The stories of the adventures of Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu.
2370 BCE - 2315 BCE
The leader of the Akkadians who conquered most of mesopotamia but collapsed due to repetitive rebellions.
1813 BCE - 1638 BCE
A Hebrew patriarch who is recognized by muslims, christians, and jew as a religious figure.
1792 BCE - 1750 BCE
A king of the Babylonians who created The Code of Hammurabi which was used to keep order and bring criminals to justice.
600 BCE - 500 BCE
According to chinese tradition Laozi was the founder of daoism which emphasized being at one with your environment and going with the flow rather than following strict rules, laws, and social distinctions.
563 bce - 483 bce
Better know as the Buddha, siddartha founded buddhism and spread his teachings across india and became the enlightend one.
558 BCE - 530 BCE
A brilliant military straegist that led the persians in a rebellion against the medes and gained their independence. he created the first persian empire kniwn as the Achaemenid empire which dominanted most of the middle east.!
The grandson of Cyrus who expanded Achaemenid empire both east and west and also pioneered long lasting administrative techniques.
470 bce - 399 bce
A greek philosopher who questioned everything and believed in having long discussions and arguements rather than writing everything down.
430 bce - 347 bce
The student of socrates who documented socrates' ideas. Plato preserved socrates' ideas and elaborated on them.
384 bce - 322 bce
A student of plato's who disagreed with plato's ideas. He wanted to answer questions instead of just asking them all the time.
372 bce - 289 bce
The most learned man of his age who was the principal spokesperson for confucian ideas and beliefs. He gave advice and consalted with leaders during the period of warring states.
Alexander the Great
336 bce - 323 bce
Conquered the Persians and brought peace and freedom to Greece for a short time.
268 bce - 232 bce
The grandson of Chandrgupta who led the mauryan dynasty to its high point. He was a great administrator and advocate for buddhism.
221 bce - 210 bce
The first emporer of the Qin Dynasty who ordered the building of the terra-cotta army, centralizied rule, and order a burning of all books of philosophy.
46 bce - 44 bce
The first dictator of rome who ruled from 46-44 bce and was literally stabbed in the back by the rulling elite class and senetors.
27 bce - 18 ce
The next ruler after Julius Caesar who ruled unopposed for 45 years and created and imperial government that would rule rome for the next three centuries.
Jesus of Nazareth
4 bce - 30 ce
The founder and messiah of christianity who spread his teaching across the roman empire and was crucified for it.
284 ce - 305 ce
The emporer who split rome in two so that the empire could be governed easier.
306 - 337
The emporer who established constantinople as the byzantine capitol and established the byzantine empire.
320 - 335
The first emporer of the Gupta empirewho reunified most of India for the first time since the maurya.
Justinian and Theodora
527 - 565
Justinian was the most important byzantine emporer of his time. Justinian commissioned the Hagia Sophia and created justinians code. Theodora was his wife and advisor who was a former striptease artist.
570 ce - 632 ce
Muslims believe Muhammad is the one and only prophet of Allah. Muhammad established his religion in Mecca where it spread across the middle east and across asia.
573 - 634
The first caliph after Muhammad died. He was supported by the sunnis when he was appointed caliph.
Muhammad's first wife who gave him a position of prominance after they were married.
768 - 814
The grandson of charles martel, Charlemange brought the Frankish realm to its high point and reestablished centralizied imperial rule.
800 - 1000
Norse Mariners took to the seas in pursuit of goods and riches. The vikinigs raided and pillaged european peoples such as the Franks.
971 - 1030
The leader of the turks in modern day afghanistan who raided and sacked many hindu temples in india and set the stage for the sultanate of Delhi.
The Bantu set the basis for most of the african kingdoms because they migrated all across africa and set up small bantu communities.They also started to grow they very important crop called bananas.
William the Conquerer
1027 - 1087
Invaded england and established himself ans the first norman king of england. He created a much more centralizied rule but still maintained some previous anglo-saxon ideas.
Pope Urban the II
1042 - 1099
Pope Urban the Second called for the first crusade to capture the formerly christian lands as well as the holy lans and jerusalem. Also the byzantine empire need some help against the turks.
Temujin (Chinggis Khan)
1162 - 1227
Chinggis Khan Unified the Mongolian people and created the largest continuos land empire ever. Chinggis Khan offered peace to people and conquered them if they rejected him. He also encouraged trade, reestablished the silk trade routes, and made cross eurasian trade safer.
1254 - 1324
A venetian merchant and explorer who was one of the few europeans to have had direct dealings with the mongols and Khubilai khan.
1264 - 1294
Khubilai Khan a mongol khan who unified the mongols, embraced many cultures, and encouraged trade. He also created the Yuan dynasty but treated the chinese very poorly.
1304 - 1377
A islamic traveler who traveled across afro-eurasia spreading the word of islam and taking up jobs as administrators or judges. He also ran wealthy mosque and dealt out punishments for crimes. At the end of his travels, he wrote a book about them.
1313 - 1337
The richest man to have ever walked the earth, mansa musa is partly responsible for the spread of islam in north africa and the success of the mali empire.
1336 - 1405
Born in the steppes of central asia, tamerlane used chinggis khan as his model and established his own empire across anatolia and western asia.
Mehmed the Conquerer
1432 - 1481
Mehmet the conquerer led the ottoman turks to a victory over the byzantines when the took control of Constantinople.
1440 - 1469
a Mexica leader who conquered some of his neighbors and helped create the triple alliances known as the Aztec.
1451 - 1506
In 1492 columbus sailed across the atlantic hoping to find a new route to India but instead discovered a land previously unknown to the europeans called the Americas.
1451 - 1500
A portugese explorer who was the first person to sail around the southern tip of africa.
Vasco de Gama
1469 - 1524
a portugese explorer who was the first to sail directly from europe to India.
1475 - 1564
An Italian Renaissance artist who has influenced art and other aspects of life in the modern day.
7500 BCE - 5700 BCE
A small settlement in mesopotamia that was repeatedly torn down and rebuilt which at its peak held 10,000 people.
3000 BCE - 1500 BCE
Mohenjo_Daro and Harrapa dominated the Indus valley between 3000-1500 BCE. They used the Indus and monsoons to fertilize their fields but they were very unpredictable. Harrapa most likely fell to natural disaster.
2660 BCE - 2160 BCE
The time at which most of Egypt's massive monuments were built. including the pyramid of Giza and royal tombs.
2200 BCE - 1800 BCE
One of the first chinese dynasties that organized china on a large scale. The dynasty was said to be founded by sage-king Yu who order large scale public work projects.
2055 BCE - 1650 BCE
The time at which the Cult of Osiris rose to become the popular religion. The first leader of the middle kingdom was mentuhotep II.
1766 BCE - 1122 BCE
A chinese dynasty that developed bronze metallurgy as well as chariots and other technologies.
1550 BCE - 1070 BCE
The new kingdom developed and eleaborate bureaucracy, held 4 million people, and built numerous temples as well as monuments to their power.
1200 BCE - 400 BCE
The "rubber people" who developed the rubber ball, traded jade and obsidian and built large ceremonial temples and capitols.
1100 BCE - 256 BCE
The chinese dynasty that over threw the shang and created the mandate of heaven. The zhou fell due to their inability to maintain control of their land.
1000 BCE - 300 BCE
An religion that engulfed most of mordern Peru but no evidence suggests what purpose the religion served. Some theories say the cult worshipped and fertility god and another say that the cult worshipped an agricultural god.
The Achaemenid Empire
558 bce - 330 bce
the largest empire the world had seen at the time, the Achaemenid empire was founded by Cyrus and expanded into mesopotamia and parts of india, africa, and anatolia.
509 bce - 46 bce
The roman republic preceeded the roman empire and was an aristocratic republic. The republic had a constitution and a civil and military consul.
Era of Warring states
403 BCE - 221 BCE
An era in china after the collapse of the Zhou where chinese states constantly battle with no one person taking total power.
321 bce - 185 bce
One of the first empires to unify India and its tribes.
300 BCE - 900
The heirs of the Olmecs, the Maya were large mesoamerican civilization that built many lareg ceremonial centers and cities including Tikal and teotihuacan.
221 bce - 207 bce
The qin dynasty temporally restored order to china through centralizied rule but the qin dynasty quickly fell to rebellion.
206 bce - 220 ce
The dynasty was founded by Liu Bang and replaced the qin dynasty. Like the qin the Han used a centralizied government but instead educated young men from wealthy families in confucian schools to prepare then for government work.
46 bce - 476 ce
The roman empire shifted from a republic to an empire when julius caesar took control of the empire. From then on the empire was ruled by a emporer.
320 - 550
The next major dynasty to reunify India and bring peace for a while.
330 - 1453
The empire that replaced eastern Rome and became one of the most significant empires and trading empire in afro-eurasia at its time.
350 - 690
One of the first african kingdoms who converted to christianity. Christianity came to axum through trade and soon the merchants had converted, soon followed by the royals and the common people.
589 - 618
The first empire to return order to china after the fall of the han dynasty.The sui created the grand canal and set the stage for the song and tang.
618 - 907
The Tang created the equal-field system, established the bureacracy of merit, and foreign relations. The tang also expanded into tibet, vietnam, and korea.
661 - 750
The first dynasty after the death of muhammad and the assassination of ali. The umayyad would evantually be brought down by Abu al-abbas and his rebellion.
710 - 794
The nara period was a time when a japanese clan claimed imperial control and modeled itself after the chinese dynasties.
750 ce - 1258 ce
The caliphate that rebelled against and toppled the umayyad dynasty; Led by Abu al-abbas.
794 - 1185
The time at which the Fujiwara familiy ruled Japan.
960 - 1279
The chinese dynasty that replaced the tang and created a centralizied government but a weak state. The song fell due to economic crisis and a weak military with unexperienced generals.
Holy Roman Empire
962 - 1806
A empire that was not holy, roman, or an empire. The holy roman empire was a varying complex of lands that was never really under the control of one ruler.
A large stone swahili city-state that controlled and taxed trade between the coastal and interior areas of east africa.
Sultanate of Delhi
1206 - 1526
Established by Mahmud's successors, the sultanate of Delhi was an islamic state that was located in northern India and while it technically ruled that area, they had little control of that area.
1279 - 1368
Created by Khubilai Khan, the Yuan dynsty was ruled by the mongols and very few chinese had any snese of power. most were treated poorly, unfairly, and saw the mongols as tyrants.
1299 - 1922
The early ottoman empire was founded by osman and took control of constantinople in 1453. They toppled the byzantine empire and survived untill 1922 when they became the republic of Turkey.
1428 - 1521
A triple alliances between the mexica, texcoco, and tlacopan. The aztec dominated much of mesoamerica and recieved tribute from tribes across their empire. They were eventually conquered by spain.
1471 - 1532
A group of people who lived in the highlands of the Andes mountains. They traded with other peoples across present day peru and also established roads across peru.
Groups of nomads found in the steppe lands of central Asia herded animals and domesticated and rode animals.
Oracle bones were an early form of writing in chinese culture. A diviner would write a question on a bone and then thrown it in a fire untill it cracked. the diviner would then read the cracks for an answer.
1400 BCE - 600 BCE
The vedas were stories and traditions passed down orally through the sacred sanskrit language and were compiled between 1400-600 BCE.
800 BCE - 400 BCE
Upanisheds were discussions of riligious issues between sages and their disciples. These discussions were ussually transmitted by dialogue.
a religion of peace that is devoted to understanding natural principals and how to live in harmony.
The values and ideas founded by confucius that give social and political structure. The three main ideas are ren (an attitude of kindness and benevolence or sense of humanity), li (A sense of propriety), and xiao (To respect your elders and people above you; filial piety).
400 bce - 200 bce
A form of government focussed on centralizied state that helped end the period of warring states.
300 BCE - 900
A Mayan creation myth that says the gods made humans out of maize and water which made up human flesh and blood.
The faith the formed out of judaism and believes that Jesus was the messiah.
The religion founded by siddartha that says you should enjoy no earthly attachments because the cause suffering and you need to end suffering by following the four noble truths and the eight fold path. once you follow the path you will reach nirvana.
Discoveries and Signicant Events
13,000 BCE - 10,000 BCE
The land bridge known as Beringia helped migrants in Siberia migrate to the Americans. these people became the native americans and mesoamericans.
The first agricultural revelution led to the development of towns, villages, and eventually cities.
The discovery of bronze metalurgy led to new tools and weapons as well as new trade items.
2000 BCE - 1000
The Bantu people moved from west Africa into east, central and southern Africa during this period. They spread the Bantu language and developed iron metallurgy.
Iron metalurgy was refined in 1300 BCE by the Hitite and soon replaced bronze as the metal of choice.
silk trade routes
200 bce - 300 ce
The trade routes that crossed eurasia and carried goods such as silk, spices, and gold.
100 ce - 350 ce
A time in rome in which a long period of peace was enjoyed.
Yellow Turban Uprising
Rebellions formed by peasants wearing yellow turbans who wanted the land ditribution fixed. the rebels weakend the han and contributed to their collapse.
224 ce - 476 ce
Germanic tribes started to attack and raid the romans in 224 and eventually took the western half of rome.
Split of roman empire
Diocletian split the empire into two halfs to help govern the empire and maintain more control.
Roman capitol moved to Constantinople
Constantine moved the capitol of rome to constantinople after he consolidated his grip. Constantinople was built on a strategic penisula between asia and europe.
Fall of Rome
After repeated germanic invasions as well as civil unrest the western half of rome fell and many historians see this as the fall of rome.
Justinian's code was a review and codification of roman law. Justinian called it corpus iurus civilus or the body of the civil law. This civil law code has influenced the civil law codes of modern countries.
Commissioned by Justinian, the Hagia Sophia was originally and christian church but was converted yto an islamic mosque when the turks conguered the city.
Civil Service Examinations
589 - 907
The civil service examinations were used by the han, sui, and tang. Young men were educated and tested in preperation for government jobs.
Block printing was the arrangement of blocks with ink rolled on them and pressed to paper. Ths became more common and prevelant during the tang dynasty.
Indian Ocean Trade Routes
600 ce - 1600 ce
People across afro-eurasia figured out how to use the monsoon winds and were soon trading across the indian ocean. this created large wealthy port-cities.
Fast Ripening Rice
Fast ripening rice was discpvered by the chinese when they expanded into Vietnam. This new form of rice allowed for peasants to grow two crops a year and have a surplus of food.
Founding of Islam
Muhammad under went a spiritual transformation in 610 ce and recieved messages, visions, and revelations from the archangel Gabriel and was told to spread his revelations.
The grand canal was built by the sui dynasty and served as means of trading and transportation.The canal allowed merchants too move north and south on the water.
The migration of Muhammad and some of his followers from mecca to medina.
Battle of Tours
A battle between Charles martel and the franks against an islamic army. The franks ultimately won the battle and stopped any further advancement from the iberian peninsula.
Trans-Saharan Trade Route
800 - 1500
The trade route across the sahara between the arabs and west africa. Camels were often used to traverse the desert because of how suited they were to the desert.
Chinese merchants needed an alternative form of payment instead of coins and bronze. Small printed notes were soon used in return for cash deposits. Eventually the Qing dynasty took control of the production of paper money.
Neo- Cunfianism was the mixing of confucian and buddhist ideas that was backed by the song dyansty.
The schism was a split in the Christian church between the roman catholics and eastern orthodox christians. this split was caused by infighting about rights and powers of either side of the church.
Norman Conquest of England
The norman duke, William the conquerer invaded england and established himself as the king. He created a centralizied fule and retained many anglo-saxon instituions.
1070 - 1492
The reconquista of sicily and spain was an effort by the christians to reclaim their lands. The christians battle the islamic armies for years before the christians fully reclaimed their land from the muslims and reestablished christianity.
Battle of Manzikert
The seljuq turks defeated the byzantine empire and captured the byzantine emperor.
1095 - 1580
The crusades were a series of conquests and wars that were meant to recapture holy lands and establish christianity. They usually failed and the fourth one ended with crusaders sacking constantinople.
Mongols sack baghdad
The mongols defeated the abbasid empire and sacked baghdad in an effort to expand even further than they had. The city was looted and killed two hundred thousand residents.
1330 - 1600
The first outbreak occured in southwestern china and was spread by mongol armies and merchants moving west across eurasia. The bubonic plague reached the black sea in 1346 and italy in 1347. By 1348, the whole mediterranean basin was infected with the plague.
Hundred years war
1337 - 1453
A series of conflicts between england and france. After each conflict one empire or the other would tak land from the other. It went back and forth untill england was forced to become an island isolated empire.
1340 - 1600
The plague reached the black sea from china in 1340 were it spread to Italy then the rest of the mediterranean. Eventually most of europe was infected as well as parts of northern africa.
Yongle commissioned an encylopedia to be made of all chinese history, philosophy, and literature. it took up 23,000 manuscript rolls and was supposed to be printed but was not because of the enormus expense.
End of Zheng He's Voyages
Zheng He's voyages were brought to an end when A new emperor decided to end the expeditions because of the impending mongol attack.
Fall of Constantinople
Sultan Mehmed II captured and sacked constantinople. It was renamed to Istanbul and would remain so to this day.