious movement that started in Germany and moved rapidly thorughtout Northen Europe.
- Simplified religion
- Encouraged education
- challenged the church less political influence
Diet of Worms:
addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
German peasants revolt
1524 - 1525
Peasants revolt against their landlords asking for release from sefdom taking Luther's name. About 70,000- 100,000 killed.
William of Orange (The Silent)
1544 - 1584
Major leader for Nethrlands revolt against Spain. Helped Netherlands to victory.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Strengthed the authority of local bishops so they can discipline religious practices.
Mary I (England)
1553 - 1558
As known as Bloody Mary, becasue she was a devoted Catholic and Hundreds of protestants were killed during her reign.
Elizabeth (England) I r.
1558 - 1603
Stabilized England After MaryI's rule. One of the major Politiques. Passed the 39 articles(The 39 Articles of Religion are the essential beliefs of the Anglican church codified).
Dutch Revolt( Against Spain)
1559 - 1609
For religious conformity, dutch revolt the spain. With William of Orange leading, they gained peace and independence. Pacification of Ghent:-
declared regional soverginty in matters of religion.
Union of Utrecht:-
made a national identity of the Netherlands.
James I (Eng)
1567 - 1603
King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.
Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age
1572 - 1610
The netherlands are rising to the top economicaly :- tulips,banking ,Dutch india trading company
Pacification of Ghent
It was an alliance of the provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands for the purpose of driving mutinying Spanish mercenary troops from the country and promoting a peace treaty with the rebelling provinces Holland and Zeeland.
Mary Stuart executed
Excecuted by Elizabeth for plotting against her.
Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands. Results in the English victory.
Henry IV (France) (r..)
1589 - 1610
Henry Navarre paired up with Henry III to protect France from catholic radicals. After Henry III died, Henry IV took over and amended with the catholic church. Ssaid “Paris is worth a mass.”
1590 - 1800
raised standards of living and more consumers for goods
Age of Mercantilism:
1600 - 1800
Government controls trade. and the belief in the idea that resources are scarce and a monopolization on resources.
Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated
A Catholic kills Henry IV. After his death, the gocvernment suffered from corruption and mismanagement.
Louis XIII: r (Richelieu)
1610 - 1643
Louis XIII- King of france
Richlieu- Prime minister of the king anf he sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state
Charles I (Eng) r.
1625 - 1649
had problems with the parliament because he was levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, so they saw them as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. Later excecuted.
1640 - 1660
in shorT parliamentary, charles disbanded imediatly
and long was after long call to figure out taxation and funds
English Civil War
1642 - 1646
James I added extra parliamentary taxes, Charles I wanted to fund the wars so they needed more taxes but he fought with parliament but only parliament controlled taxes so Charels did it without the parliament's consent. Charels lost against Cromwell. Cromwell turned into a millitary dictatorship. Later, Cromwell dies and Charles II came back and restored England. Then William the III and Mary invaded England and took over, became The king of England. then issued the English Bill of Rights.
Louis XIV r.
1643 - 1715
An absolute ruler of france called the "Sun King". Said I am the State.
1649 - 1652
Parisian mobs used to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin
Decline of Netherlands
1650 - 1750
Competition in naval merchants and in ship building from england contributed to the decline of the netherlands
Academies of Science: (London First)
Group of natural philosophers, meeting at variety of locations to discuss scientific thoughts.
Charles II (Eng) r.
1660 - 1685
Restored the monarchy after Cromwell
Peter the Great r.
1682 - 1725
led a cultural revolution that replaced the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system in Russia
James II (Eng) r.
1685 - 1688
Replaced by william of Orange III and Mary.
The English Bill of RIghts
RIghts of the Parliament
Act of Settlement (GB)
Was passes to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns and thrones on the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James I) and her Protestant heirs.
Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole:
1701 - 1745
the first Prime Minister of Great Britain and consolidated power in the paliament
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.
(death of Wm. III of England)
brought an end to the Dutch House of Orange
Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction
1711 - 1740
He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor. Due to his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.
Frederick Wilhelm r
1713 - 1740
King of prussia . Lot of military display
An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter.
Treaty of Utrecht
Signed by European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war of Spanish Succession.
Death of Louis XIV:
After he died Louis XV took over whose decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and may have contributed to the French Revolution,
1716 - 1720
A financial scheme in 18th-century France that triggered a speculative frenzy and ended in financial collapse.
War of Jenkins’s Ear-
1739 - 1748
When Spain attacked the English smugglers and England rallied behind Jenkins and went to war
also the start of public opinion
Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia) r.
1740 - 1786
Enlightened despot that called himself "the first servant of the state". He codified laws to improve education and have religious toleration.
1740 - 1780
Was the leader of Austria due to the pragmatic sanction. Also
Mother of Joseph the second, a enlightened despot.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
War over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg
1750 - 1900
New techniques and technology for farming was invented. Such as the encloser system which allowed more food to be produced leading to a great increase in population.
1750 - 1850
The period in which companies were revolutionized into efficient, mass producting businesses. This was due to new technologies.
Seven Years’ war:
1754 - 1763
England used Prussia to attack France in the Americas
A reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances which were upheld until the War of the Austrian Succession and then reversed in the Seven Years' War. Britain and Austria versus France and Prussia became France and Austria versus Britain and Prussia.
Catherine the Great (Rus) r.
1762 - 1796
Enlightened Despot .Pugachevs rebellion(peasants rebellion) stopped her from going foreward. Made serfdom worse
(Treaty of Paris)
Signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. Formal end to the 7 years war
It was invented byJames Hargreaves The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.
Joseph II (Austria) r
1765 - 1790
A Enlightened despot. Made Equal taxation, abolished serfdom
made church a arm of state
Perfected by James Watt. FIrst source of steady and unlimited power.
The water frame
Invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibers such as wool or cotton in a mechanized way. It was developed in 18th-century Britain by Richard Arkwright and John Kay.
1775 - 1783
America Revolts from the new taxation that England places on them.
Thinkers, authors/books, ideas…
1265 - 1321
major Italian poet of the Middle Ages. Wrote Dantes inferno.
1304 - 1374
Considered "Father of humanism." First great humanist thinker and a scholar of Latin.
1315 - 1375
Italian author and poet, a friend and student of petrarch. Wrote the Decameron.
Printing Press- Guttenberg-
This allowed books and reading materials to be printed faster. This led to increase in knowledge in Europe.
1466 - 1536
A humanist and an early proponent of religious toleration, and often called "Prince of the Humanists"
The Prince by Machiavelli
In the Prince, Machiavelli writes about the science of politics which would be used for centuries to come.
Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres:
Shared the heliocentric views of copernicus opposing the common Ptolemy's geocentric system.
1564 - 1616
Wrote comedy, tragedy and morality plays.
Bacon: Novum Organum:
1603 - 1626
advocated the scientific method during the scientific revolution which supports coming to a conclusion based on measurable data.
Cervantes : Don Quixote
In Don Quixote, Cervantes Satirized the chivalry of the spanish court and the medieval institutions of the state.
Kepler: The New Astronomy:
provided strong arguments for heliocentrism and contributed valuable insight into the movement of the planets, including the first mention of their elliptical path and the change of their movement to the movement of free floating bodies as opposed to objects on rotating spheres
Found the ellipses in the planets rotations and proved the heliocentric view using Brahe's data.
1623 - 1662
a French Jansenist mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.Pascal also wrote of the scientific method. Said believe in god just in case.
Descartes: Discourse on Method
Deductive reasoning ideas of rene.
The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory
Locke: Treatises on Gov’t (1st & 2nd)
1671 - 1704
known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher. His ideas included the freedom of life,liberty and Property. He called men a "tabula rasa" (or blank page in the state of nature)
Newton: Principia Mathematica
The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Later, this inspired thinkers to believe if the world was rational, so too should the society.
French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment to mock optimistic views.
Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:
The Social Contract argued against the idea that monarchs were divinely empowered to legislate
Smith- Wealth of Nations
free markets and cappitalism
Malthus- Principle of Population-
Human suffering is unevietable and there isn't enough resources to supply the society.
Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages
Idea on Lazza faire.
Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity):
1309 - 1377
Pope moves to Avignon because of conflict in Italy.
John Wycliff's Lollards
1320 - 1384
Wycliff wanted to get rid of the of the political influence of the church. Church should be based on merit not title.
Hussites: John Huss
1369 - 1415
John Huss was a religous reformer. His ideas were similar to Wycliff. He was killed fo speaking out against the church.
The Great Schism:
1378 - 1417
Two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). The simultaneous claims to the papal chair of two different men hurt the reputation of the office.
Council of Trent:
1414 - 1418
Ended the Great Schism and made one pope (Martin V).
Pope Julius II r
1503 - 1513
"The Warrior Pope" He was an opponet of the borgia family and drove venetians out of Romagna.
Luther Attacks the selling of indulgences (remission of sins).
Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis
The protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.
Diet of Worms
Luther denies the infallibility of the pope was ordered to recant ideas, but didn't and was kicked out. Spread his ideas even further after this.
Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola
1534 - 1600
Ignatius found the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by unquestioning obedience to the Catholic Church's authority and hierarchy.
1536 - 1564
Developed the idea that one's destiny is already decided. Formed the idea of the "Elect"- the one's already decided to go to heaven. His ideas formed into the religion of Calvanism.
Peace of Augsburg:
Decided that the ruler picked the religion( cius religio, eius religio) but between lutheranism and catholism.
French Wars of Religion
1562 - 1598
In order to gain power over king, feudal lords become hugenot to resist king.
St. Bartholomew's day 1572 - 3000 huguenots killed by the catholic militant family, "Cruise".
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre:
3000 huguenots killed by the militant Catholic family "Cruise"
Edict of Nantes
This gave the protestants in france civil liberties and ended the French Wars of religion.
The 30 years of war
1618 - 1648
Religion wars between Catholic vs. Protestants and Calvinist and Lutherans.
4 periods :-
bohemian, danish, swedish, swedish-french.
Condemned by the church for opposing their ideas.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV, the grandson of Henry IV, drove an exodus of Protestants, and increased the hostility of Protestant nations bordering France.
Decline of Gothic Art
1150 - 1500
style of Medieval art that developed in France out of Romanesque art in the mid-12th century,
1450 - 1550
Humanism begins to emerge. Lots of art and education.
1450 - 1550
More about religion than the southern. Based on Italian learning.
Mannerism: (until the Baroque)
1520 - 1580
Artists:- Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.
Baroque Art: (Catholic Nations)
1600 - 1700
style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail. The palace of Versailles is a prime example.
Emergence of Rococo-
Art that was ornate and made strong usage of creamy, pastel-like colours, asymmetrical designs, curves and gold. Unlike the more politically focused Baroque, the Rococo had more playful and often witty artistic themes.
1700 - 1900
art that drew inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome
The french Revolution
- Estates General called/Meets-
Forced to call the Estates because the bank refused to grant the king short-term credit . King agreed to meet with the Estates General through his advisor, Brienne.
March of the fishwives
About 7000 fishwives marched to Versailles demanding more bread.
Nobles renounce feudal priveledge
To stop the riots, nobles gave up their rights. THis made everyone "equal".
RIghts of man and Citizen
drew on political language of the enlightenment. Equality among everyone.
Storming of the Bastille
Ist of many Journees. The people of Paris storm down the Bastille killing troops and freeing 7 prisoners.
Tennis Court Oath
The new Natonal Assembly agreed not to disband until a constitution had been written.
The great fear
fear that the royal trrops would be sent to rural areas
-peasants burned records of feudal dues
Civil constitution of clergy
Transformed church into a arm of state. The clergy who rejected were called "refractory". French citizens were divided in two.
Legislative assembly meets
The national constituent assembly as a whole.
War with Austria
1791 - 1794
Convention meets- Monarch Abolished
the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792 and created a first republic.
Reign of terror
1792 - 1794
Started after the King was executed
-Robespierre declared that all rights to a significant trial with much evidence were suspended
-Many people fall victim to the guillotine
Tuileries Stormed- King captive-
- Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rts of Women-
-Wrote women instead of men in the declaration od men and citizen.
-Was angry at the idea that men and women have different spehres.
cult of reason
an atheistic belief system established in France and intended as a replacement for Christianity during the French Revolution.
Levee en masse
a military conscription of all males
Louis XVI executed-
The king killed by the guillotene
- Cult of the Supreme Being-
orm of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution. It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic.
killed becuase of being insufficiently militant on the war.
Fall of Robiesperre
People started seeing him as a dictator so he was eventually killed.
- Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established-
1795 - 1799
-Replaced the monarchy after the Constitution of Year III