1st Semester AP Euro

General/Political history

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Helped give France a sense of nationalism and helped transition it from a feudal monarchy to a consolidated and centralized state

The Black Death

1347 - 1351
  • high depopulation, less laborers = laborers have higher wages, decline in value of noble estates, decline in power of the nobility
  • artisans/guilds have higher wages
  • many serfs move from farm labor to skilled crafts
  • people become obsessed with death
  • church loses political power, but there is increased demand for religious services

The Golden Bull

  • Holy Roman Empire: Emperor Charles IV w/ major German territorial rulers
  • established a 7-member electoral college; administrative body which elected the emperor and cooperated w/ him
  • balanced the rights of the many (princes) with the power of one (emperor)



French peasant revolt caused by privileged classes putting the tax/financial burden on the peasantry

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700
  • causes: clergy clashed with pagan village cultures; clergy and secular gov'ts consolidating authority; preoccupation w/ sin, death, devil

Early Exploration - Portugal and Spain

1415 - 1570
  • increased skepticism about the wisdom of the ancients + of authority --> indirectly contributed to Reformation
  • opened new era in communication and globalization
  • spices + metals brought to Europe --> gradual inflation
  • capitalist institutions began to develop

Commercial Revolution

1455 - 1700

--allowed the European powers to build vast, new international trade networks
--beginning to European empires/interaction with the rest of the world

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469 - 1516
  • united Castile and Aragon; consolidated Spain
  • secured their borders, ventured abroad militarily
  • Inquisition; Christianized the whole of Spain
  • promoted overseas exploration(Christopher Columbus)

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

  • Voyages of discovery became expeditions of conquest
  • brought wealth and military success to Spain
  • led to economic expansion in Europe
  • Columbian Exchange
  • left a lasting mark of Roman Catholicism, economic dependency, and hierarchical social structure to the Americas

Columbian Exchange

  • European/American exchange: Europeans bring war and disease to the Americas; Europeans bring new food(i.e. corn and potatoes) back to Europe
  • introduction of potatoes in Europe leads to a rise in population
  • decrease in population in the Americas

Italy's decline by invasions

1494 - 1527
  • conflict between city-states
  • Charles VIII (Fr.) marches through Italy
  • Pope Alexander VI / Borgia Family had political ambitions --> assisted the French
  • Pope Julius II succeeds Alexander; "warrior pope", thoroughly secular

William of Orange (the silent)

1533 - 1584
  • main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558
  • restored Cath. doctrine + practice to England; had Prot. leaders executed for heresy
  • "Bloody Mary"

Elizabeth I (England)

1558 - 1603
  • politique; merged centralized episcopal system with broadly defined Prot. doctrine and traditional Cath. ritual = formed Anglican Church -39 Articles: official statement of the beliefs of the Church of England; established a more moderate form of Protestantism
  • successful domestic and foreign policy
  • left Eng. strong and ready to expand to global empire

Dutch Revolt (against Spain)

1564 - 1609
  • Alba (Duke of Alba): persecuted and taxed Dutch; had heretics publicly executed; Neth. rebels against
  • Parma: revived Span. power in southern Neth. provinces, leads to formation of Union of Arras; leads to formation on Union of Utrecht
  • Pacification of Ghent -- Cath. and Prot. provinces of the Neth. come together in opposition to Spain, declared internal regional sovereignty in religious matters
  • Union of Utrecht -- unified Prot. northern provinces, formally declared Philip of Spain no longer their ruler

Rise of the Netherlands - Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702
  • Republic (7 provinces w/ central gov't)
  • William III of Orange = dominant leadership when military challenges
  • religious tolerance
  • urban prosperity (finance, trade, empire, agriculture, high urban consolidation)

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1588
  • England defeats the Spanish Armada, gives heart to Protestant resistance
  • Spain loses naval/imperial dominance to France, Netherlands, and England

Mary Stuart executed

  • executed b/c threatened Eliz.I's power
  • execution --> Pope feared Prot. England -->Philip II prepared Armada

Henry IV (France)

1589 - 1610
  • Edict of Nantes
  • "Paris is worth a Mass"

James I (Eng.)

1603 - 1625
  • succeeded Elizabeth I
  • not very well-liked: court of scandal and corruption; dubious loyalty to Prot.
  • believed in divine right of kings; replaced parliamentary approved revenues w/ other sources of income + hoped to summon Parliament rarely
  • refused Puritans b/c wanted to enhance Anglican episcopy

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643
  • ruled w/ Richelieu as his chief minister
  • contributed to the rise of absolute monarchy in France

Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated


-- Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) had set the foundation for absolute monarchs

Charles I (Eng.)

1625 - 1649
  • Dissolved Parliament; tried to rule Eng. w/o Parl.
  • called Short + then Long Parl. to try and raise money for war w/ Fr.
  • Eng. Civil War begins when Charles tries to reassert his power over Parl.

Long Parliament/Short Parl.

1640 - 1660
  • Parl.: Triennial Act: Parl. must be called into session at least every 3 yrs; Par. can't be adjourned w/o its own consent
  • When Charles I is unable to end House of Commons session, forms army

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

--Helped establish constitutional monarchy in England
--Stuarts(James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II), Cromwell, Puritan Republic(run by Cromwell, basically a dictatorship)
--Restoration and Glorious Revolution

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715
  • Richelieu + Mazarin under L. XIII = groundwork for absolutism (centralizing policies/direct royal admin.) led to Fronde
  • helped develop absolute monarchy in France (centralized gov't)
  • built Versailles to exert polit. control + to create a polit. image
  • said "I am the state" (king by divine right)
  • revoked Edict of Nantes; suppressed Jansenists

The Fronde

1649 - 1652
  • series of Fr. noble rebellions against centralizing of power of monarchy
  • while unsuccessful, made Louis XIV more suble about concentrating unprecedented authority on the monarchy than were his predecessors

Academies of Science

  • Florence, London, France, Berlin
  • opposed Scholasticism
  • members of societies presented science as able to aid goals of gov't + growth of econ.--->formation of Enlightenment
  • gather, exchange, debate info + ideas of new science

Charles II (Eng.)

1660 - 1685

Royal Society of London (founded)

  • institute for expanding science; members saw selves as following Bacon's path

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725
  • wanted to westernize Russia
  • built St. Petersburg

James II (Eng.)

1685 - 1688
  • converted to Cath.
  • alienated even the Tories (conservative supporters of monarchs)
  • provoked the Glorious Revolution

English Bill of Rights


--settled all of the major issues between King and Parliament
--model for the U.S. Bill of Rights
--expansion of civil liberties in 18th and early 19th century in England

Age of Mercantilism

1700 - 1800
  • colonial trade rivalry (Fr., Brit., Spain) -->large navies + a series of mid-century naval wars
  • African slaves important (plantation econ.; merged African + European culture in the Americas
  • West European econ.s: wealth, products

End of the Witch Hunts

  • ended b/c: - more scientific point of view - hunts became dysfunctional, threat of anarchy - greater security against the threat of witches

The Great Northern War : Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721
  • Russia eventually dominated war; Peace of Nystad(1721) confirmed Russia's conquest of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania --> access to warm water ports

Consumer Revolution

  • increase in both supply and demand for certain goods
  • luxury/comfort criticized for contrasting w/ Christian ethics
  • a nation's prosperity becomes linked to presence + accessibility to such goods

Act of Settlement (G.B.)

  • Prot. Hanover (Germ.) gets Eng. crown of Queen Anne has no heir --> Elector of Hanover becomes George I in 1714

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714
  • Louis XIV's grandson becomes Philip V of Spain; Spain falls in to Fr. hands = upsets balance of power in Europe
  • Eng, Holland, H.R.E. form Grand Alliance to restore balance of power in Europe Eng. has superior tactics/weapons to Fr. army/finances = Eng. defeats Fr. = Fr. makes concessions to Eng.

Agricultural Revolution

1701 - 1800
  • began in the low countries (Neth.) in 16th/17th centuries
  • new crops, new methods
  • enclosure methods = consolidation/fencing in of common land by British landlords to increase production and achieve greater commercial profits; introduced capitalistic attitude; brought economic and social turmoil to the countryside
  • led to expansion of the population and new demands on all resources
  • Jethro Tull - wheat drill-land could be cultivated for longer
  • Townsend - crop rotation
  • Bakewell - more productive methods of animal breeding

Decline of Netherlands

  • William III died -->end to unified polit. leadership; disunity in provinces
  • British gain naval supremacy
  • Fishing industry/ ship tech superiority decline
  • continued to be financial center for Europe

Treaty of Utrecht (ends War of Spanish Succession)

  • established the boundaries of European empires during the first half of the 18th century
  • Fr. Bourbons replace Span. Habsburgs on Span. throne

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction

  • Emp. Charles VI ensures throught Prag. Sanc. that his daughter Maria Theresa could succeed him as leader of Habsburg
  • est. permanent line of succession + basis for future legal bonds within Habsburg holdings

Death of Louis XIV

  • Fr. remains a great power despite losses in War of Span. Succ.
  • succeeded by L. XV (regency of duke of Orleans --> financial + moral scandals undermined prestige of monarchy

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720
  • financial scandal after death of L. XIV during regency of duke of Orleans
  • shakes but does not destroy Fr. econ.

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742
  • considered 1st prime minister of Brit.
  • increased Brit. foreign trade

War of Jenkins' Ear

  • Brit. smuggler selling to Span. colonies --> Brit. + Spain go to war after Span. gov't maintains coastal patrols
  • beginning to a series of worldwide European wars

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748
  • French/British/Spanish commercial conflict becomes involved w/ central European conflict

Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia)

1740 - 1786
  • most embodied enlightened absolutism during his time
  • called self "first servant of the state" - his personal/dynastic interests subordinate to good of the people
  • protected social/polit. interests of Junkers + role in army; had to qualify for army by merit
  • increased education
  • promoted religious freedom + tolerance
  • codified laws
  • admired philosophes (freedom of speech, religious toleration)

Maria Theresa (Aus.)

1740 - 1780
  • enlightened absolutist
  • made gov't more efficient
  • limited burden on peasants (supported peasants so they will support her in army)
  • granted Magyar nobles autonomy in exchange for support

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850
  • Spinning Jenny: mass-produce thread to meet the needs of weavers
  • Water Frame: water-device to produce a purer more durable cotton fabric; led to the shift in production of cotton textiles from households to factories
  • Steam Engine: first steady and essentioally unlimited source of unanimate power; applicable to many industrial and transportation uses; made possible the combination of urbanization and industrialization
  • associated with rise in consumerism

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763
  • Also called Fr + Indian War
  • Ended by Treaty of Paris
  • Brit. gains some Fr. territory
  • weakened H.R.E.
  • Fr. no longer a great colonial power; Bri. becomes both Eur. + world power
  • defeat -->many Fr. wanted polit./admin. reform

Diplomatic Revolution

  • Eng./Hanover(Germ) allies w/ Prussia
  • France allies w/ Austria
  • revolutionary b/c major shift in alliances

Catherine the Great (Rus.)

1762 - 1796
  • territorial expansion
  • stopped Polish reforms; upheld serfdom + autocracy; conservative views
  • expanded education

American Revolution

1764 - 1788
  • demonstrated to Europe possibility of gov't w/o kings + hereditary nobility
  • written docs based on popular consent + popular sovereignty
  • rejected social status based on birth
  • contributed to Fr. financial crisis

Joseph II (Aus.)

1765 - 1790
  • enlightened absolutist
  • strengthened monarchy
  • religious reform: promoted toleration; placed royal authority over church
  • abolished serfdom + the robot --> strengthened state as a whole, but hurt nobles
  • reformed judicial system, rationalized laws


Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1377
  • badly damaged papal prestige
  • Avignon papacy had reputation fro materialism and political scheming, which gave reformers ammunition
  • After papacy returned to Rome, Fr. king still wanted papacy in the sphere of Fr. influence, led to Great Schism

Lollards - John Wycliffe


Lollards = radical followers of Wycliffe
Wycliffe accused of donatism(heresy of believing that efficacy of sacraments depended on moral character of clergy)
Pre-Reformation challenge of the Church: sale of indulgences, infallibility of pope
- Influenced Huss

The Great Schism

1378 - 1415
  • devolving of greater religious responsibility onto laity and secular governments
  • High Renaissance papacy was limited, and the church was under national control

Hussites -- John Huss


Huss = famous leader of a religious reform movement in Prague
Czech reformers critical of traditional ceremonies and superstitious practices (i.e. Eucharist); questioned validity of sacraments
- Pre-Reformation criticism of the Catholic Church

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417
  • Sacrosancta = declaration by which the council asserted its supremacy, elected a new pope (Martin V)
  • ended Great Schism

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513
  • "warrior pope"; thoroughly secular pope
  • secured papal states
  • Concordat of Bologna: Fr. king has control over Fr. clergy; Fr. recognizes pope's superiority over church councils and right to collect annates

Luther - 95 Theses, Diet of Worms

1517 - 1520

Catalyst for Protestant Reformation
95 Theses attacked indulgences

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1555

Contributed to creation of Protestantism
Sparked ideas to do with questioning authority(i.e. the Roman Catholic Church)

German peasant revolts

1524 - 1525

Ended the Reformation as a social and moral force in history; Luther lost support by not supporting the peasants

Henry VIII - English Reformation

1529 - 1553

England breaking away from the Catholic Church and forming the Anglican Church, included Book of Common Prayer and Act of Uniformity
1534 Act of Supremacy -- Parliament declaration that the king of England, not the Pope, was the head of the church in England

Jesuits - Society of Jesus - Ignatius of Loyola

  • taught that a person could shape own behavior throught disciplined study + regular practice --> intended to teach good Cath. to deny selves + submit w/o question to higher church authority
  • won many Prot. back to Cath.

John Calvin - Geneva

1534 - 1564
  • predestination and living by the Bible's instructions
  • God loves all professions equally; money should be made in the name of God
  • banned fancy lives, gambling, drinking, music, jewelry, etc.
  • after 1555 Geneva becomes home to exiled Prot. in Eng, Stocland, and Fr.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563
  • Catholic/Counter Reformation
  • defined Church teachings
  • issued numerous reform decrees for cath church

Peace of Augsburg

  • "cuius regio, eius religio": the ruler of a land determines its religion (only either Lutheran or Catholic)
  • made the division of Christiandom permanent

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Huguenots vs French Catholics, St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre made Protestants appreciate need for active defense of religious rights and for political resistance, Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes

  • recognized Prot.; established Cath. as official religion of France (in order to hold a government post, be successful, etc., you must be of the official/legal religion, Cath.)

Thirty Years' War (Treaty of Westphalia)

1618 - 1648
  • devolved from a religious war to a polit. power struggle
  • T of W: Germany remains fragmented; H.R. Emperor loses power; religious tolerance (Calvinists); wars become about maintaining balance of power instead of about religion

Galileo condemned

  • charges of advocating Copernican astronomy as physically true
  • negatively affected relationship between Rom.Cath. Church and emerging new science

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

  • revoked by Louis XIV -->European Prot. consider him fanatic
  • skilled/intellectual Prot. leave Fr.; Fr. becomes a symbol of religous repression

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas, individuals


1265 - 1321
  • Divine Comedy


1304 - 1374

"father of humanism"


1313 - 1375
  • humanist

Printing Press - Gutenburg

  • books now rapidly produced, intended for lay readers, scholars, and clerics alike
  • number of printing presses increase rapidly across Europe; literacy increases = more critical mind frame; humanists gain international audiences


1466 - 1536
  • Catholic, famous as an educational + religious reformer
  • wrote Colloquies (included anticlerical dialogues and satires on religious dogmatism and superstition)
  • aspired to unite humanistic civic virtue with Christian ideals of love and piety

The Prince -- Machiavelli

  • promoted ruthless political expediency

Copernicus - On the Rev. of the Heavenly Spheres


Beginning to criticism of the then-dominant geocentric view

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601
  • constructed scientific instruments; compiled very extensive and detailed data of planetary observations


1561 - 1626
  • "father of empiricism/experimentation in science"
  • Novum Organum: attacked Scholastic views that most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation
  • championed innovation over tradition


1564 - 1616
  • immensely popular plays
  • struck universal human themes (wrote histories, comedies, tragedies)
  • wrote in English rather than Latin

Cervantes -- Don Quixote

1605 - 1615

juxtaposes down-to-earth realism with religious idealism

Kepler: The New Astronomy

  • advocated heliocentric model
  • introduced model w/ elliptical orbits

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662
  • belived that reason should drive people to faith in God and reliance on divine grace -"leap of faith" more important in religious matters than science and reason

Descartes: Discourse on Method

  • scientific method based on deduction (resoning from general principle) rather than empirical observation + induction
  • "I think, therefore I am"
  • 2 categories: mind + body

Hobbes: Leviathan

  • philosophical justification for absolute monarchy -- Social contract: limit humans' free exercise of self interest, which would lead to conflict
  • humans are naturally self-centered + exist to meet needs of daily life (no high spiritual purpose)

Newton -- Principia Mathematica

  • principle of inertia
  • gravity exerted on all physical objects; explains orderly rather than chaotic planetary orbits

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1 +2)

  • rejected absolute gov't --> ended major polit. philosophers' appeal to abs. gov't
  • natural rights (life, liberty, property
  • Social contract: gov't protects people's natural rights; governed have right to overthrow gov't if trust is betrayed
  • humans naturally social, reasonable, have goodwill

Voltaire - Candide

  • satire attacking war, religious persecution, + what Voltaire considered unwarranted optimism about the human condition

Rousseau - Emile, Social Contract

  • "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains." --> defended "chains" (organized society) over members of society; believed society is more important than individuals
  • freedom = obedience to law created by general will
  • moral goodness more important than econ. prosperity
  • seperate spheres for men + women

Smith - Wealth of Nations

  • introduced "laissez-faire" economics (low gov't regulation of econ.)
  • embraced the 4-stage theory of econ. development --> assumed that European econ. was highest rank


Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527
  • revival of ancient learning and supplanting of traditional religious beliefes by new secular and scientific values
  • humanism = focus on individual, classical/antiquity
  • civic humanism = education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1527

--More religious than Italian Renaissance
--Invention of the printing press(Gutenberg) led to increased literacy across Europe, made it easier to spread ideas quickly


1520 - 1580

style of art which gave freer reign to individual perceptions and feelings of the artist

Baroque Art

1580 - 1750
  • heavy and dramatic ornamentation; excessive
  • curved rather than straight lines
  • associated w/ the Cath. Counter Reformation

Emergence of Rococo

  • Rococo associated w/ aristocracies of Old Regime + often portrayed aristocracy (usually Fr.) w/ idealized landscapes, carefree, life of leisure, romance, seduction --> convinced many Fr. people that arist. was frivolous + decadent --> increased hostility toward Old Regime polit. + social elites


1750 - 1800
  • return to figurative + architectural models from Renaiss. + ancient world
  • old republican values; instructive + moral rather than emotional or playful; heroism/self-sacrifice
  • incorporated philosophes into artwork