McAvoy P.3 study guide for first semester finals
His Vita Nuov and Divine Comedy were cornerstones of Italian literature. Near-contemporary of Petrarch.
Known as the father of Humanism. He left his legal proffesion to instead write letters and poetry.
Started the practice of selling indugences, they were more matirealistic and politically scheming. Clergey were under strict apostolic ideals and confined to just spiritual functions.
He was a student of Petrach. He wrote Decameron as a sympathetic look at human behavior.
during the war the Engilsh made the long bow and now instead of nobles fighting peasents could fight. Began when Edward the III of England asserted to become king of France scince ther was no heir to the thrown of France and he was the grandson of Phillip the Fair. The war centralized Gov't, prolonged crisis in the church, French population dec., destableized the bandking system, and nations are starting to emerge.
Desise came from the Black sea and entered into Europe thruough Italiy.This devestated big cities, the work of skilled artisans increaced becasue the farmers were dieing, and the Flagellants emerged because they thought that God was punishing them. Many prists died beacuse sick peasents came to get help from them. During this time the econemy droped radically, the fuedal system is failing, and massive peasent revolts.
Wanted to limmit the churches power because they were corrupt and they should follow personal merit not rank and office for religious authority.
this was the peasent revolts sparked by the black death. the revolts occured because the French nobles started to make the peasents pay more taxes and the peasents didnt like that.
Cared more about the religious reforms than the southern renaissance and were more diverse. founded mainly on Italian learning. they did not care about the art as much either.
the transition from feudal to modern times. During this the Humanists begin to emerge, now there is lots of art and education emerging. Religion is not as important. economy is good because of all the new cultures introduced to Europe.
During this there was much confusion as to who was the pope and in all of the confusion there was a period where three popes at once. When the cardinals voted for who was the pope some didnt like the decision so they put the man they wanted into power too. as a compromise they put a new man into power. During this time the Unam Sanctum says that the pope is more powerful than the king.
Portugal started in North Africa where they began to trade for new spices and capture slaves. Eventually they sailed down the coast of Africa and rounded the cape of good hope. The Spanis sailed to the Americas and took over to colonize and monoplize the americas.
There was much superstision that begain the which hunts. son=me of the reasons were th misogyny of women, political sompition, the reformation because protestans didn't know how to get rid of them like the Catholics, and economic issues because people needed a scapegat so they could cut off the dead weight of the town. Which hunts ended when more scientific point of veiw, advances in medicine, rise of insurance companies, avalibility of lawyers, and they were getting out of hand. the Gov't gains more control to end it.
They questioned the specialness of what the clergy did, like the bread and wine, validity of sacraments preformed by priests of mortal sin.
Made a decloration called Sacrosancta which the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope named Martin V. Then the council said that they would meet in five, then seven, then every ten years.
Invented by Johannes Guttenburg. This will help spread ideas easily and help start the reforomation.
he wanted to unite classical ideas of humanity and civic virtue with the cristian ideas of love and piety. He believed people could do more than what the theologians believed. Didn't like the scholastics because their dagma and argument overshadow the Chrstian piety and practice.
They Marry and become the future king and queen, where they unite Castile and Aragon.
Had almost total control over the Spanish church and placed religion in the sevice of national unity. They secured their boarders, subdued thier realms,venure abroad milirary, and christianized all of Spain.
this gave freedom to the artists of the renaissance allowing them to paint what they want no matter how strange or abnormal. freer reign of individual perceptions of the painter and his or her feelings.
Colubus sailed in search for a quick route to the Indies he stumbled upon the Americas. Soon after news reached Spain they went over with plans of colinization. Hernan Cortez found the Aztecs and in 1521 defated them marking the begging of Spains monopoly in the Americas. Now they had acess to slave labor and gold.
During this time French king Charles VIII marches through Italiy, Pope Alexander abandoned the Leagee of venice to marry the king of Nevarre's sister. and Pope Julius II made a second Holy leaague.
When Columbus discovered the Americans he introduced new food, plants, animals, and diseases as well as the Americas to the Europeans. this lead to many deathss of the American indians and new prosperity as well. The new foods helped both America and Europe have a better chance to live. Like the potato helped many peasents in Europe survive.
first issued a plenary of jubilee indulgences and used the porceeds to re build St. Perter's Basilica in Rome. he was called the warrior pope because he raised the Renaissance papacy to the top of its military power.
Wanted a male heir to the thrown so he remarried many times. He was able to do this with the Act of Supreacy, which made him head of the church of England not the Pope. However he was very conservative with the religion, only adding a few protestant sentiments. In parliament he mad many legislations to put the clergy under the monarchs rule.
A book to instruct rulers on how to rule correctly and how to behave as rulers. Says it is best to rule as a tyran.
When people like Martin Luther begin to question and break away from the Catholic church. there are many new religions that come up like Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anabaptist. They were not recognized religions and that is what they are fighting for and at the end Lutheranism is recognized as a religion.
Luthers 95 theses was an attack against the work of indugence sellers, particually John Tetzle, saing that salvation can be bought and sold. In the Diet of worms Martin Luther was told to retract his beliefs that went agains the Church. When he didnt he was excommunicated, but the nobles who liked him hid him to keep his ideas (because it benefited them) around.
Martin Luther's attack against indugences being sold, saing that it is buying and selling salvation.
Peasents were tired of the corruption in the church and polotics. With Luther as an isperation they took matters into their own hands and rebeled with Luther as an excuse to get out of truble.
Also known as William the Silent because of his small circle of confidants. He unified the Netherlands to fiaght back against the Phillip II. unified under unuion of utrecht.
Made the Monarch of England the head of the church in England not the Pope
In Geneva Calvinmade new articles for the Gov't. In these new articles he had strong measures to govern Geneva's moral life. Some people thought he was creating a new papacy. Eventually Calvinism came out as a religion,where they had the idea of predetermination and you should always be good just in case you are one of God's "Elect".
In the Holy Roman Empire this decree established a electoral collage, they also formed an administrative body where they elected the emperor of the HRE.
People need to teach themselves absolute spiritual self- mastery over ones feelings. tought to deny themselves and submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual diredtion
this provides a itellectual beginning for a criticism for the position of earth in the universe.
this is when the council of Trent responds to the reformation and begins to try and do something about it. it ends around the time of Elizabeth because she was able to make peace between the Catholic and Protestant religions by making the Anglican religion. this somewhat stopped the feuds between the two religions.
Major internal church dicipline, and reasserted that all faith comes from th bible, church fathers, and papal bulls.
a Danish astronomer and he did not support the earth centered universe but he belived that mercury and venus circled the sun but the sun and everything else circled the earth. This was the next big step after Copernicus towrd the earth centered universe
After Mary's half brother turned most of England Protestant, Mary went back on all his reforms and killed 287 of the Protestants in England. Ever since Mary (Bloody Mary) the Catholics and Protestans have hated each other.
This established cuius regio, eius religio which is the ruler of a land would determin its religion. they only got to chose between Catholic and Lutheran.
She was loved by the people because she created a new religion called angelican. With the new religion she included some Protestant and some Catholic. She stayed away from the radicals on both ends so she was a polotique. She helped England thrive and begin to rise as a national power.
The dutch opposed the Spanish trying to conform their religion. Lead by William of Orange they gained peace and were given indipendence. pacification of Ghent declared regional soverginty in matters of religion. Union of Utrecht made a national identity of the Netherlands.
The Duke of Alba went into the Netherlands to help suppres the dutch revolt and evetually the Pacification of Ghent made them religiously seperate.
Phillip II was king of Spain and very Catholic. He wanted the Netherlands to be politicaly docile and religiously uniform. The Dutch were religioulsy tolorant and Phillip II wasnt. William of Orange, a politique, lead the revolt against Phillip. He converts religion three times to unify the people.
These wars were really a power struggle between the nobles (who were mostly French Calvinists known as Huguenots) and the king (who is Catholic). When King dies there is two major choices the Guise(Cathilc) or the Borbons(Huguenots). After St. Barts. day massacre Henery or Naevare (Borbon) becomes king.His Edict of Nantes forces religious toloration, because he was a polotique the state comes before the religion.
Elizabeth revised Thomas Cranmer's origional 42 to make a modrate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of Engalnd. also called Anglican.
The Netherlands had no titles which mad the money thier social status. They were the first to get into the agricultural revoulution, they were great ship builders, religiously tolerant, first stack market, and the tulip bubble. all of these provided a great econemy in the Netherlands.
The French Catholics killed at least 30,000 Huguenots. To the protestants this became a struggle for survivle against those who cruely jusstified any means of resistance.
Declared regional soverginty over religious matters.
united Netherlands as one idipendent nation
Mary was not liked because she married to the French king Francis II. She was widely unliked by England and Scotland. the Babington plot, which was against Elizabeth, was uncovered and Mary was a conspiritor in that plot. This lead her to her execution.
This was a fleet of 130 ships with 25,000 soldires to go and invade England. But England's navel system was so strong and quick that they took out the spanish armada. The English and Netherland ships became known as an "English wind"
Henery was a Polotique where he said "Paris is worth a Mass". by being a polotique he was widely liked by the people of France so they didnt care what religion he was. He made peace with the Catholics and Hugenots.
viewed the Gov't through th character of the individual, most of his plays were contemporary religious traditions
Heney IV's edict tha tforced religious toleration between Catholics and Hugenots. This ended the French religious wars and this h]is his most famous act.
This is a fancier art form that is associated with Louis XIV. This was a very symmetrical art and showed its subjects in a naturalistic manner rather than idealized. this was with the rise of of new science and the deeper understandings of human anatomy.
After Elizabeth died James son of Mary queen of Scots became the king of England. people didn't like him to much because he was forgin and was too consrvative on religion.
main idea of his work was to satirize the chivalric romances then popular in Spain
In this book Kepler shows what he discovered after Brahes death. He discovered that orbits are eliptical not circular. he used Copernicus's heliocentric modle and Brahes empirical data to find this.
Much of the ground for absolutism in France was laid under Louis XIII rule withi his prime minister Richeliue. He had circumscribed many of the political privileges in the Edict of Nantes.
catholic fenatic assasanated Heney IV
This begins as a local religious struggle in prague, but it slowly becomes a political power struggle. The Princes rebel against the Hapsburgs and spain joins hapsburg because they are related. French joins the Lutherans because they dont like the hapsburs and doesnt want any land to be taken rom them. After Westphalia ends the war and Austria and Prussia emerge as states. States move to profesional armies and nation state is emerging
He attacket the scholastics that said most truths were already found and just needed to be explained, and thier reverence tor authority in intellectual life.
he wanted to write a work that would refure dogmatism and skepticism. Believed that reason should drive those who truely heeded it to faith in god and reliance on divine grace. People need to take a leap of faith in religion.
Had many forced taxes and then the Petition of rights would make this illegal without parliaments consent. However Charles went behind Parliaments back and this is what sparks the civil war. like Philip he needed money to support the war.
before his condemnation Galileo said that individuals should inturpret the Bible and that it was all written in metaphors. because he was threatining the churches power they said that he could write about what Copernicus says but he can't say its ture. then when a new pope came he let Galileo write freely again but Galileo offends the new Pope and is then condemned to his house and forced to renounce his veiws.
He rejected scholastic philosephy and education and advocated thought based on a mathmatical model. doubt everything except the thoughts where he can have clear and distinct ideas. on this basis he divided everything into two caticories, world of the mind and the body.
Was called by the king to rais money for the war but parliament wouldn't do it until the king agreed to redress the list of political and religious grievances. Because Parliament wouldn't rais the money Charles dissolved them.
Puritans in Parliament resented Charles's religious polocies and distrusted his Roman Catholic wife. Parliament resolved that a max of three years can go inbetween meetings, they also made it so that the king could not disolve them without thier own consent. They abolished all of Charles's taxes and raised an army to fight Charles with.
King James I added extra parliamentary taxes, Charles I wanted to fund the wars so they needed more taxes but he fought with parliament and only parliament controls the taxes so Charels couldnt get the money without going behind thier back, which he did. Charels lost the civil war to Cromwell. In the Puritan Republic Cromwell turned into a millitary dictatorship. When Cromwell died Charles's son Charles II came back and restored England back to normal. Then after James II William the III invaded England and took it over, his wife was Mary II, and became The king of England. then issued the English Bill of Rights which is the rights of the Parliament not the individual.
He was considered a absolute ruler of his time because of how he could control the nobles. his Chife minister was Mazarin also called the minority, but when he died he didn't select a new minister to lessen the revolts against him. During his years of personal rule he was able to control the nobility. He did so by moving to Versailles and so he traped the nobles there because if they wanted any thing they would have to suck up to him. Everything worked aroug Louis's schedual.
a series of noble rebellions against the king of France because of the centralizing policies of Richeliue and Mazarin.
His aim was to give a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong centra political authority. Humans are horrible people and they need someone to rule them in order to protect thier land, life and other rights because we are too selfish to keep them safe on our own.
These start in London as the Royaly Society of London, then the academy of experiments in Florance, academy of science in France, academy of science in Berlin. These places allowed new info to be exchanged and debated.
He came back into power after the Puritan republic and returned everything back to normal in England. He wanted to let Catholics and Puritans worship freely but Parliament excluded many religions. Eventually Charles will suspend the acts that Parliament made against the religions.
this place was like the academies of science but this was the first one. The members saw themselves as following the steps of Bacon.
A westernizer for Russia. He helps modernize Russia and tries to take control of Russia like Louis XIV. He gains land and founds the city of St. Petersburg where he tries to trap them. He wants to gain land in Sweeden and and the Black sea. He builds a navey for Russia.
He also issued a act of indulgences and suspends all religious tests and permitting free worship. He admired Louis XIV and wanted an absolutr monarchy. He was also Catholic so Parliament didn't like him and eventually called in William III of Orange to invade and take the thrown.
Louis attacked the Hugenots to unify France religiosly. Following the revoction there was extreme religious repression.
In this book Newton shows how he discovered gravity and it explains it.
He was the first in Prussia to earn the title of king. he organized his bureaucracy along military lines. Military was the most important thing to him and thus in Prussia.
Rights of Parliament not Individual.
the first one cleared the philosophical arguments that could not stand up to rigorous analysis. the second one was an extended argument that the Gov't needs to be responsible and responsive to the people it governs. people are good willed and the Gov't needs to protect the people's rights not take it away.
In the low countries or in England the ideas for the agricultural revoultion develop and spread from there. the enclosure method helped produce more food and reduce famine and increased comercial profits. some new inventions that helped is the iron plow, seed drill, fertilazation. The new super crop the potato was also introduced.
This war was caused when Peter wanted to gain a sea port for Russia and Sweeden was in control of the Baltic sea. Peter attacked and gained land in the Baltic sea and later in the new land he counquered he would found St. Petersburg.
a lavis style and lighthearted decoration with play on pasel colors and light. very similar to the baroque art but more lavish.
this art is associated with Rome and the reniassance art work. this recalled ancient republican values that criticized the old regime and embraced by the French revolution.
Charles II of Spain dies and leaves his inheritance to Louis's grandson Philip who will become Philip V of Spain. The Grand Alliance was formed to keep balance and not let France or Spain get too much power. the Grand Alliance bested Louis's soldiers. The war finaly ended with th Treaty of Utrect.
When there is no heir to the thrown the house of Hanover from Germany will take the thrown legally. so when William III and Mary II's daughter die the Hanovers come into England.
There was a decline because there was no centralized authority because William of Orange died. the Tulip bubble bust making them worthless and people really low on money. They also lost out on ship building and trade to england. All of these lead to a political decline in the netherlands.
William III becomes the king of england during the Glorious Revolution. When he dies he agrees withthe Act of Settlement that will allow the Hanover family to rule England if there is no heir to the thrown.
this secures the thown for Charles's daughter Maria Theresa when he dies. Now Austria won't fall to the other powers around Austria and fall apart.
export more than you import. the Gov't is involved in the econemy and has monopolies to gain more money for thier country. sugar becomes the most labor intesive crop and one of the crops that all of europe wants to have as a monopoly.
This decree ends the war of Spanish Succession by saying that Spain and Farance can't unite.
Louis dies and the Gov't will weaken because of Louis's war drained most of Frances rescorces.
John Law won the finacial managment of the Kingdom from the Duke of Orleans. He then organized a monopoly called the mississippi company on trading privileges with the French coloy of North America. Also this took over the management of the French National debt. However the bank lacked the amount gold to make up for the paper money making all payment halt.
He was the first Prime minister and he was given that position because of royal support and because he had control of the Gov't patronage. He also helped limit the monarchy.
their was many illegal smuggling during the mercantile time period and a spanish ship boarded Jenkins ship. when they left they cut off his ear. Jenkins later went to parlieament and they went to war with Spain.
she preserved the habsburg empire as a major political power. she got loyalty by granting new priviledges to the nobility whenever they were about to turn on her. she was very decentralized but she was able to keep the support of the magyars. She may be considered enlightened because of what she did to help Joseph II.
he was considered a enlightend ruler because he changed the rights by birth to promotion by merit. made economic and religoius reforms. and wasvery religiously tolerant. the nobility and peasent revolts held him back from true enlightenment.
When Maria Teresa came into power Frederic II attacked an Austrian province Silesia and began to upset the balence of power. it is Austria and Britian vs. Prussia and France. with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Prussia kept Silesia and brought peace.
during the industrial revolution people began to buy more humble goods of everyday life. People now have a more disposible income to use.
Industrial revolution raised the standered of living and replaced the home work with factories. there was an increase in textile production thanks to the spinning jenny and the water frame. the steam engine was huge because it helped with coal mines in England to get more coal and iron. steam engine perfected by james watt, spinning jenny invented by james hargreaves, and the water frame invented by richard arkwright.
Josiah Wedgwood started making new markets for different people other than the aristocrats. he would let the aristocrats start up the new toy by buying from him then he made a cheeper version of it for the lower classes.
In this war Britian funds Prussia against France and Austria, but fights against France for lands in America. Britian stretches France too far and as William Pitt said "I won North America on the feilds of Germany." at the en France goes deep into debt. In the treaty of Paris France loses Canada, Ohio river vally, and everything east of the mississippi river. France is no longer a colonial power in North America and this will lead to reform in France.
Britin makes an alliance with Prussia to prevent forgin troops from entering the German states. Now France makes an alliance with Austria. Now it doesn't matter if one country doesn't like another it is just a balence of power.
this book attacks war, religious persecution, and unwanted optimism of the human condition.
considered an enlightened ruler because she tried for economic reforms and expanded russia to the black sea. the Russian nobility held her back becaus they could easily take her thrown.
this is where the idea of seperate spheares for men and women is introduced in Emile. In the Social Contract shows that the individual is not as important then the group.
the Americans have been so indipendent and then Europe starts to tax them again. England is in some debt and needs taxes from the colonists but they don't want to be taxed. The Americas end up independent frome England and becomes so free and independent it was like a role modle for the French Revolution.
Considered and enlightened ruler because he tried to centrilize athourity, made religious and economic reform, and abolished surfdom. the nobility also held him back from being truely enlightened.
this bashes on the mercantalist and urges capitalism. the Gov't should stay out of the economics of the people.
the population must eventually outstrip the food supply.
In David Ricardos book Principles of Political Econemy he says that if wages are raised people have more kids, more people enter the labor work force, and then you can lower the wages.
France was in political turmoil and needed the Estates General to put taxes to get France out of debt. Because of the division between the fist two estates and the third estate over how people should vote and where the taxes should go, the third estate will eventually form the National Assembly.
When they are locked out of their normal meeting place the National Assembly moves to a tennis court. This is considered the first revolutionary act because they make an oath to not disband until a constitution is written.
There were rumors that royal troops were being sent to rural areas to suppress the peasants. But this increased the revolts among the peasantry. they were reclaiming the land that they lost in aristocratic resurgence, and also started to burn records of feudal dues.
a mob of Parisians marched to Bastille to get weapons for the militia. When they tried to get in the guards of Bastille shoot at them and killed some of the people in the mob. This angered the mob and so when they got in they killed some of the guards the governor and freed the seven prisoners in Bastille. the next day the militia will be called the National guard.
The National Assembly and the nobles wanted to stop the disorder among the people of France so the Nobles renounced their rights for feudal dues and tithes. After that night all citizens of France are free and equal under the law.
this declaration proclaimed that all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights" and that the natural rights were "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" this secured the rights of the citizens of France and made people equal under the law.
Parisian women armed themselves and marched to Versailles because bread prices are so high. The crowd demands that Louis and his family move back to Paris and thus the crowd begins to "control" the king in the revolution.
this turned the the church of France into a secular branch of the state. this made the priests employees of the state and they made them swear an oath of loyalty to support the Civil constitution. The clergy divided into constitutional clergy who supported the state and the refractory clergy who were loyal to the pope.
this is similar to the decloration of rights of man and citizen but it includes women in the decloration and gives them rights too. this is an attempt to get womens rights it doesn't work.
When the Legislative assembly meet they had to confront the different challenges left to them like the resistance of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the king now that he tried to run away, and the Declaration of Pillnitz.
Invaded Austria because they were a threat to the revolution so they needed to preserve the revolution against the people who didn't want it. Austria was trying to protect the royal family because the king of Austria was the brother of Louis's wife.
this was the immediate need to protect the revolution from enemies both real and imagined from French political and social life was considered more important than the security of property or even of life. the revolutionaries would do anything to protect the revolution and that meant executing all the enemies.
A large mob ivandes the tuileries palace where Louis and his family is living. They invade because of the anger of all the peasents, so Louis and his family are forced to take refuge in the Legislative Assembly. After the family was inprisioned and king Louis couldn't preform any of his political functions anymore.
the Paris Commune compelled the Legislative Assembly to elect a body called the convention to write a democratic constitution. France declared itself a republic and would no longer be governed by the manarchy.
they executed him for conspiring against the liberty of the people and security of the state. this painted him as an anti revolutionary so they needed to get rid of the enemy.
this is similar to today's military draft. so all males are pulled into the military to fight against the anti revolutionaries and to preserve the revolution.
he was accused of being insufficiently militant on the war, profiting monerarily from the revolution, and rejecting the link between politics and moral virtue.
this reflects rousseaus vision of civic religion that will induce morality amon citizens.
Robespierre became to radical and made ill attempt speeches that people in the Gov't are counter revolutionaries. this made the convention feel in danger so they executed him.
a more radical form of the cult of the supreme being and here they "worship" reason. it is like a culd for the enlightenment.
this rejected both the constitutional monarch and democracy. it made a legislation with two houses the upper body and the lower council. then the executive body will consist of five directors or presidents.
This is the real republic that consists of five directors or presedents. they get to chose the members of th lower council.
A military dictatorship that will establish the first consulate. This is the beginning of when napolean comes to power. during his rule he preserves the goals accomplished by the revolutionaries.