First semester events



1265 - 1321

a humanist writter that influenced many thinkers

Northern Renaissance

1300 - 1477

a period of time when people began to look for answers elsewhere besides religions and also it is when the first technological advancements began to arise.


1304 - 1374

a forerunner anf founder of hummanism

avingnon papacy

1309 - 1378

where the papacy was moved to in france out of rome when all the turmoil was happening


1313 - 1375

wrote the first piece that brought forth the idea of using original scripture durring the rennaissance

John Wycliffe

1324 - 1384

The founder of the lollards who attacked and criticezed the chatholic church

Italian rennaisance

1330 - 1550

the begining of the entire mannafesto that is the rennaisance where the was a lare advancement in culture and thechnology

The Hundred Year War

1337 - 1453

A series of battle between England and France over the coarse of 1337 to 1453

Black Death

1348 - 1350

the bubonic plague killed millions of people cutting the population by a third and weakening everybody and everything

The great Schism

1350 - 1400

where there was two papacies at one time and alot of people lost faith

The golden bull


fixed alot of constitutional problems in germany



a popular peasant revolt in northern france against the nobels

Decline of gothic art


art now became more light hearted and more professional

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

ended the three popes contriversy with multiple different papacies

Hussites: John Huss

1420 - 1431

the founder of the hussites that fought against catholic crusaders

printing press


inovated the way knowledge spread, increased literacy rate, and incriseaded the amount of scripture available


1466 - 1536

biggest forerunner of hummanism and a writter


1473 - 1524

an inspirational thinker during the industrial revolution in the field of astronomy

Commercial revolution

1488 - 1794

a period of expansion on trade ond buissnass in the mediaval ages

German Peasant Revolts

1501 - 1600

A series of uprisings by the peasant class in germany that were aimed at the church. They did so under luther's name so the had a reason to revolt which was claimed to be freedom to warship a different religion.

reign of Henry VIII

1511 - 1547

King of England that imposed the first act of supremacy and was notoriace for his numerous wives.

The Reformation

1517 - 1648

the period where new religions sprouted and broke off of chatholasism starting with lutheranism.

Luther-95 thesis

October 31, 1517

a list of complaints about the catholic church that was posted on the door of a church


1520 - 1590

a more realistic syle of painting that arised in the rennaisance

Luther-Diet of Worms

april 2, 1521

a meeting that adressed Luther in the protestant reformation

The Prince: Machiavelli


a book that was extremly contriversial and lent the idea of the perfect monarchy

English reformation


stated that england was no longer under the catholic church

Act of Supremacy


A document imposed by the king that said that england was nolonger under the chatholic church and the state was the head of the church

John calvin: Geneva

july 1536

john calvin was exiled and whent to geneva where he created the hub to his own religion, Calvanism

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A church meeting where they talked about church doctrine and reinacted the important codes whith the doctrine.

Tycho Brahe

december 14, 1546 - october 24, 1601

a major thinker in the field of astronmy during the scientific revolution

Reign of mary I

1553 - 1558

second child of henry VIII on the english throne, first female on the english throne, effectivly ridded england of all of her father's and brother's reforms

Peace of augsburg

december 25, 1555

ended the religious wars stuggles and made lutheransim an official religion also rulers pick the religion

Reign of Elezabeth I

1558 - 1603

third child of henry VIII on the english trhone and first women ruler in english history

Sir francis bacon

1561 - 1626

a great philosopher during the industrial revolution

French religious wars

1562 - 1598

a series of conflicts mainly between protestants and chatholics but also between royal families for who would take the throne rext

Dutch revolt against spain

1566 - 1568

a succsefull revolt against spain to gain their own freedom based on protestant beliefes

Begining of the dutch golden age


the time when the netherlands broke off and finally became their own nation


1571 - 1630

another great thinker in the field of astonomy during the industrial revolution

reign of Henry IV

1572 - 1610

ruler of france after the religious wars and was the first tudor on the throne

Saint Bartholemew's Day Massacre

august 24, 1572

The massacre of thousands of protestants in the middle of france by the nobels all within a few hours

Pacification of ghent

november 8, 1576

union between the north and south swiss colonies against apain despite their religious differences

Union of Utrecht

january 23, 1579

a treaty between the northern and southern provinces of the netherlands to be one nation

Thomas Hobbs

1588 - 1679

a great humanist phiospher that influenced alot of people

beginning of Baroque art


easily interprited peices of art with alot of emotion


1596 - 1650

another great thinker of the rennaissance

Edict of Nantes

april 13, 1598

ended the frech wars of religion

Consumer revolution

1600 - 1750

a period where there was a drastic increase in the amount of consumption

Reign of JAmes I

1603 - 1625

ruled both ireland and england at the same time

Cervantes: Don Quixote


reign of luois XIII

1610 - 1643

ruled durring the struggle against huganots

Assasination of Henry IV

may 14, 1610

Thirty years war

1618 - 1648

longest religious war located in central europe between multiple nations

Blaise Pascal

1629 - 1662

french mathematician that made many contributions to technology

John Locke

1632 - 1704

A great thinker for his time up with newton but was more based on politics and government

Galileo condemned


the church rejected galileos idea of a heliocentric universe and so to stop the spreading of this idea they put him under house arrest until his death

Long parliment

1640 - 1660

a period when the parliment made it so they had control over the country and so was in seccion for 20 log years

fredirck wilhelm

1640 - 1688

succesor of fredrick III of prussia and eldest son

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1642 - 1727

a leader in the advancement of technology and how people began to think and a forerunner to the enlightenment

reign of Charles I

1642 - 1646

was the ruler dogged by contriversy and scandle leading up to the civil war

English Civil War

august 22, 1642 - september 3, 1651

a period with in england where a series of conflicts were raged between parlimentarians and royalists to see who whould have the power in the country.

Luois XIV

1643 - 1715

longest reign in european history

which hunts

1645 - 1647

a period where people began to blame mythical witches for their problem and misshaps

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

a civil war of sorts in france where the peasents uprised and gained power

William of orange

1650 - 1702

king of england that halped during the reformation

reign of charles II

1660 - 1685

was restored to the throne after the end of the long parliment


1660 - 1800

a style of art where the painting was very simple with simple meanings

reign of peter the great

1682 - 1725

gained alot of land for russia including warm water ports

Reign of James II

1685 - 1701

ruled both ireland and england at the same time

Revocation of the edict of nantes


was an attempt by luois to make his rulling an absolute monarchy

English bill of rights

february 13, 1689

a series of rights that belong to the people imosed by parliment

act of settlement


made is so the succecion line to the english and irish thrones would be tudor

War of spanish succession

1701 - 1714

war where spanish was divided and attampting to stay together

steam engine



1712 - 1778

an important french philosophe that brought forth many new idead like seperate spheres for men and women

emergence of rococo style


an new style of painting with deeper meaning but even more detail within the frame

Smith: Welth of nations

1723 - 1790

a philosophe that dealt more with government that most

The war of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

a series of wars where austria was fighting with allies like england to keep other countries from taking it over

reign of Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

ruler of the holy roman empire that was the firszt heir due to her fathers new doctrine the pragmatic sanction

Fredrick II

1740 - 1786

one of the three greatly known enlightened despots and helped pull prussia into present day

Agricultural revolution

1750 - 1850

advancement in the way of life and brought us into what is know as present day life

Industrial revolution

1750 - 1850

a period of great technological advancements

seven years war

1754 - 1763

main conflict was between prussia and austria then england and france for power position

Diplomatic revolution


apliad to the alliances between the new governments

Voltaire: candide


one of voltaire's many inspirational peices that effectd many's way of thought during the enlightenment

Reign of Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

the last of the three best known elnightened despots that ruled over russia and brought it into the present day

Age of mercantalism

1763 - 1828

an economic theory that sstressed the importance of trade

Spinning jenny


increased the speed at which thread could be spun

water frame


further increased the speed at which thread was spun

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

war between britain and the american colonies for freedom

reign of Joseph II

1780 - 1790

another enlightened despot that brought his countrie into the present day

reign of ferdinand and isabella

1796 - 1859

rulers of sapin during reformation and the exploration of north america

French Revolution

cult of the supreme being


religion based on deism but more for the french revolution


1759 - 1797

made alot of advancements in the way of womens rights

cult of reason


a aethiest based group with enlightened ideals during the revolution

estates general called

may 1789

the country need the estates geral to help

tennis court oath

june 20, 1789

the nation convention was locked out of their meeting palce so went to an indoor tennis court and agreed to make a new government

storming of Bastille

july 14, 1789

the castle of bastile wsa ravanged by pangry peasants

Great fear

july 17, 1789 - august 5, 1789

a period wher 25,000 people were killed for being enemies of the revolution

march of the fishwives

october 6, 1789

6,000 angry people marched up to versaille shoved the royal family out and stole everything

civil constitution of the clergy

july 12, 1790

put the clergy and church under the branch of the state

Legislative assembly meets

october 1, 1791

the legislative assemble met to write the new france's first constitution

Rights of man and citizen


was a declaration that ruled as the supreme document during the french revolution

Luois XVI exacuted

january 21, 1793

the monarchy of the nation was killed for no other reason besides being the king

Denton exacution

march 1793

danton was aledgedy against the revolution so the quited him

levee en masse

august 16, 1793

mass consription during the revolution

reign of terror

september 5, 1793 - july 28, 1794

a period of violence where 25,000 people were exacuted

convention meets: monarchy is abolished

october 5, 1793

the monarchy was forever abolished within france

fall of robespierre

july 28, 1794

end of the terror and the only person exacuted face up

the constitution of the year III


the second constitution during the french revolution under the new government: the directory

The Directory

1795 - 1799

one of the many forms of government during the french revolution

reign of napolean until his empire

1799 - 1804

napolean promised stability and so everyone trusted hium