1st semester AP EURO TIMELINE



Avignon papacy (Babylonian captivity)

1309 - 1377
  • badly damaged papal prestige
  • avignon papacy had rep for materialism + polit scheming, gave reformers ammunition
  • after papacy returned to rome, fr king still wanted papacy under fr influence, led to Great Schism

Lollards, John wycliffe


Lollards = radical followers of Wycliffe
Wycliffe accused of donatism(heresy of believing that efficacy of sacraments depended on moral character of clergy)
- Pre-Reformation challenge of the Church: sale of indulgences, infallibility of pope
- influenced Huss

The Great Schism

1378 - 1415
  • devolving of greater relig responsibility onto laity + secular gov's
  • high Ren papacy was limited, church under nat ctrl

Hussites: John Huss


famous leader of relig reform movement in prague, Czech reformers critical of tradit ceremonies+ superstitous practices (i.e Eucharist) q'd valididty of sacraments
- pre ref critisism of cath ch

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417
  • Sacrosancta = dec by which coucil asserted supemacy, elected new pope (Martin V)
  • ended the great schism

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513
  • "warrior pope" thoroughly secular pope, secured papal states, concordat of Bolognia; fr king has ctrl over fr clergy fr recognises pope superiority over church council + right to collect annates

Luther- 95 theses, diet of worms

1517 - 1520

initial catalist for protestant reformation, 95 theses attacked indulgences

John Calvin -Geneva

1534 - 1564
  • predestination, living by the Bibles instructions
  • money should be made in name of god
  • banned fancy lives, dancing, music, jewlery, etc
  • after 1555 geneva bec home to exiled protestants in eng, scotland, + Fr

Peace of Ausberg


cuius regio, eius religio (ruler of region picks the religion) either Catholic or Prot (Lutheranism) but NOT calvinism (makes ppl mad)
- bet. Charles V

Galileo Condemned

  • ch thought Galileo had disobeyed the mandate of 1616, put on trial
  • showed tht church was too conservative, didn't want ppl contradicting them

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

October 1685
  • Louis XIV renounced Edict + declared Protestantism illegal, prots chose to leave fr
  • damaged image of Louis XIV abroad, Prot nats on fr border even more hostile to regime

english bill of rights


—settled all of the major issues between King and Parliament
—model for the U.S. Bill of Rights
—expansion of civil liberties in 18th and early 19th century in England


renaissance in italy

1375 - 1527

revival of ancient learning, gave rise to new secular and scientific values
- humanism = focus on individual, classical/antiquity
- civic humanism = education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1527

more religious than italian ren,
invention of printing press led to increased literacy + faster spread of ideas

Mannerism : (until the Baroque)

1520 - 1580

made room for strange and abnormal, gave freer reign to individual perceptions and feelings of the artist

dutch revolt against spain

1564 - 1609

pacification of Ghent - cath + prot provinces of neth. together in opp against sp declared internal regional soverignty in relig matters

union of Utrecht - prot N provinces unified, dec Phillip of spain no longer ruler

Rise of the Netherlands- the Dutch Golden Age


common, plain things/ people

Baroque Art (Catholic National)

1580 - 1750
  • heavy + dramatic ornamentation, excessive
  • curved rather than staright lines -associated w/ Cath Counter ref.



drew inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome

Emergence of Rococo


reaction against the grandeur, symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque, a more graceful approach to Baroque art and architecture

general/political history (wars, rulers, treaties)

100 years war

1337 - 1453

helped consolidate fr, give it sense of nationalism, helped it go
from feudal monarchy to centralized state.

The Black Death

1347 - 1350
  • high depopulation, less laborers,- ch loses polit pwr, but increased demand for relig services laborers have higher wages, decline in value of noble estates, decline in pwr of nobity
  • many serfs move from farm labor to skilled crafts
  • ppl bec obsessed w/ death *cities + skilled industries came to prosper from its effects

The Golden Bull

  • Emp Charles IV + maj German rulers agrrement tht established 7 member electoral college tht elected emporer, in cooperation w/ him
  • fixed important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empi



peasant revolt caused by privliged classes putting tax burden on fr peasantry

witch hunts

1400 - 1700
  • caused by Ref. spurring panics by taking away tradit defenses against devils + demons, compelled societies to protect selves thru seeking out + execution of 'witches'

Early exploration : portugal and spain

1415 - 1550

Columbus ends up in NA, belives is asia

Columbus/ start of the Sp. empire

1451 - 1506
  • voyages to americas initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World (mexico y peru)

Commercial Revolution

1455 - 1700

—allowed the European powers to build vast, new international trade networks
—beginning to European empires/interaction with the rest of the world
voyages of discovery


1466 - 1536

most famous N humanist, upset w/ corruption of cath ch.
- colloquies (little sayings)

Ferdinand/ Isabella

1469 - 1516
  • united Castile and Aragon; consolidated Spain
    • secured their borders, ventured abroad militarily
    • Inquisition; Christianized the whole of Spain
    • promoted overseas exploration (Christopher Columbus)

Columbian Exchange

  • euro/american exchange: europeans bring war + disease to americas, europeans bring new food (corn, potatoes) back to euro
  • decrease in americas pop b/c of disease
  • poatoes in euro = rise in pop

Columbus/ start of the spanish empire


comprised territories and colonies administered by the Spanish Crown in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania

Italy's decline

1494 - 1527

protestant reformation

1517 - 1648

contibuted to creation of protestantism, introduced idea of questioning authority (ie rom cath church)

german pesant revolts

1524 - 1525

luthers decision to help end revolts ended the reformation as a social and moral force in history, luther lost support b/c didnt support peasants

henry VIII

1529 - 1553
  • act of supremacy made henry VIII (not pope) head of Ch in eng
  • english reformation events that led to Eng breaking away from cath ch

William of Orange (the silent)

1533 - 1584
  • main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish

Jesuits, society of Jesus - Ignatius of Loyola


felt they were placed together by Christ, had echoes of military as well as discipleship

council of trent

1545 - 1563

Cath/Counter ref
- defined Church teachings, issued numerous reform decrees for cath church

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558
  • restored Cath doctrine + practice to Eng after Edward

Elizabeth I of England

1558 - 1603
  • politique, merged centralized episcopal system w/ broadly defined prot doctrine + trad Cath ritual = Anglican church
  • successful domestic + foreign policy
  • Thirty Nine Articles: official statement of beliefs of ch of Eng; established more modern form of prot
  • a.d, left Eng strong + ready to expand to global empire

Fr religious wars

1562 - 1598

huguenots, st bartholomews day massacre, calvinists came to appreciate need for active defense of religious rights
edict of nantes

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1598

defeat of Armada by eng gave heart to Protestant resistance, spain lost naval/imperial dominance to fr, dutch, + Eng

Mary Stuart executed

7 February 1587

fled to england, after 18 yrs Mary found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth + was executed

Henry IV (france)

1589 - 1610
  • Edict of Nantes
  • "Paris is worth a mass"

Edict of Nantes

  • recognised Prot; established Cath as official relig of fr (in order to hold gov post, be successful, etc, you must be offical/ legal relig; Cath)

Louis XIII r. (Richelieu)

27 September 1601 - 14 May 1643

leaned heavily on Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu to govern kingdom
L'Académie française (the Fr Academy) established by Card Richelieu

James I of england

1603 - 1625

believed in divine right of kings, in place of Parl revenues, levyed impositions

Louis XIII: r (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

as result of Richelieu, Louis XIII bec. one of 1st examples of an absolute monarch

henry IV (of navarre) (fr) , assasinated


set foundation for absolute monarchs

The Thirty Years war (Treaty of Westphalia)

1618 - 1648
  • initially, fought as relig war bet Prots and Caths in HRE, disputes over internal politics + balance of power w/in played a sig. part.
  • developed into more general conflict involving most of the great powers
  • ended by the treaty of Westphalia

Charles I (England)

27 March 1625 - 1649

attempting to obtain royal revenue, Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles believed was divinely ordained
rump parliament executed him in 1649

Charles II

29 May 1630 - 6 February 1685

Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester Charles fled to mainland Euro
- Cromwell bec virtual dictator of Eng, Scot + Irel.
- Charles - next nine years = exile

Louis XIV r. personal rule

5 September 1638 - 1 September 1715

sought to eliminate remnants of feudalism in Fr,]
- compelled many members of nobility to inhabit Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy,
- became one of Fr history's most pwrful monarchcs

Long Parliament / short Parliament

13 April 1640 - 1651

Eng. civil war, long Parl - meets for 20 years
short parl = few months
after eng civil war, Parliament made sure they forced king + them to meet regularily

english civil war

1642 - 1649

helped establish constitutional monarchy in england
—Stuarts(James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II), Cromwell, Puritan Republic(run by Cromwell, basically a dictatorship)

Mazarin: (Minority)

December 5, 1642 - March 9, 1661

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

rebellions of fr nobles b/c of centralizing policies of Richelieu and then of Mazarin

Royal society of London (founded)

November 1660

learned society for science, groups of physicians and natural philosophers

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725
  • westernizer + expander
  • remakes Russia in image of West (st. Petersburg)

James II (england)

1685 - 1688

increasingly opposed for being pro-Fr + pro-Catholic, + wanting to be absolute monarch
- produced Catholic heir, leading nobles - William III of Orange (his son-in-law and nephew) invasion army from the Netherlands

Fredrick Wilhelm r. Prussian Militarism

14 August 1688 - 31 May 1740

known as the soldier-king, improved + strengthened Prussia's military service + country

end of the witch hunts

  • emergence of more scientific view made it so tht spoken 'curses' of witches were just words
  • medical advances got rid of things tht drove witch panics

The Great Northern war: russia/sweden

1700 - 1721

Peter the great (russia) against sweden (gains territory tht becomes st. petersburg)

Agricultural Revolution

1701 - 1800
  • beg in the low countries (Neth)
  • new crops, new methods enclosure method - fencing of lands into block fields by brit landlords to increase production + achieve greater commerical profits, intro to capitalistic attiude
  • led to pop growth + new demands on all resources
  • jethro Tull - wheat drill
  • charles turnip townsend - crop rotation
  • bakewell - more productive methods of animal breeding

war of spanish succession

1701 - 1714

louis XIV tries to put heir on spanish throne

Act of settlement (GB)


act of Parl, passed b/c British monarchs didnt have heirs, House of Hanover inherited throne

Death of William III of England


brought an end to Dutch House of Orange

Decline of the Netherlands


neth economy beg to decline, slowly bec 2nd as maj world power

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:

1712 - 1778

Emile = treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship
social contract = helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe, esp in France, argued against idea tht monarchs had divine right to rule; only the people, in form of the sovereign, have that right

Pragmatic Sanction


Charles VI = weak king, gives concessions to nobles in order for daughter to reign (maria theresa)

Age of Mercantilism


econ theory tht there is limited nat resources, so export more than import (almost constant state of war/conflict)

Treaty of Utrecht

April 1713

treaties between several European states helped end War of Spanish succession

Death of Louis XIV

1 September 1715
  • after his death, nobles of fr didn't know how to manage country finances b/c had been at Versailles

Mississippi Bubble


fr, in attempt tp get out of debt, sold bonds whoch didnt = amount of money they actually had, econ crisis (bubble = pop)

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

4 April 1721 - 11 February 1742

first prime minister of GB

Catherine the Great

1729 - 1796

westernizer, considered en. despot, called great b/c got warm water port along Black sea

War of Jenkins ear

1739 - 1748

opportunity for fr + eng to fight until 1815

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

imediately invade Austria b/c of maria teresa's ascention to throne, GB + Austria vs. Fr + Prussia

Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia) r.

31 May 1740 - 17 August 1786
  • enlightened despot
  • modernized Prussian bureaucracy + civil service,
  • promoted religious tolerance thru realm
  • patronized the arts and philosophers

Maria Theresa

20 October 1740 - 1780
  • financial and educational reforms, promoted commerce +development of agriculture, reorganised Austria's military,
  • refused to allow relig toleration

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Spinning Jenny - mass produce thread to meet needs of weavers
Water Frame - produce more durable cotton fabric, led to shift in production of cotton textiles form households to factories

Steam Engine - 1st steady + essentially unlimited source of unanimate pwr, made possible the comb. of ubanization + industrialization

Seven Years War (Treaty of Paris)

1754 - 1763
  • prussia vs. fr + austria vs. GB
  • ended by the Treaty of Paris

Diplomatic Revolution


reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances
GB + Austria vs Fr + Prussia ------> Fr + Austria vs GB + Prussia

Joseph II (Austria)

1765 - 1790
  • son of maria theresa
  • one of the enlightened despots
  • freed the serfs, + other En. social forms

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

american colonies rebelled against rule of GB

Tennis Court Oath

June 20 1789

members of the third estate, meet in tennis court + declare they will create constitution for fr

March of the Fishwives

October 6 1789

angry, hungry fishwives storm Versailles, make king and fam move to paris so they can keep eye on him

thinkers, authors/books, ideas.. individuals


1265 - 1321

divine comedy


1304 - 1374
  • "father of humanism"


1313 - 1375


Printing Press - Guttenberg


The Prince: Machiavelli


promoted ruthless political expediency

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

  • offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

constructed scientific instruments; accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations


1564 - 1616
  • immensely popular plays
    • struck universal human themes (wrote histories, comedies, tragedies)
    • wrote in English rather than Latin *consolidated english language

Kepler: The new astronomy

1571 - 1630

laws of planetary motion - eliptical, not circular orbits, + sun centered universe

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1605 - 1615

considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age; themes like intertextuality, realism, metatheatre and literary representation

Bacon: Novum Organum


empirical investigation will get rid of old scientific ideas, lead to greater understanding of the world and heavens

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662
  • reason should drive ppl to faith in God + reliance on divine grace
  • "leap of faith" more imp. in relig matters than science + reason

Locke: Treatises on Gov’t (1st & 2nd)

29 August 1632 - 28 October 1704

Descartes: Discourse on Method


"I think, therefore I am"
- started line of reasoning by doubting everything, as to assess the world from a fresh perspective w/o preconceived notions

Hobbes: Leviathan


civil war and situations identified with a state of nature could only be averted by strong central government.

Hobbes: Leviathan

  • argues for social contract + rule by absolute sovereign
  • civil war and situations identified w/ state of nature + Bellum omnium contra omnes ("the war of all against all") only could be averted by strong central gov

newton:principia mathematica


principle of inertia, gravity exerted in all physical obj, explains orderly rthr thn chaotic planetary

Locke: two treatises of gov't

  • first treatise -attacks patriarchal ism
  • second treatise - outlines his ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory

Voltaire- Candide


satire of optimistic views of life (Leibnizian)

Smith - wealth of nations


introduced idea of capitalism


1998 - 12/21/12

French Revolution

Napoleon - coup Brumaire

15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821
  • coup Brumaire = coup d'état by which Nap. overthrew fr directory
  • raised into En ideals
  • preserves many goals of fr rev, provides order, makes peace w/ cath ch.
  • concordat of 1801 Code Napoleon - writes down laws, spreads

Estates General called/ meets

  • kIng forced to call EG b/c short term credit wasnt being granted

Great Fear

  • Panic caused by rumors spreading thru countryside, peasants refuse to pay feudal dues + destroy records + legal docs

Storming of the Bastille

14 July 1789
  • Parisian mob wants to free polit prisioners in Bastille
  • beg of fr rev

nobles renounce feudal priv

4 August 1789

abolished game-laws, seigneurial courts,purchase and sale of ch offices, favoritism in taxation, unmerited pensions, etc

Rights of Man and Citizen

august 27 1789
  • men, not women, who paid a certain amount of money to the gov were allowed to vote/ were citezens
  • sparked wollstonecraft's vindication of the rights of woman

Civil Const of Clergy

12 July 1790

subordinated cath ch. to Fr gov, made clergy swear loyalty to fr gov,

Legislative Assembly meets

  • met under Const. of 1791, = Nat Const. Assembly as whole

Convention meets - monarch abolished

1791 - 1792

Wollstonecraft - Vind. of Rts of women


women are not naturally inferior to men, appear to be b/c they lack edu.

Cult of Reason

1792 - 28 March 1794
  • belif system established on atheism in fr, intended as replacement for christ. during fr Rev

War w/ Austria

20 April 1792

Tuileries Stormed - king captive

10 August 1792

30,000 citizens storm Tuileries palace, force the king come w/ them as political prisoner in Paris

Louis XVI executed

jan 21 1793
  • tried for treason
  • was peoples way of saying monarch was no longer in power
  • used guillotine = new 'humane' execution form

Levee en Masse

Aug 23 1793
  • all men able to fight drafted to army, made fr army # over a million, needed draft b/c were in war w/ more thn one country at once

Reign of Terror

5 September 1793 - 28 July 1794

period of violence, marked by mass execution of 'enemies of the revolution'

Danton executed

april 6 1794

'counter revolutionary' b/c didnt like what Commitee of Pub. Safety was doing

Cult of the supreme being

7 May 1794 - 28 July 1794
  • form of deism established in fr by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution
  • contributed Thermidorian reaction + downfall of Robespierre

Fall of Robespierre

July 27 1794
  • beheaded b/c was too extreme, justified 'reign of terror'

The Directory

1795 - 1799
  • executive body of 5 selected from the council of 500

Constitution of the year III - the Directory Established

August 22 1795 - 9 November 1799

established liberal republic (tax based); bicameral legislature, and a five-man Directory