AP Euro timeline

McAvoy P.3 study guide for first semester finals



1265 - 1321

His Vita Nuov and Divine Comedy were cornerstones of Italian literature. Near-contemporary of Petrarch.


1304 - 1374

Known as the father of Humanism. He left his legal proffesion to instead write letters and poetry.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Started the practice of selling indugences, they were more matirealistic and politically scheming. Clergey were under strict apostolic ideals and confined to just spiritual functions.


1313 - 1375

He was a student of Petrach. He wrote Decameron as a sympathetic look at human behavior.

The hundred years war

May, 1337 - October, 1453

during the war the Engilsh made the long bow and now instead of nobles fighting peasents could fight. Began when Edward the III of England asserted to become king of France scince ther was no heir to the thrown of France and he was the grandson of Phillip the Fair. The war centralized Gov't, prolonged crisis in the church, French population dec., destableized the bandking system, and nations are starting to emerge.

Black Death

1347 - 1350

Desise came from the Black sea and entered into Europe thruough Italiy.This devestated big cities, the work of skilled artisans increaced becasue the farmers were dieing, and the Flagellants emerged because they thought that God was punishing them. Many prists died beacuse sick peasents came to get help from them. During this time the econemy droped radically, the fuedal system is failing, and massive peasent revolts.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1350 - 1384

Wanted to limmit the churches power because they were corrupt and they should follow personal merit not rank and office for religious authority.



this was the peasent revolts sparked by the black death. the revolts occured because the French nobles started to make the peasents pay more taxes and the peasents didnt like that.

The Renaissance

1375 - 1527

the transition from feudal to modern times. During this the Humanists begin to emerge, now there is lots of art and education emerging. Religion is not as important. economy is good because of all the new cultures introduced to Europe.

the Northern Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Cared more about the religious reforms than the southern renaissance and were more diverse. founded mainly on Italian learning. they did not care about the art as much either.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

During this there was much confusion as to who was the pope and in all of the confusion there was a period where three popes at once. When the cardinals voted for who was the pope some didnt like the decision so they put the man they wanted into power too. as a compromise they put a new man into power. During this time the Unam Sanctum says that the pope is more powerful than the king.

Early exploration of Portugal and Spain

1394 - 1521

Portugal started in North Africa where they began to trade for new spices and capture slaves. Eventually they sailed down the coast of Africa and rounded the cape of good hope. The Spanis sailed to the Americas and took over to colonize and monoplize the americas.

Which hunts

1400 - 1700

There was much superstision that begain the which hunts. son=me of the reasons were th misogyny of women, political sompition, the reformation because protestans didn't know how to get rid of them like the Catholics, and economic issues because people needed a scapegat so they could cut off the dead weight of the town. Which hunts ended when more scientific point of veiw, advances in medicine, rise of insurance companies, avalibility of lawyers, and they were getting out of hand. the Gov't gains more control to end it.

hussites:John Huss

1403 - 1415

They questioned the specialness of what the clergy did, like the bread and wine, validity of sacraments preformed by priests of mortal sin.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Made a decloration called Sacrosancta which the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope named Martin V. Then the council said that they would meet in five, then seven, then every ten years.

The Printing press


Invented by Johannes Guttenburg. This will help spread ideas easily and help start the reforomation.


1466 - 1536

he wanted to unite classical ideas of humanity and civic virtue with the cristian ideas of love and piety. He believed people could do more than what the theologians believed. Didn't like the scholastics because their dagma and argument overshadow the Chrstian piety and practice.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Married)


They Marry and become the future king and queen, where they unite Castile and Aragon.

Frdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1516

Had almost total control over the Spanish church and placed religion in the sevice of national unity. They secured their boarders, subdued thier realms,venure abroad milirary, and christianized all of Spain.


1475 - 1600

this gave freedom to the artists of the renaissance allowing them to paint what they want no matter how strange or abnormal. freer reign of individual perceptions of the painter and his or her feelings.

Columbus and Start of the Spanish Empire

October 12,1492 - 1521

Colubus sailed in search for a quick route to the Indies he stumbled upon the Americas. Soon after news reached Spain they went over with plans of colinization. Hernan Cortez found the Aztecs and in 1521 defated them marking the begging of Spains monopoly in the Americas. Now they had acess to slave labor and gold.

Itail's political decline

1494 - 1527

During this time French king Charles VIII marches through Italiy, Pope Alexander abandoned the Leagee of venice to marry the king of Nevarre's sister. and Pope Julius II made a second Holy leaague.

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

When Columbus discovered the Americans he introduced new food, plants, animals, and diseases as well as the Americas to the Europeans. this lead to many deathss of the American indians and new prosperity as well. The new foods helped both America and Europe have a better chance to live. Like the potato helped many peasents in Europe survive.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

first issued a plenary of jubilee indulgences and used the porceeds to re build St. Perter's Basilica in Rome. he was called the warrior pope because he raised the Renaissance papacy to the top of its military power.

Henery VIII

1509 - 1547

Wanted a male heir to the thrown so he remarried many times. He was able to do this with the Act of Supreacy, which made him head of the church of England not the Pope. However he was very conservative with the religion, only adding a few protestant sentiments. In parliament he mad many legislations to put the clergy under the monarchs rule.

Machiavelli's The Prince


A book to instruct rulers on how to rule correctly and how to behave as rulers. Says it is best to rule as a tyran.


1517 - 1555

When people like Martin Luther begin to question and break away from the Catholic church. there are many new religions that come up like Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anabaptist. They were not recognized religions and that is what they are fighting for and at the end Lutheranism is recognized as a religion.

95 these

October 31, 1517

Martin Luther's attack against indugences being sold, saing that it is buying and selling salvation.

Martin Luther (95 theses and Diet of worms)

october 31, 1517 - April 1521

Luthers 95 theses was an attack against the work of indugence sellers, particually John Tetzle, saing that salvation can be bought and sold. In the Diet of worms Martin Luther was told to retract his beliefs that went agains the Church. When he didnt he was excommunicated, but the nobles who liked him hid him to keep his ideas (because it benefited them) around.

German Peasent revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasents were tired of the corruption in the church and polotics. With Luther as an isperation they took matters into their own hands and rebeled with Luther as an excuse to get out of truble.

William of Orange

1533 - 1584

Also known as William the Silent because of his small circle of confidants. He unified the Netherlands to fiaght back against the Phillip II. unified under unuion of utrecht.

Act of Suprmacy


Made the Monarch of England the head of the church in England not the Pope

the Golden Bull


In the Holy Roman Empire this decree established a electoral collage, they also formed an administrative body where they elected the emperor of the HRE.

John Calvin- Geneva

1536 - 1564

In Geneva Calvinmade new articles for the Gov't. In these new articles he had strong measures to govern Geneva's moral life. Some people thought he was creating a new papacy. Eventually Calvinism came out as a religion,where they had the idea of predetermination and you should always be good just in case you are one of God's "Elect".

Beggining of the Jesuits- Ignatius of Loyola

1541 - 1556

People need to teach themselves absolute spiritual self- mastery over ones feelings. tought to deny themselves and submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual diredtion

Copernicus: on the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres


this provides a itellectual beginning for a criticism for the position of earth in the universe.

Council of trent

1545 - 1563

Major internal church dicipline, and reasserted that all faith comes from th bible, church fathers, and papal bulls.

Counter reformation

1545 - 1603

this is when the council of Trent responds to the reformation and begins to try and do something about it. it ends around the time of Elizabeth because she was able to make peace between the Catholic and Protestant religions by making the Anglican religion. this somewhat stopped the feuds between the two religions.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

a Danish astronomer and he did not support the earth centered universe but he belived that mercury and venus circled the sun but the sun and everything else circled the earth. This was the next big step after Copernicus towrd the earth centered universe

Mary I

1553 - 1558

After Mary's half brother turned most of England Protestant, Mary went back on all his reforms and killed 287 of the Protestants in England. Ever since Mary (Bloody Mary) the Catholics and Protestans have hated each other.

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

This established cuius regio, eius religio which is the ruler of a land would determin its religion. they only got to chose between Catholic and Lutheran.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

She was loved by the people because she created a new religion called angelican. With the new religion she included some Protestant and some Catholic. She stayed away from the radicals on both ends so she was a polotique. She helped England thrive and begin to rise as a national power.

Phillip II and the Netherlands

1559 - 1596

Phillip II was king of Spain and very Catholic. He wanted the Netherlands to be politicaly docile and religiously uniform. The Dutch were religioulsy tolorant and Phillip II wasnt. William of Orange, a politique, lead the revolt against Phillip. He converts religion three times to unify the people.

revolt in spanish netherlands

1559 - 1576

The Duke of Alba went into the Netherlands to help suppres the dutch revolt and evetually the Pacification of Ghent made them religiously seperate.

Dutch Revolt

1559 - 1609

The dutch opposed the Spanish trying to conform their religion. Lead by William of Orange they gained peace and were given indipendence. pacification of Ghent declared regional soverginty in matters of religion. Union of Utrecht made a national identity of the Netherlands.

French religious wars

1562 - 1598

These wars were really a power struggle between the nobles (who were mostly French Calvinists known as Huguenots) and the king (who is Catholic). When King dies there is two major choices the Guise(Cathilc) or the Borbons(Huguenots). After St. Barts. day massacre Henery or Naevare (Borbon) becomes king.His Edict of Nantes forces religious toloration, because he was a polotique the state comes before the religion.

39 Articles


Elizabeth revised Thomas Cranmer's origional 42 to make a modrate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of Engalnd. also called Anglican.

Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

The Netherlands had no titles which mad the money thier social status. They were the first to get into the agricultural revoulution, they were great ship builders, religiously tolerant, first stack market, and the tulip bubble. all of these provided a great econemy in the Netherlands.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

The French Catholics killed at least 30,000 Huguenots. To the protestants this became a struggle for survivle against those who cruely jusstified any means of resistance.

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

Declared regional soverginty over religious matters.

union of utrect

january 1579

united Netherlands as one idipendent nation

Mary Stuart Executed

February 18, 1587

Mary was not liked because she married to the French king Francis II. She was widely unliked by England and Scotland. the Babington plot, which was against Elizabeth, was uncovered and Mary was a conspiritor in that plot. This lead her to her execution.

Spanish armada

May 30, 1587

This was a fleet of 130 ships with 25,000 soldires to go and invade England. But England's navel system was so strong and quick that they took out the spanish armada. The English and Netherland ships became known as an "English wind"

Heney IV

1589 - 1610

Henery was a Polotique where he said "Paris is worth a Mass". by being a polotique he was widely liked by the people of France so they didnt care what religion he was. He made peace with the Catholics and Hugenots.


1590 - 1610

viewed the Gov't through th character of the individual, most of his plays were contemporary religious traditions

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Heney IV's edict tha tforced religious toleration between Catholics and Hugenots. This ended the French religious wars and this h]is his most famous act.

Baroque art emerges


This is a fancier art form that is associated with Louis XIV. This was a very symmetrical art and showed its subjects in a naturalistic manner rather than idealized. this was with the rise of of new science and the deeper understandings of human anatomy.

James I

1603 - 1625

After Elizabeth died James son of Mary queen of Scots became the king of England. people didn't like him to much because he was forgin and was too consrvative on religion.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


main idea of his work was to satirize the chivalric romances then popular in Spain

Kepler: The New Astronomy


In this book Kepler shows what he discovered after Brahes death. He discovered that orbits are eliptical not circular. he used Copernicus's heliocentric modle and Brahes empirical data to find this.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Much of the ground for absolutism in France was laid under Louis XIII rule withi his prime minister Richeliue. He had circumscribed many of the political privileges in the Edict of Nantes.

Heney IV assasanated

May 1610

catholic fenatic assasanated Heney IV

30 years war

1618 - 1648

This begins as a local religious struggle in prague, but it slowly becomes a political power struggle. The Princes rebel against the Hapsburgs and spain joins hapsburg because they are related. French joins the Lutherans because they dont like the hapsburs and doesnt want any land to be taken rom them. After Westphalia ends the war and Austria and Prussia emerge as states. States move to profesional armies and nation state is emerging

Bacon: Novum Organum


He attacket the scholastics that said most truths were already found and just needed to be explained, and thier reverence tor authority in intellectual life.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

he wanted to write a work that would refure dogmatism and skepticism. Believed that reason should drive those who truely heeded it to faith in god and reliance on divine grace. People need to take a leap of faith in religion.

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Had many forced taxes and then the Petition of rights would make this illegal without parliaments consent. However Charles went behind Parliaments back and this is what sparks the civil war. like Philip he needed money to support the war.

Galileo Condemned

1633 - 1642

before his condemnation Galileo said that individuals should inturpret the Bible and that it was all written in metaphors. because he was threatining the churches power they said that he could write about what Copernicus says but he can't say its ture. then when a new pope came he let Galileo write freely again but Galileo offends the new Pope and is then condemned to his house and forced to renounce his veiws.

Descartes: Discorse on Method


He rejected scholastic philosephy and education and advocated thought based on a mathmatical model. doubt everything except the thoughts where he can have clear and distinct ideas. on this basis he divided everything into two caticories, world of the mind and the body.

Short Parliament

April 1640 - may 1640

Was called by the king to rais money for the war but parliament wouldn't do it until the king agreed to redress the list of political and religious grievances. Because Parliament wouldn't rais the money Charles dissolved them.

Long Parliament

November 1640 - 1660

Puritans in Parliament resented Charles's religious polocies and distrusted his Roman Catholic wife. Parliament resolved that a max of three years can go inbetween meetings, they also made it so that the king could not disolve them without thier own consent. They abolished all of Charles's taxes and raised an army to fight Charles with.

English Civil war

1642 - 1646

King James I added extra parliamentary taxes, Charles I wanted to fund the wars so they needed more taxes but he fought with parliament and only parliament controls the taxes so Charels couldnt get the money without going behind thier back, which he did. Charels lost the civil war to Cromwell. In the Puritan Republic Cromwell turned into a millitary dictatorship. When Cromwell died Charles's son Charles II came back and restored England back to normal. Then after James II William the III invaded England and took it over, his wife was Mary II, and became The king of England. then issued the English Bill of Rights which is the rights of the Parliament not the individual.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

He was considered a absolute ruler of his time because of how he could control the nobles. his Chife minister was Mazarin also called the minority, but when he died he didn't select a new minister to lessen the revolts against him. During his years of personal rule he was able to control the nobility. He did so by moving to Versailles and so he traped the nobles there because if they wanted any thing they would have to suck up to him. Everything worked aroug Louis's schedual.


1649 - 1652

a series of noble rebellions against the king of France because of the centralizing policies of Richeliue and Mazarin.

Hobbes: Leviathn


His aim was to give a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong centra political authority. Humans are horrible people and they need someone to rule them in order to protect thier land, life and other rights because we are too selfish to keep them safe on our own.

Royal Society of London


this place was like the academies of science but this was the first one. The members saw themselves as following the steps of Bacon.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

He came back into power after the Puritan republic and returned everything back to normal in England. He wanted to let Catholics and Puritans worship freely but Parliament excluded many religions. Eventually Charles will suspend the acts that Parliament made against the religions.

Academies of Science

1660 - 1700

These start in London as the Royaly Society of London, then the academy of experiments in Florance, academy of science in France, academy of science in Berlin. These places allowed new info to be exchanged and debated.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

A westernizer for Russia. He helps modernize Russia and tries to take control of Russia like Louis XIV. He gains land and founds the city of St. Petersburg where he tries to trap them. He wants to gain land in Sweeden and and the Black sea. He builds a navey for Russia.

James II

1685 - 1688

He also issued a act of indulgences and suspends all religious tests and permitting free worship. He admired Louis XIV and wanted an absolutr monarchy. He was also Catholic so Parliament didn't like him and eventually called in William III of Orange to invade and take the thrown.

Revoction of the Edict of Nantes

october 1685

Louis attacked the Hugenots to unify France religiosly. Following the revoction there was extreme religious repression.

Newton Principia Mathematica


In this book Newton shows how he discovered gravity and it explains it.

Frederick Wilhelm

1688 - 1713

He was the first in Prussia to earn the title of king. he organized his bureaucracy along military lines. Military was the most important thing to him and thus in Prussia.

English bill of Rights


Rights of Parliament not Individual.

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st and 2nd)


the first one cleared the philosophical arguments that could not stand up to rigorous analysis. the second one was an extended argument that the Gov't needs to be responsible and responsive to the people it governs. people are good willed and the Gov't needs to protect the people's rights not take it away.

emergence of Neoclasicicm


this art is associated with Rome and the reniassance art work. this recalled ancient republican values that criticized the old regime and embraced by the French revolution.

emergence of Rococo art


a lavis style and lighthearted decoration with play on pasel colors and light. very similar to the baroque art but more lavish.

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

This war was caused when Peter wanted to gain a sea port for Russia and Sweeden was in control of the Baltic sea. Peter attacked and gained land in the Baltic sea and later in the new land he counquered he would found St. Petersburg.

Agricultural revolution

1700 - 1800

In the low countries or in England the ideas for the agricultural revoultion develop and spread from there. the enclosure method helped produce more food and reduce famine and increased comercial profits. some new inventions that helped is the iron plow, seed drill, fertilazation. The new super crop the potato was also introduced.

War of Spanish Succession

November 1, 1700 - July 1713

Charles II of Spain dies and leaves his inheritance to Louis's grandson Philip who will become Philip V of Spain. The Grand Alliance was formed to keep balance and not let France or Spain get too much power. the Grand Alliance bested Louis's soldiers. The war finaly ended with th Treaty of Utrect.

Act of Settlement


When there is no heir to the thrown the house of Hanover from Germany will take the thrown legally. so when William III and Mary II's daughter die the Hanovers come into England.

death of William III of Orange


William III becomes the king of england during the Glorious Revolution. When he dies he agrees withthe Act of Settlement that will allow the Hanover family to rule England if there is no heir to the thrown.

Decline of the Netherlands

1702 - 1750

There was a decline because there was no centralized authority because William of Orange died. the Tulip bubble bust making them worthless and people really low on money. They also lost out on ship building and trade to england. All of these lead to a political decline in the netherlands.

Charles VI: Pragmatic Saction

1711 - 1740

this secures the thown for Charles's daughter Maria Theresa when he dies. Now Austria won't fall to the other powers around Austria and fall apart.

Age of Mercantalism

1713 - 1776

export more than you import. the Gov't is involved in the econemy and has monopolies to gain more money for thier country. sugar becomes the most labor intesive crop and one of the crops that all of europe wants to have as a monopoly.

Treaty of Utrect

July 1713

This decree ends the war of Spanish Succession by saying that Spain and Farance can't unite.

Louis XIV's death


Louis dies and the Gov't will weaken because of Louis's war drained most of Frances rescorces.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - February 1720

John Law won the finacial managment of the Kingdom from the Duke of Orleans. He then organized a monopoly called the mississippi company on trading privileges with the French coloy of North America. Also this took over the management of the French National debt. However the bank lacked the amount gold to make up for the paper money making all payment halt.

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

He was the first Prime minister and he was given that position because of royal support and because he had control of the Gov't patronage. He also helped limit the monarchy.

war of Jenkins's ear

1731 - 1739

their was many illegal smuggling during the mercantile time period and a spanish ship boarded Jenkins ship. when they left they cut off his ear. Jenkins later went to parlieament and they went to war with Spain.

Frederic the Great

1740 - 1786

he was considered a enlightend ruler because he changed the rights by birth to promotion by merit. made economic and religoius reforms. and wasvery religiously tolerant. the nobility and peasent revolts held him back from true enlightenment.

Maria Teresa

1740 - 1780

she preserved the habsburg empire as a major political power. she got loyalty by granting new priviledges to the nobility whenever they were about to turn on her. she was very decentralized but she was able to keep the support of the magyars. She may be considered enlightened because of what she did to help Joseph II.

war of Austrian succession

December 1740 - 1748

When Maria Teresa came into power Frederic II attacked an Austrian province Silesia and began to upset the balence of power. it is Austria and Britian vs. Prussia and France. with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Prussia kept Silesia and brought peace.

commercial revolution


Josiah Wedgwood started making new markets for different people other than the aristocrats. he would let the aristocrats start up the new toy by buying from him then he made a cheeper version of it for the lower classes.

Industrial revolution

1750 - 1800

Industrial revolution raised the standered of living and replaced the home work with factories. there was an increase in textile production thanks to the spinning jenny and the water frame. the steam engine was huge because it helped with coal mines in England to get more coal and iron. steam engine perfected by james watt, spinning jenny invented by james hargreaves, and the water frame invented by richard arkwright.

Consumer revolution


during the industrial revolution people began to buy more humble goods of everyday life. People now have a more disposible income to use.

Diplomatic Revolution

January 1756

Britin makes an alliance with Prussia to prevent forgin troops from entering the German states. Now France makes an alliance with Austria. Now it doesn't matter if one country doesn't like another it is just a balence of power.

seven years war

1756 - 1763

In this war Britian funds Prussia against France and Austria, but fights against France for lands in America. Britian stretches France too far and as William Pitt said "I won North America on the feilds of Germany." at the en France goes deep into debt. In the treaty of Paris France loses Canada, Ohio river vally, and everything east of the mississippi river. France is no longer a colonial power in North America and this will lead to reform in France.

Volltaire Candide


this book attacks war, religious persecution, and unwanted optimism of the human condition.

Rousseau Emile and Social Cantract


this is where the idea of seperate spheares for men and women is introduced in Emile. In the Social Contract shows that the individual is not as important then the group.

Cathrine the Great

1762 - 1796

considered an enlightened ruler because she tried for economic reforms and expanded russia to the black sea. the Russian nobility held her back becaus they could easily take her thrown.

American Revolution

1763 - 1783

the Americans have been so indipendent and then Europe starts to tax them again. England is in some debt and needs taxes from the colonists but they don't want to be taxed. The Americas end up independent frome England and becomes so free and independent it was like a role modle for the French Revolution.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Considered and enlightened ruler because he tried to centrilize athourity, made religious and economic reform, and abolished surfdom. the nobility also held him back from being truely enlightened.

Smith the Weath of Nations


this bashes on the mercantalist and urges capitalism. the Gov't should stay out of the economics of the people.

Malthus principle of population


the population must eventually outstrip the food supply.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


In David Ricardos book Principles of Political Econemy he says that if wages are raised people have more kids, more people enter the labor work force, and then you can lower the wages.

French Revolution

Estates General called and meets


France was in political turmoil and needed the Estates General to put taxes to get France out of debt. Because of the division between the fist two estates and the third estate over how people should vote and where the taxes should go, the third estate will eventually form the National Assembly.

Tennis court oath

June 20, 1789

When they are locked out of their normal meeting place the National Assembly moves to a tennis court. This is considered the first revolutionary act because they make an oath to not disband until a constitution is written.

Great Terror

July 1789 - August 1789

There were rumors that royal troops were being sent to rural areas to suppress the peasants. But this increased the revolts among the peasantry. they were reclaiming the land that they lost in aristocratic resurgence, and also started to burn records of feudal dues.

Storming of Bastille

July 14 1789

a mob of Parisians marched to Bastille to get weapons for the militia. When they tried to get in the guards of Bastille shoot at them and killed some of the people in the mob. This angered the mob and so when they got in they killed some of the guards the governor and freed the seven prisoners in Bastille. the next day the militia will be called the National guard.

Nobles Renounce feudal privileges

August 4, 1789

The National Assembly and the nobles wanted to stop the disorder among the people of France so the Nobles renounced their rights for feudal dues and tithes. After that night all citizens of France are free and equal under the law.

rights of Man and Citizen

August 27, 1789

this declaration proclaimed that all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights" and that the natural rights were "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" this secured the rights of the citizens of France and made people equal under the law.

March of the Fish wives

October 5 1789 - October 6 1789

Parisian women armed themselves and marched to Versailles because bread prices are so high. The crowd demands that Louis and his family move back to Paris and thus the crowd begins to "control" the king in the revolution.

Civil Constitution of the Clergey

July 1790

this turned the the church of France into a secular branch of the state. this made the priests employees of the state and they made them swear an oath of loyalty to support the Civil constitution. The clergy divided into constitutional clergy who supported the state and the refractory clergy who were loyal to the pope.

Wollstonecraft- Vind. of rights of women

September 1791

this is similar to the decloration of rights of man and citizen but it includes women in the decloration and gives them rights too. this is an attempt to get womens rights it doesn't work.

Legislative Assembly meets

October 1 1791

When the Legislative assembly meet they had to confront the different challenges left to them like the resistance of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the king now that he tried to run away, and the Declaration of Pillnitz.

Reign of Terror

1792 - 1794

this was the immediate need to protect the revolution from enemies both real and imagined from French political and social life was considered more important than the security of property or even of life. the revolutionaries would do anything to protect the revolution and that meant executing all the enemies.

War with Austria


Invaded Austria because they were a threat to the revolution so they needed to preserve the revolution against the people who didn't want it. Austria was trying to protect the royal family because the king of Austria was the brother of Louis's wife.

Tuileries stormed and king becomes captive

August 10, 1792

A large mob ivandes the tuileries palace where Louis and his family is living. They invade because of the anger of all the peasents, so Louis and his family are forced to take refuge in the Legislative Assembly. After the family was inprisioned and king Louis couldn't preform any of his political functions anymore.

Convention meets/ monarch abolished

September 21 1792

the Paris Commune compelled the Legislative Assembly to elect a body called the convention to write a democratic constitution. France declared itself a republic and would no longer be governed by the manarchy.

Louis XVI executed

January 21 1793

they executed him for conspiring against the liberty of the people and security of the state. this painted him as an anti revolutionary so they needed to get rid of the enemy.

Levee en Masse

August 23 1793

this is similar to today's military draft. so all males are pulled into the military to fight against the anti revolutionaries and to preserve the revolution.

Cult of the supreme Being

April 1794

this reflects rousseaus vision of civic religion that will induce morality amon citizens.

Danton executed

April 1794

he was accused of being insufficiently militant on the war, profiting monerarily from the revolution, and rejecting the link between politics and moral virtue.

Fall of Robespierre

May 1794 - July 27 1794

Robespierre became to radical and made ill attempt speeches that people in the Gov't are counter revolutionaries. this made the convention feel in danger so they executed him.

the cult of reason

June 1794

a more radical form of the cult of the supreme being and here they "worship" reason. it is like a culd for the enlightenment.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

This is the real republic that consists of five directors or presedents. they get to chose the members of th lower council.

Constitution of the year III- establishment of the directory


this rejected both the constitutional monarch and democracy. it made a legislation with two houses the upper body and the lower council. then the executive body will consist of five directors or presidents.

Napoleoon- Coup Brumaire


A military dictatorship that will establish the first consulate. This is the beginning of when napolean comes to power. during his rule he preserves the goals accomplished by the revolutionaries.