The were the first to bury their dead. They made clothes and lived in caves and tents. Found in the Neander Valley, Germany.
New Guina people,from hunting and gathering, turned to agriculture and cultivated root crops and yams and taro. Austroneasian people from southeast Asia were seafarers to New Guinea. Austroneasians also migrated to Polynesia and used canoes to sail safely.
The Lapita Society from New Guinea emerged and established agricultural village. They had pottery with geometric designs and networks of trade.
The first human beings of fully modern type. Had venus figurines (fertility) and cave paintings of animals-sympathetic magic.
It is unclear of how early populations reached the Americas. The first large wave of migration from Siberia to Alaska and small numbers of migrants may have crossed the Bering land bridge.
It was the initial transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture in prehistory. This stopped all hunting gathering ways of life and produced more food for more people in a short period of time. No more nomadic lifestyles and and settled villages.
Nomads who raise livestock. They did so to support a population on less productive land and it adapts well to the environment. Pastoralism led to increase of human population and food.
It accomadated abut 5,000 people and was the center of production and trade in obsidian tools.
Mesopotamian metal workers realized copper alloyed with tin made much stronger and harder elments (bronze). They used bronze for weapons and later agricultural tools.
Unified rule came to Egypt under the conqueror Menes. He founded the city of Memphis, near modern day Cairo, and served as his capial. He built a centralized state ruled by the pharaoh.
They moved south and west i nto forest lands. They also move south to the Congo River and east to the Great Lakes region. They absorbed much of the popultion of hunter/gather/fisher people. By 1000 BCE thy occupied most of Africa south of the equator.
The Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. It was was a period of internal security and prosperity. During the Old Kingdom, the King of Egypt was considered to be a living God.
Each city ad a fortified citadel and a large granary. They also consisted of large streets, marketplaces, temples and public buildings. They standardized weights, measures, architectural styles and brick sizes.
Creator of empire in Mesopotamia. He led a coup against the King of Kish, and seized trade routes and natural resources.
Xia Dynasty mad one fo the first efforts to organize public life in China on a large scale. The dyansty's founder, King Yu, was a hero of flood contorl. The dynasty encouraged the founding of cities and the developement of metallurgy. Erlitou was possibly the capital of the Xia Dynasty.
The Hyksos took over after the decline of the Old Kingdom. They were able to capture Memphis and levied tribute throughout Egypt because of significant military advantage over Egyptian forces. Their rule provokd a strong reaction especially in Upper Egypt and oragnied revolts against the foreigners. Eventualy, Egyptians pushed the Hyksos out and founded the New Kingdom.
The Epics of Gilgamesh was a cycle of stories about the King of Gilgamesh. The stories explored themes of friendship, loyalty, ambition, fear of death, and longing for immortality. They reflected the interests and concerns of the complex, urban-based society that had emerged in Mesopotamia.
Abraham was a hebrew patriarch who lead group to Palestine in 1850 BCE. Abraham left Ur, in Mesopotamia, because God called him to found a new nation in an undesignated land that he later learned was Canaan.
Most prominent of the later conquerors. "King of the Four Quarters of the World." Improved administration techniques by relying on centralized bureaucratic rule and regular taxation. Provided Hammurabi's Code of Laws.
It arose in the sourthern and eastern areas of the Xia realm. They had bronze metallurgy and monopolized by ruling elite. Agricultural surpluses supported large troops. They had avast network of walled towns. The Shang capital was moved ix times. Lavish tombs of Shang King were accompanied wih thousands of objects.
The New Kingdom sparked new changes. The Pharaoh gains power. The kingdom consisted of a huge army and large bureucracy. They constructed many building projects, including temples, palaces and statues. Tuthmosis III built the empire including Palestine, Syrian and Nubia.
Earliest of orally tranmitted works by the early Aryans were called the Vedas. They were a collection of hymns, songs, prayers and rituals honoring the various gods of the Aryan gods. Rig Veda was the most important.
Used to tell fortunes by fortune tellers. They inscribed a question, subjected to heat and read its cracks. Often the diviner recoreded the answer on the bone, and later scribes occasionally added further information about the events that actualy came to pass. The were discovered in 1890s.
They lived near the Gulf of Mexico. Elaborate complexes were built. They are famous fo the colossal human heads (possibly likenesses of rulers). Ruler's power was shown through construction of huge pyramids. They traded in jade and obsidian. Their society declined in 400 BCE.
The Zhou Dynasty gradually eclipsed Shang. They had the Mandate of Heaven, and the ruler was considered as the "son of heaven" Mandate of Heaven gave rule to rightful ruler, only given to virtuous rulers. Its political organization was a decentralized administration and sued princes and relatives to rule regions. Iron metallurgy also spread through this time.
Iron was cheaper and more widely available;used in weapons and tools.
Complexity of the Andean society increases during the Chavin. the devised techniques of producing cotton textiles and fishing nets. They also discovered gold, silver and copper metallurgy. Cities began to apear shortly afte the Chavin cult.
The Upanishads are a collection of philosophical texts which form the theoretical basis for the Hindu religion. The religious forums consisted of dialogues between disciples and sages. Developed several spcific doctrines to explain their line of thought: Samsara, Karma and Moksha.
He was the founder of Buddhism and eventually became the Buddha, "The Enlightened One". He searched for Enlightment. He was born in a kshatryia family and after forty-nine days of meditation, he achieved Enlightment and spread teaching of Buddhism.
Known as the King of Persian Tribes. Brought all Iran under control nd looked for opportunities to conquer. He was an outstanding military strategist.
The Achaemenid empire inaugarated a new ear of world history. They borrowed military and administrative technique devised earlier by Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, but applied those techniques on a much larger scale. They conquered a vast empire and govnered with tolerable success.
He addressed the problem of political and social order in a straightforward and self-consious way. He emphasized ren,li and xiao.
It was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, later became Buddha. It appealed strongly to members of lower castes because it did not recognize social hieararchies of castes and jati. It was also less demanding. the used vernacular tongues and had monastic organizations.
Extended the Persian empire both east and west adwas a more important administrator than a conqueror.
The Roman Republic consisted of the Plebeians and the Patricians. The government was organized as a representatvie republic, consisting of the Senate and the Assmebly. They also had the Twelve Tables of Rome (civil laws).
It is a philosophica system developed by Laozi and Chuangzi advocating a simple honest life. Believed and devoted energy to refletion and introspection and live in harmony with a goverend world.
The Grand Canal was the msot elaborate project undertaken during the Sui Dyansty. It served as the principal conduit for internal trade. It integrated the economies of northern and southern China and established an economic foundation for politial and cultural unity.
He was a pivotal figure in the deveopment of philosophy. He said that the "unexamined life is not worth living". He encouraged reflection on questions of ethics and morality. Strove for personal integrity honarbly, instead of wealth, fame and accolades. He was condemned to death on charge of corrupting Athenian youths.
He was the most zealous disciple of Socarates. He commited thought to dialogues and formulated the Theory of Forms or Ideas. It taught that the world is an imperfect reflection of world of Forms. His dialogue The Republic expressed the ideal of philosophical kings.
It was a period in China when regional warlords conquered the smaller states around them and established their rule.
Helped address problems of political and social order in a moral way. It emphasized strong moral integrity and deliver wise and fair judgements. Emphasized ren, li and xiao and personal qualities.
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He was the founder of the philosophical system of Daoism. He emphasized the effort to understand the fundamental character of the world and nature.
He was Plato's student. Known as "The Master of those who know". He distruted the Theory of Forms. He believed you could rely on own senses of accurate information of the world and depend on reason. He devised rules of logic to construct powerful arguments. He wrote also wrote on biology, physics, astronomy, etc.
During the Period of the Warring States, he consulted with rulers and offered advice on political issues and adapted government with benevolence and humanity.
He succeeded the throne after his father's assassination and became the King of Macedon. By 331 BCE he controlled Syria, Egypt and Mesopotamia. He invaded Persian homelands and burned Persopolis. He established himself new Emperor of Persia in 330 BCE. He crossed the Indus River by 327 BCE but his army refused to go any farther.
It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who unified the smaller Aryan kingdoms into civilization. It became so powerful through trade. It also had a powerful military.
Grandso of Maurya wo took the throne after his grandfather's death. He conquered Kalinga. He was known est as a govenor and ruled as a tightly oranized beauracracy. He enforced his policies and established Pataliputra as his captal.
He declared himself the First Emperor. His dynasty only lasted fourteen years. However, he standardized laws, currencies, weights, and measurements and writing. All these led to the unification of China. He also built roads.
The dynasty was founded by Qin Shihuangdi. It marked the first unification of China nad early construction of defensive walls. New found wealth came from agriculture and used it for military and new iron weapons.
Developed during the Han Dynasty. It was the idea to bring order and harness subjects' energy by enforcing clear, strict laws. Crime rates went down and established collective responsibility before the law.
They dynasty after the destruction of the Qin Dynasty, founded by Liu Bang. It turned out to be the longest and most influential dynasty in all of Chinese history. They consolidated the tradition fo centralized imperial rule.
He was known as the "Dictator For Life". He seized Rome and favored liberal policies and social reform. He played active roles in Roman politics. He centralized military and political functions and distributed land to the poor. His policies pointed the way toward a centralized imperial form of government for Rome and its possessions. His rule alienated members of elite classes, thinking he's a tyrant, and was assassinated.
He was the nephew of Julius Caesar who brought civil conflict to an end. He fashioned an imperial government that guided Roman affairs for the next three months. His monarchy was disguised as a republic and he created a new standing army under his control. Imperial institutions start to take root under hsi reign.
It was a regional state ruling Germany, though it wielded influence intermittently in Eastern Europe and Italy. It didin't resotre imperial unity to Europe.
It was known as Augustu's reign. It facilitated trade and communication throughout the region from Mesopotamia to the Atlantic Ocean. His reign brought peace to the entire empire.
He was a charsimatic Jewish teacher and taught devotion to God and love. His teaching attracted large crowds through his wisdom and miraculous powers. His teaching "The Kingdom of God is at hand" alarmed Romans, and he was crucified in the early 30's CE. He then became Christ, or better known as "The Annointed One".
Initially, the trade route was used intermittenly, However, the route grew with the rise of the Roman Empire because the Chinese initially gave silk to the Roman-Asian governments as gifts. It increased the number of foreign merchants present in China under the Han Dynasty, exposing both the Chinese and visitors to their country to different cultures and religions. In fact, Buddhism spread from India to China because of trade along the Silk Route.
It was a Christian empire centered in Ethiopia. It resisted pressures of Islam and stayed prosperous through trade.
The Kings of France and England sparred constantly over ladns claimed by both. Their hostilities eventually resulted in the Hundred Years War, a protracted series of intermittent campaigns in which the wariing factions sought control of lands in France.
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The Yellow Turban Uprising was a revolt due to problems of land distribution. These rebellions weakened the Han state.
They lived in the highlands of Guatemala. Besides maize, they also cultivated cotton and cacao. Tikal was the most important Mayan political center. Warriors in society had prestige, captives wre slaves or victims. Chichen Itza sought to dampen hostil instincts and establish a larger political framework for Maya society. Mayan empire declined in 800 CE.
A Mayan creation myth. It taught that the gods had created human beings out of maize ad water, the ingrediens that became human flesh and blood.
Because of internal decay and civil wars, The Roman Empire was split into East and West. The East, which had Constantinople, flourished, while the West spiraled downward.
He was an emperor who attempted to solve internal conflicts. He intended to solve problem by dividing the empire into two administrative districts. A co-emperor ruled each district with the aid of a powerful lieutenant. Skillful administrator, brought Rome's allies under control and dealt with the economy.
An emperor after Diocletian and staked his claim as emperor. He took power and oredered construction of the new capital Constantinople as a strategic site. He also faced administrative differences. However, he was an able emperor.
Christianity grew out of Judaism. It is a monotheistic religion. There was a schism in Christianity (Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Chruch). It became the official religion of the Holy Roman Empire.
He founded the Gupta Empire and forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and established a dynamic kingdom about the year 320 CE.
The Gupta Empire was founded by Chandra Gupta. The Gupta empire was more decentralzied and smaller, but it is oftern referred to as a golden age because it enjoyed relative peace and saw significant advances in the arts and sciences.
Constantine reconginzed the strategic value and site of the Byzantine area and designated the site of a new imperial capital called Constantinople. He changed the capital because the eastern Mediterranean was the wealthiest and most productive region of the Roman Empire and partly becauserelocation enabled him to maintain close watch over both the Sansanid Empire and the Germanic people who lived close by.
Germanic migrations from the Northern Europe to eastern and northern part of Roman Empire. Visigoths were sttled agriculturalists, adopting Roman law and Christianity. Roman authorities kept Germani people on the borders as a buffer.
There were multiple causes to the fall of Rome. They faced military threats from germanic people. Their Roman cultures and influences were blended with Germanic cultures after the fall of the Roman Empire. They faced political internal opposition, and established Barrack Emperors and divided the empire into two administrative districts. Economically the Huns established settlements in Italy, Gaul, Spain Britain and North Africa and the Visigoths stormed adn ransacked Rome.
They had internal trade with self-sufficient staple food. Metals, spices and special crops where found only in certain regions. Through trade, south India and Ceylon experienced rapid economic growth.
She was the wife of Justinian. She was smart, strong willed and disciplined. She was an advisor and a determined supporter of her husband.
He was an early Byzantine Emperor and known as the "sleepless worker". He lavished resources of imperial capitals and built the church of Hagia Sophia. He codifed Roman law and issued the Body of Civil Law. This influenced civil law codes in most of Europe, Japan and in the state of Louisiana.
Justinian's most significant political contribution was his codification of Roman Law. He ordered a systematic review of Roman law and issued the Corpus iuris civilis (Body of the Civil Law). It won recognition as the definitive codification of Roman law.
A magnificent domed structure that was first designed to be a church constructed by Justinian but later became a mosque. One of Justinian's greatest acheivments.
This was the eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople. It became a highly centralized government. Justinian ruled at its height and influenced Christian Orthodoxy.
He was a phophet who was born into a Mecca merchant family. He had a difficult early life but married well. He was a merchant as well and was exposed to various faiths. He had a spritirual transformation at age forty, and taught that there was only one ture god (Allah). Allah would soon bring judgement upon the world and the archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad. He mirgrated to Medina (under persecution) and later returned to Mecca.
He served as caliph upon Muhhamad's death. He became the head of state, chief judge, religious leader and military commander.
Construction of palaces and granaries. During this dynasty they also repaired the Great Wall. Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea were taking place. They had high taxes and compulsory labor services. The Grand Canal itnegrated economies of North and South. The rebellions broke out and Yang Di was assassinated.
She was Muhhamad's wealthy wife and they got married in 595 CE. Through this marriage Muhammad gained a position of some prominence in Mecccan society, although he didn't enter the ranks of the elite.
Islam was founded by Mohammad and after persecution he fled to Medina, known as the hijra. Later he returned to Mecca and destroyed the pagan shrines, except for the Ka'ba. From there, Islam spread.
Civil Service Exams were tests that an individual had to take and pass inorder to become qualified for a government position or a job. Chose people by merit from the exams.
They carved a reverse image of an entire page into a wooden block, inked the block, and then pressed a sheet of paper on top. In the Tang era did block printing become common.
The Tang Dynasty was founded by Tan Taizong. The dynasty included an extensive networks of transportation and communications. They also had the equal-field system (land alloted according to needs). They also bureaucracy of merit through civil service exams. Their foreign relations also had the political theory (where the hinese believed that China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization.
To alleviate shortage of copper coins that served as money, Chinese merchants developed letters of credit that came into common use, known as flying cash. It enabled merchants to deposit godds or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or goods elsewhere in China.
Under persecution, Muhhamad and his followers fled to Medina. This move was known as the hijra, and became the startign point of the Islamic calander.
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. They led the umma not as prophets but as lieutenants or substitues for Muhammad. Under the caliphs' leadership, the umma went on the offecsive against the towns and bedouin clans that had renounced Islam after Muhammad's death.
Trade between Africa and Islamic states in west Africa. The camel's arrival quickened pace of communication across the Sahara. Islamic merchants crossed the desert and established relations.
Nara Japan was ruled by several dozen states by the middle of the first millennium CE. They were inspired by the Tang example, one clan claimed imperial authority over others. They built the new capital that was modeled on Chang'an. They adopted Confucianism and Buddhism, but maintained their Shinto rites.
The Reconquista was a period of nearly 800 years (between 722 y 1492) during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking (and repopulating) the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim Al-Andalus Province.
The battle of Tours occured in 732 when the Frankish army confronted the Muslim army to stop their spread in western Europe. Charles Martel, the Major Domo of the Franks (Charlemagne's grandfather) led the Franks to victory.
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids, was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region. The first change the Abbasids made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq.
He was Charles Martel's grandson who ruled over the Frankish realm. He temporarily reestablished centralized rule in a society disrupted by invasion. The building of the Carolingian Empire was his best accomplishment.
They were Norse maritime seafarers who turned their maritime skills toward raiding and plundering cities. They coordianted their ship's movements and timed their attacks to take advantage of the tides. They ransacked Constantinople three times.
Japanese emperors served as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority. They have effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family. Emperors did not rule, which explains the longevity of the imperial house. The Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought.
The introduction of Fast Ripening Rice lined with new agricultural techniques, increased food supplies. This led to a rapid population rise from 600 to 1200 CE.
It was an empire in Western Europe following the coronation of Charlemagne. It was regional state rulign Germany, though it also wielded influence intermittenly in Eastern Europe and Italy. It didn't restore imperial unity to Europe.
It was a philosophy that attempted to merege and have certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought. It illustrated deep influence of Buddhism in Chinese society. It also influenced east Asian thought over a long term. It enjoyed the status of an effective recognized creed from the Song Dynasty.
Song Taizu was the founder. It had a some weaknesses, influding financial problems (enormous bereaucracy and high salary devoured surplus), military problems (civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces) and external pressures (seminomadic Khitan and nomadic Jurchen).
Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazna into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire. He was the first ruler to carry the title Sultan ("authority"), signifying the extent of his power, though preserving the ideological link of the Caliph.
They spread agriculture and herded throughout Africa. They displaced hunter gathering. They had iron metallurgy and after 500 CE and faciliated clearing more land. They cultivated yams, sorghums, and millet. There was also the introduction of bananas after 500 CE that caused migration and population surges.
He introduced Norman priniciples of government and land tenure to England.
He is best known for starting the First Crusade (1096–1099) and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal court to help run the Church.
This was the schism between the Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine patriarchs) and Roman Catholic Churches (Roman popes). Patriarchs argued for the autotnomy of all major Christian juisdictions, including Constantinople. Relations became so strained that the eastern and western churches went seperate ways, each refusing to recognize the other chruch as properly Christian.
The Norman conquest of England was the invasion and subsequent occupation of England by an army of Normans and French led by Duke William II of Normandy. He introduced Norman style of political administration to England.
It was the battle where the Saljuqs, Turkish people, inflicted a devasting defeat on the Byzantine army. The Salijuqs even took the Byzantine empire captive.
It was the first Roman Catholic Christian expedition to recapture the holy lands. French and Norman nobles began to organize a military expedition to the holy land and captured Edessa, Anitoch and other strategic sites. In 1099 Jerusalem fell to the crusades. Later crusades fell to the Turks and Turks recaptured Jerusalem. There were no Christian forces in the Eastern Mediterranean.
He was known the the Mongols as "The Universal Ruler" and he unified Mongol tribes through alliance and conquests. He organized new military units and broke up tribal affilliations. He chose high official based on merit and loyatly. Established capital at Karakorum.
The fourth crusade was a demoralizing attempt. They ravaged Constantinople and other attempts to conquer other lands failed. However, the crusading idea inspired Europeans dreams' of conpquest in the Eastern Mediterranean.
They were Mahmud's successorts who conquered North India in 1206. Sultans' authority didn't extend far beyond capital at Delhi. Islam began to have a place in India.
A powerful kingdom in East Africa. By the ninth century, chiefs began to build stone residences. Eighteen thousand people lived in Great Zimbabwe in the late fifteenth century. Kings organized flow of gold, ivory and slaves.
They controlled territory using a professional army, an established bureaucracy, a unified language and a complex system of roads and tunnels. Their prime source of labor was human. For the Incas, the conecpt of private property didn't exist. They built the Temple of the Sun in Cuzco and the temples of Machu Picchu.
They built their capital at Tenochtitlan and are knwon for their expansionist policy and professional army. They didn't use bureaucratic form of government and conquered areas were generally allowed to govern themselves as long as they paid tribute demanded of them. Notably, the Aztec religious system was tied to military because one of the purposes of the military was to obtain victims for human sacrifice.
He was the best known long distance traveler of Mongo times. He was a venetian traveler to Asia and served in the Mongol court of Khubilai Khan in China. He returned to Venice in 1295 after being in China for seventeen years. The narrative of his travels became best sellers and he inspired many other merchants to travel and explore that world like he did.
The Siege of Baghdad, which occurred in 1258, was an invasion, siege and sacking of the city of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate at the time and the modern-day capital of Iraq, by the Ilkhanate Mongol forces along with other allied troops under Hulagu Khan. The invasion left Baghdad in a state of total destruction.the city was sacked and burned. Even the libraries of Baghdad, including the House of Wisdom, were not safe from the attacks of the Ilkhanate forces who totally destroyed the libraries, and used the invaluable books to make a passage across Tigris River. As a result Baghdad remained depopulated and in ruins for several centuries, and the event is conventionally regarded as the end of the Islamic Golden Age.
He was Genghis Khan's grandson and consolidated Mongol rule in China. He promoted Buddhism, supported Daoists, Muslims and Christians. He extended Mongol rule to all of China. He founded the Yuan Dynasty in China in 1279 and proclaimed himself emperor.
The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Khubilai Khan and ruled by the Mongols. However they did have a significant decline. They had economic problems, and overused their paper money. There were also imperial assissinations and civil war.
It was a unusually successful state. It was founded by Osman Bey. The Ottoman Empire expanded into the Byzantine Empire. It seized the city of Bursa, then into the Balkans. They organized ghazi into a formidable military machine. They had effective use of gunpowder in battles and sieges.
It was an epidemic plague that killed millions. It had terrifying symptoms, often leading to death. Started from the Mongolians then passed to the Europeans. In Eruope, 25 million people died in just under five years between 1347 and 1352. Estimated population of Europe from 1000 to 1352.
He was the best known Muslim traveler. He was a Moroccan Islamic scholar who served as qadi to the Sultinate of Delhi. He later served on Maldive Islands and traveled east and west in Africa. He consulted with Muslim rulers and offered advice of Islamic values. He heloped provide guidance.
He was Sundiata's grandnephew. He made his pilgramage to Mecca in 1324-1337 with huge caravans. Upon returning to Mali he built mosques. He sent students to study with distinguished Islamic scholars in northern Africa. He also established Islamic schools in Mali.
He built the central Asian Empire. He was the lame conqueror, and was self-made. He established the capital in Samarkand. First he conquered Persia and Afghanistan. Next he attacked the Golden Horde. At the end of the fourteenth century, he invaded norther India. He ruled the empire through tribal leaders who relied on existing bureaucrats to collect taxes.
He was the fifth Aztec emperor and King of Tenochtitlan. During his reign the Aztec Empire was consolidate and major expansion was undertaken.
It was a Chinese compilation of information commissioned by the Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle in 1403 and completed by 1408. It was the world's largest known general encyclopedia at its time. It signaled the Ming rulers' interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions.
Zheng He's voyages came to an end when he died and the Chinese abruptly stopped their naval voyages. This stopped all exploration and trade, and if they did not stop, they may have become the dominatn colonial power.
He was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488 on an expedition for Portugual, the first European known to have done so. He discovered the Cape of Good Hope.
He captured Constantinople in 1453 and renamed it Istanbul, the Ottoman capital. He had absolute monarchy and established a centralized state. He expanded into Serbia, Greece, Albania and attacked Italy.
He was an explorer, navigator, and colonizer for Spain. Columbus's voyages led to the first lasting European contact with the Americas, inaugurating a period of European exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for several centuries.
He was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.He is one of the most famous and celebrated explorers from the Discovery Ages, being the first European to reach India through sea. This discovery was very impactful and paved the way for the Portuguese to establish a long lasting colonial empire in Asia. The route meant that the Portuguese wouldn't need to cross the highly disputed Mediterranean nor the dangerous Arabia, and that the whole voyage would be made by sea.
He was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Constantinople fell when the Ottoman Mehmed II conquered the city and renamed it Istanbul. Constantinople's capture also marked the end of the Roman Empire.