United States History Midterm


Iroquis Confederacy


The Iroquis Confederacy was a group formed in the 15th century in Northeastern North America. Each nation was said to occupy a separate hearth but acknowledge a common mother. Women played more vital roles in the confederacy. They suppressed violence from within, but encouraged it against other tribes. The Confederacy learned to fish, farm, trade, and prosper. Helped the English in the Chesapeake, but ties severed and tensions grew and held.
-Called the Haudenaunee



-Another major language group in the Northeast
-Along Great Lakes, northern New England, Atlantic Coast

La reconquista


To get all the Muslims out of Spain

-to prove Catholocism you had to bring pigs to prove that you did not lie about being Catholic (compared to Muslim or Jew)



Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World
-From Spain, and sent by Ferdinand and Isabella

Why: Gold, labor, goods/supplies, competition with other European nations, to convert to Catholocism

Isabella's Pigs


-food source to keep conquistador's alive & able to continue expanding
-to have to not share with the Indians

Isabella's Pigs is a story set in the 15th century in the New World. At the time of this voyage, la reconquista was occuring in Spain. Therefore, all Muslims were trying to escape Spain to the New World. The pigs proved Catholicism due to Muslims being frobidden to eat them, and allowed the people to go on the voyage. Once in the New World, the pigs proved to be very fertile and allowed for much food, thus helping the colonists to survive the first years and continue expanding. Disease from the pigs struck the antive populationsand weakened them.

-religious symbol: God's will expressed in the New World (proving they are Catholic)

-this was the second voyage to the New world



Who: John Calvin's followers from France, mostly urban middle class, but some nobility

The Huguenots were Protestants from France in the 16th century. To escape religious oppression, they traveled to the New World and created Fort Caroline on their second attempt at a colony. Spain was sent to destroy the Huguenots. Although Fort Caroline was destroyed the Huguenots symbolized the move across the Atlantic due to social and economic changes. The Huguenots defeat was the begginning of the conflict between France and England.

Martin Luther and Protestantism


John Calvin is his student in these endeavors

Church of England


-King Henry VIII's separate church of England (Henry was the head)
-Henry VIII wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon and pope refuses. So Henry makes own church where divorce is okay

The Church of England was a church formed by King Henry VIII in 1534 in Britain. This church was formed due to the pope refusing to grant a divorce. Therefore, King Henry created a church that allowed divorce and was separate of the other one. This showed the defiance of the King at the time of the Protestant Reformation. This church only ignited more flames, and later the dispute gave way to more conflict throughout the century and the rulers.

Bloody Mary

1553 - 1558

To return England to Catholocism

Elizabeth I in Ireland


Huguenots going to New World


French naval officer Jean Ribault & 150 Normandy Huguenots tried to set up camp at present day Beaufort, South Carolina

Fort Caroline


Jean Ribault tried again & established Fort Caroline (in Florida)

Spanish went to diminish Fort Caroline


Philip of Spain send to destory Fort Caroline and destory all French and form St. Augustine

Humphrey Gilbert attempts to plant a colony in Newfoundland


Walter Raliegh's colony on Roanoke Island

1584 - 1587

English going to New World and establishing Roanoke

English defeat Spanish armada




-Followers of John Calvin
-Wished to purify and reform the English church from within
-Be a good example of what needed to be changed

The Puritans were a religious group founded in 1590 in England. The Puritans wanted to purify the church from within, but couldn't execute this in England. Therefore, created the Massachusetts Bay Company and took 200 settlers and traveled to the New World. Once in Massachusetts, the Puritans would not allow others to speak up against the religion or question it. This symbolized the hypocrisy of the whole movement. This laid the foundation for the Salem Witch Trials.

The Virginia Company


Who: Group of London investors
-Sent a small convoy of vessels to the Chesapeake Bay and built a fort (Jamestown)

1609-1610: Starvation
-Sent more men, women, and livestock

-tobacco provided them with the first returns on its investments

Motive for investment: gold/money

The Virginia Company was a group of London investers formed in 1607 in England. This group sponsered mulitple voyages to the New World, including the creation of Jamestown and sending the first Pilgrims. These Pilgrims then created the Mayflower Compact, which proved to to be the first official document of the New World. The Virginia Company continued their investments and came out with a tobacco and healthy relationship with the Indians.

House of Burgesses


Who: Elected representatives of the colony
Where: Virginia
-only land owning men

The House of Burgesses was a legislature formed in 1619 in Virginia. The legislature consisted of elected representatives from the colony. The was Virginia's first elected assembly. However, only land-holding men and male members of the church would be elected. At the time, anyone who spoke agaisnt this, would be banished. Thus, more colonies were formed and the idea of self-government bloomed for years to come.

Mayflower Compact


An agreement by which all the male memebers of the Pilgrims did have a say in decisions
Where: Plymouth
-First document of self-government in North America

The Mayflower Compact was the first document of self-government in 1620 in North America. The first Pilgrims agreed upon this document after landing at Plymouth. This document proved at the time that an agreement could be reached within a sself-governed community. Thus, the consesus reached embodied that when the Declaration of Independence was written, that self-government would be sustainable.



-Mayflower Compact
-Virginia Company

Massachusetts Bay Colony


-Made by Puritans
-Royal Charter

-Massachusetts Bay Company & took 200 settlers & left for North America to protect their congregations
-Emigrated to practice their variety of Christianity

Roger Williams


Who: minister in Salem
Where: Salem, Massachusetts
-Banished from Massachusetts for advocating religious tolerance
-With a group of followers, immigrated to the country surronding Narragansett Bay
-To protect the colony: won charters in 1644 and 1663, establishing the independent the colony of Rhode Island

Roger Williams was a minister in 1636 in Salem, Massachusetts. Roger, as well as many others, became aware of the no religious tolerance policy of Massachusetts. Roger choose to speak out and advocate for religious tolerance. In return, Roger was banished. Roger's attempt prompted others to do the same, and although they were all banished, a new colony formed. Over the course of years, Roger aquired royal charters and developed Rhode Island.



Tejanos were small farmers in the 1710's in Texas. The small farmers and common laborers led hardcrabble frontier lives. Maintained their ranchos & missions mostly in the South. Tejanos paired with the Americans in the Alamo for Texas independence. Due to the independence, Texas could become apart of the U.S.

The Great Awakening


-Movement of religious revival
-More people went to church
-Rise of itinerant preachers
-Saying you can be religious at home, no need to go to church regularly or pray all the time
-A relationship with God that is not through church heirarchy

The Albany Conference of 1754


Where: Albany, New York
Who: Between British & leaders of the Iroquios Confederacy
What: A meeting that attempted to confront & control the continuing conflict with New France & the Indians of the interior
-As negotiations began, real-estate bribing was occuring
-made Iroquois delegation walk out of the conference, refusing to allign with British
-The absence of cooperation would prove one of the greatest weaknessess during the subsequent war with the French

Proclamation of 1763


After war, Britain wants to give land to Indians
-angers colonists because they helped most with the war and felt they deserved it

Sugar Act


-Prime Minister George Greenville presented it
What: placed a tariff on sugar imported into the colonies
Why: the cost of maintaining 10,000 troops and the debt from the war piled up
-Decided to obtain the needed revenue from the American colonists
-threat to merchant and artisan livelihood
-sparked public protest (especially Boston residents)

The Sugar Act was a law passed by Parliment in 1764 in England. The law was subjected to the colonies only. In the law, colonists must pay tariffs on sugar imported goods. Parliment implemented this law to attempt to pay off war debt. However, this sparked non-importation by the colonists and protets began. Without representation, and eventually feelings of wanting virtual representation.

Stamp Act


Why: for money
-require the purchase of specialty embossed paper for all newspapers, legal documents, licenses, insurance policies, ships' papers, even dice& playing cards

-effected every colonial resident

Virtual Representation


The notion that parlimentary members represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not those of the particular district that elected them
-if you don't have direct representation, then you have representation that represents your interests

-British argue that colonists were still under Parliments acts because of this

Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions


-life, liberty, & property
-taxation without representation
-the people who went to America & brought with them should have same rights as in Great Britian
-everyone after the first colonists should still have the same rights as Great Britain
-they brought with them the rights & all born would still have rights as if born in Great Britain
-if they don't decide on taxes themselves or son't have a representation to do it fo rthem, the taxes won't be fair
-No one gave up any rights of a G.B. citizen, so why are they treated as if they have none



-boycott of certain English imports
-spread to port towns

-Started after Sugar Act

James Otis- Massachusetts Lawyer
"to his life, his liberty, and his property'
"taxation without representation is tyranny"



-British colonists who opposed independence from Britain

-fear of punishment
-enjoy the king
-Britain is powerful
-royally appointed
-government runs fine
-protection/defense against Native Americans and slaves

Continental Currency

1770 - 1781

-Financed the revolution
-national currency, issued by Congress to pay off war debts
-States created their own currency with a face value of $200 million which caused the rapid depreciation of Continental currency

1781: ceased to circulate

ST: creates national currency that becomes worthless
LT: begins debt that will lead to economic depression

"Unthinking many"


-need for a balanced government
-should be checked by strong executive upper house
-greatest danger: majority tyranny
-uneducated shouldn't be trusted with power

ST/LT: Set foundation/backgroundfor electoral college

Tensions between..
Who should have the power?
1) in the hands of the people
2) in the government

The Boston Tea Party

Dec. 16,1773

Who: 50 or 60 men dressed as Indians
What: boarded English ships and dumped 45-tons of tea
Why: to show the British they don't want taxation without representation

infuritated British and made them think about how to punish the rebellious Bostonians

The Boston Tea Party was a riot of Boston colonists on Decemeber 16, 1773 in Boston, Massachusetts. The colonists dressed as Indians, boarded English ships, and dumped tea overboard. The reasoning for this action was due to Parliments irrational taxes on the colonists. Additionally, the colonists wanted virtual representation, and Parliment was declining. Parliment repealed the Stamp act and reduced the Sugar Act, but made the Declaratory Act.

Common Sense


Who: Thomas Paine
What: declares that the decision to leave Britain is obvious
-urging readers to have common sense
-Blaming King George III for the problems

-can't blame Parliment because it is a representative body, and that is what they want (hypocritical)

-Helps the colonists move away from motherland and be prepared for revolution

First Continental Congress

Sep. 1774

Where: Philadelphia
Who: delegates representing the colonies
What: delegates trying to resolve the problems
-"declaration and resolves": colonists should have the rights of English citizens as if they lived in Great Britain
--13 Acts of Parliments, passed since 1763, were declared in violation of these rights
-nonimportation, nonconsumption, and prohibition on export of colonial commodies to Britain or its other colonies

-Created the "Committees od Observation and Safety"

-Consensus, that ultimately, unless these was liberty, then there would be death

Lexington and Concord

April 1775

1774: General Gage sent troops to destroy colonial gunpowder and arms
-"Minutemen" were created, and were to be ready for battle at a moments notice

-Stalemate continued through fall and winter and British monarch George III believed it was time for war
-Gage sent 100 troops to Concord (Paul Revere and William Dawes alerted the militia)
-Halfway to Concord, at Lexington, 70 militia men met the British in town
--No order to shoot, but shots rang out, 8 Americans killed, 10 wounded

-Militia met at Concord bridge and opened fire
--British outnumbered, immediately returned to Boston (by the time they got there, 73 killed, 202 wounded)

first battles for independence

Lexington and Concord were battles fought between the British soldiers in the colonies and the colonists in 1775 in Lexington and Concord. General Gage of Britain aquired knowledge of colonists harboring weapons, and sent out to destroy it. In Lexington, Gage's troops defeated the colonists. Much to his dismay, when arriving in Concord, the colonists outnumbered the British, and upon returning, suffered a tremendous loss. this triggered Britain to send reinforcements, and perked their senses to the possibility of war. These were known as the first battles that were to be fought in the war to come between Britain and America.

Second Continental Congress

May 10,1775

Where: Philadelphia
Who: includes representatives from 12 of the British colonies, few conservatives or Loyalists
--Georgia finally sent delelgates

-May 15: resolved to put colonies in a state of defense
-John Adams suggests the Continental Army
-June 15: Thomas Jefferson and John Adams nominate a man from the South, George Washington, to be commander in chief

Olive Branch Petition

July 5, 1775

Summer 1775, began to move cautiously toward independence

-professed attachment to King George and begged for accomodation (less hostility)

Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms

July 6, 1775

resolving "to die freemen rather than to live like slaves"

The people, The Best Governers


What: New England pamphlet

-ideal government was community/town meeting
-people set their own tax rates, created militia, controlled schools/churches, regulate local economy

ST: divided states
LT: Set Constitutions that would become the real Constitution

-14 states adopted Constitutions which reflected particular political agreements

Declaratory Act


LAw passed to accompany repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliment had the authority to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
-Due to revolts and having to repeal the Acts
-affirming its full authority to make laws binding the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
-signaled that the conflict between the mother country & the colonies had not been resolved, but merely postponed

Parliment repealed Stamp Act and reduced the duties under the Sugar Act

March 1776

Declaration of Rights

June 1776

-soverignty resided in the people
-government was the servant to the people, & the people has the "right to reform, alter, or abolish" that government
-guarantees of due process & trial by jury in criminal prosecutions, as well as prohibitions against excessive bail & "cruel & unusual punishment"
-freedom of press
-"free excercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience"
--Important precedents of the Bill of Rights
--First ten admentments of Consitution

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776

-begins with stating that they must explain themselves before breaking free
-form a governent to protect your life, liberty, and happiness & if it doesn't, it is your right to destory it & create one that does
-becasue of the lists of causes & the rules of nature, they should be free

-we are already separate because of what you have done

Articles of Confederation


What: due that defined how the government would work
-outlined government: single vote Congress, delegate term (3 years), president term (1 year)
-Congress could not tax: which did not generate revenue
-delegates favored a loose union verse a strong, central government
-created national assembly: Congress
Congress: foreign affairs, matters of war and peace, armed forces, raise loans, issue credit, regulate trade with Indians, sovereignty of individual states

-flaws: big vs. small states, no revenue, not enough time in office

ST: first national government document
LT: Set some foundations for Constitution/ how U.S. government would work
-created land system
-also set foundation of national bureaucracy

Economic Depression


-shortage of goods because of British blockade
-demand of supplies by army/militia
-flood of paper currency
--very bad inflation

Land Ordinance of 1785


Survey/sale of Western lands

Annapolis Convention


-To address economic problems such as depression, inflation, and their weak government
-Decide on wanting to revise the Articles

-agree to meet in Philadelphia

Shays' Rebellion

August 1786 - January 1787

-hit by economic depression through taxes
-ask state for help, but rejected
-march on courts, shut everything down
-Shut down courts
-farmers opposing the government
-ended when a militia shut it down in 1787
-most prominent among protests, uprisings, revolts

-seeking a political solution to an economic problem

ST: the government was not able to offer a political solution to an economic problem

Shays' Rebellion was a march on courts in Massachusetts on August 29, 1786. This shut all the courts down. The march occured because America was hit by an economic depression and the government wanted farmers/debtors to pay private debt and public taxes. The citizens asked the state for help, but were rejected. They would seeking a political solution to an economic problem, and the government could not give them one. Thus uprising, due to the economic crisis, led to the Consitutional Convention, which would lay the groundwork for the longest-lived democratic republic in the world.

Northwest Ordinance


-Congress created government for territory north of Ohio where slavery was prohibited
--appointed governor & court of judges
--people in the west became unhappy because they were controlled by people so far away who did not understand them

ST: Americans did not feel represented
LT: The need for a strong, central government was felt

The Great Compromise


-Proportional population in house, equal votes in Senate
-Strong national government & providing big role for states
-North wanted the government to have power to regulate trade with Indian/foreign powers
-South wanted fugitive slaves returned (3/5 rule)
-electoral votes for president, public too "misinformed"

-Bicameral legislation
--House: elected, population based
--Senate: appointed, equal
-government can regulate commerce

-Judiciary: determines whether laws are constitutional
-Executive: elected through electoral college voters indirectly

Philadelphia Convention/Constitutional Convention


-Washington chaired the meeting
-merchants, bankers, planters want a strong government so that power will not spread out because they are more wealthy
-cannot decide how much government they want

Virginia Plan:
-bicameral legislation
--House: elected based on population
--Senate: appointed by state
--Power to veto
--Power over House and Senate

New Jersey Plan:
-Unicameral legislation
--One Congress for all
--Equal representation in government for all states

-Slaves count for number of representatives, but not for taxes
-want to be sure that fugitives are returned after they run away

-Wants government to regulate trade



Supporters of new Consitution

The three-fifths Rule


Slaves count 3/5 for representation & tax purposes



-critics of new Consitution
-not a unified group
-most believed gave too much power to the central government, weakening the autonomy of local communities & states

Samuel Slatter


-disguised himself as a farm laborer & slipped out of England
-Providence, Rhode Island: met up with Moses Brown & William Almy
--helped them by building copies of the latest British machinery

*-created Slater Mill: most advanced cotton mill in America

Samuel Slater was a European who came to America in 1789. He met up with Moses Brown and William Almy in Rhode Island. He helped Brown and Almy by building copies of the latest British machinery. He created Slater Mill, which was the most advanced mill in America. Samuel Slater began the revolutionized industrial theme that quickly hit America.

Judicial Review


Judiciary Act of 1789 established the Principal of federal judicial review of state legislation

Judiciary Act of 1789


-came from first session of Congress
-empowered Congress to set the number of justices on the Supreme Court & create a system of federal courts
-established a High Court of Six justices (increased to nine in 1869) and established circuit & district federal courts
-gave federal courts limited original jurisdiction

Upper South


Deleware, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia. & Tennessee
-became slave traders
-sold their slaves to meet the demand for labor in the Old South



-applied to independent farmers of the South
-most lived on family-sized farms
-Southerners themselves referred to them as "plain folk"
-sometimes ownded a few slaves BUT usually they & their families worked their land by themselves
-northwestern georgia
-raised enough cotton every year to bring in a little cash
-60 % owned own farms
-grew enough vegtables to feed their families
-family is the mainstay of community
-got help by bartering (slaves loaned)

--undermind slavery
-there were whites in the South that didn't own slaves

Paternalistic Idealogy


-to jusitfy their rigorous insistence on the master-slave relationship
-each plantation was a family composed of both black and white
-the master, as head of the plantation, was head of the family, & the mistress was his "helpmate"
-the master was obligated to provide for all his family, both blacks and whites, & to treat them with humanity
-In return, slaves were to work properly & do as they were told, as children would

--Convinced of their own benevolence, slave owners expected not only obedience but also gratitude from all members of their great "families"

Slave Society


due to the centrality of slavery to the economy and the need to keep slaves under firm control South became this

that one particular form of social relationship, that of master and slave, became the model for all relationships
-including personal interactions between white husbands and wives as well as interactions in politics & at work

Second Great Awakening



-supplanted the orderly & intellectual Puritan religion of early New England
-The new evangelical religious spirit, which stressed the achievement of salvation through personal faith, was more democratic & more enthusiastic than the earlier faith
-the concept of original sin, the cornerstone of Puritan belief, was replaced by the optimistic belief that a willingness to be saved was enough to ensure salvation
-Conversion & repentance were no longer private, because they now took place in huge revival meetings in which an entire congregation focused on the sinners about to be saved & where group support actively encouraged individual conversion
-The converted bore a heavy personal responsibility to demonstrate their faith in their own daily lives through morally respectable behavior
*-the new religious feeling fostered individualism & self-discipline
-great intial success on the western frontier in the 1790s, but by the 1820s evangelical religion was reaching a new audience: the people whose lives were being changed by the market revolution & who needed help in adjusting to the demands made by the economic conditions

-reached poor & rich
-middle class women
-men found that evangelism's stress on self-discipline & individual achievement helped them adjust to new business conditions
*- because achievement depended on individual character, each worker was responsible for making his own way

-Evangelical religion was fundamental to social reform
--large cities had to make large scale provisions for social misfits & that insitutional rather than private efforts were needed
-belief in basic goodness of human nature
-developing individual self discipline to imposing discpline on others

-became deeply involved in reform moverments through their churches
-had to reform children from birth
-began to play central role in child rearing
-dominant in primary school teaching
---created the first real carreer opportunity

Indian Intercourse Act


U.S. will make treaties with Indians in order to take thier land

Bank of the United States


Who: Hamilton Proposed it and Washington signed it
What: a public corporation funded by private capitol & would serve as the depository of government funds & the fiscal agent to the treasury

Bill of Rights


-Anti-Federalist delegates proposed over 200 potential admendments protecting the rights of the people against the power of the central government
-James Madison turned into propsals
-Congress approved 12 & 10 were ratifies

-prohibited Congress from establishing an official religion & provide for the freedom of assembly
-ensured freedom of speech, a free press, & the right to petition
-right to bear arms, limit government power to quarter troops into private homes
-restrain government from unreasonable searches or seizures; garunteed the traditional legal rights under the common law, including prohibition of double jeopordy, the right not to be compelled to tesity against oneself
-due process of law before life, liberty, or property could be taken away
-unenumerated rights of the people were protected, 7 the powers not delegated to the federal government were resolved to the states

Cotton Gin


Who: Eli Whitney & Catherine Greene
-made it possible to clean more than 50 pounds of cotton a day
-made cloth growing profitable

-Soon large and small planters in inland regions of Georgia & South Carolina had begun to grow cotton
-Southerners & their slaves flooded into western Georgia, Alabama, & Mississippi

-expansion od cotton = expansion of slavery

  • Southern slavery financed northern industiral development in the 19th century -the ability for these factories to produce unprecedented amounts of cotton cloth revolutionized the world economy

Election of 1800


Federalist: John Adams (Massachusetts) with Charles Contworth Pinky (South Carolina)
Democratic-Republicans: Thomas Jefferson (Virginia) with Aaron Burr (New York)

-GOAL: to make it balanced (North & South)
-Jefferson vs. Burr

Jefferson Wins: belief switches and no war

1796: Adams (President) & Jefferson (Vice)

Democratic-Republican Party


-Jefferson's Supporters
-traditional agrarian purity, or liberty & states rights
-less central government power/ limiting federal power
-sympathetic to French Revolution
-hostile to Britain
Southern planters, northern farmers

-a state in which citizens can vote & elect representatives

Federalist Party


-Supporters of Hamilton
-Conservative: war
-In Congress: attempted to block negotiations with France
--Adams stopped the conflict
-Divided over foreign policy, strong central government & public order
-trade, capitolist economy
-national power over state
-urban-commercial economy

Marbury vs. Madison


Who: William Marbury sueing James Madison
-Marbury and 3 others sued Madison to recieve their commissions for their offices
-before the case came to trial, Congress, controlled by Jeffersonian republicans, repealed the acts
--Prvoked a landamrk decision from Supreme Court
-Chief justice John Marshall ruled that Marbury was entitled to his commission, but that the Supreme Court did not have the power to force the executive branch to give it to him

--Established the principle that only the federal judiciary could :say what the law is", thus unequivocally defending the independence of the judiciary &the principle of judicial review

--Vital step in realizing the three way balance of power amoung the branches of federal government
---Executive (president)
---Legislative (Congress)
---Judiciary (Courts)

Marshall led the Supreme Court favoring federal government over state government
--became a powerful, nationalizing force

The Louisiana Purchase

April 1803

What: Napoleon/France sold Louisianna to America
Where: In Paris they agreed
-Spanish closed Mississippi ports to American shippers
--Jefferson asked Robert Livingston, ambassador to France, to try to buy New Orleans & the surrounding area
-----At first, no; then Napoleon's plan to take Haiti failed & agreed to sell Louisianns for 15 million

-largest peaceful aquisition of territory in U.S. history

-Consitution did not authorize the President to purchase territory, & Jefferson always insisted on limited executive rights
--Jefferson siad, expansion was essential to liberty

-African American's & Indians did not share in his "empire of liberty"
--Their destruction increased

Nonimportation Act


An Attempt to keep neutrality in the War of 1812

Embargo Act

December 1807

Who: Jefferson imposed it
What: Forbade American ships from sailing to any foreign port, therby cutting off all exports as well as imports
-meant to force both British & France to recognize neural rights by depriving them of American shipped raw materials

-disaster for American trade
--Commerce of the new nation came to a standstill
--exports fell sharply, & the new nations was driven into a deep depression
--smuggling flourished

-Jefferson ended his second term, acknowledging his failure of "peaceable coercion"
-March 1809, Congress admitted failure & the Embargo Act was repealed

The National Road


-stretching from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
-Almost at the Mississippi River, by 1839, tied the East and West together
-helped foster a national community

The National Road was a road funded by the government in 1808 in America. The National Road stretched from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. By the time the road was almost at the Mississippi river, it tied the East and West together. It helped foster a national community. The creation of the National Road and other roads led to the beginning of water-way travel.

Free Labor


-No longer part of a settled, orderly, & familiar community (negative)
-Now free to labor whenever they could, at whatever wages their skills or their bargaining power could command 9positive)
-hard work, discipline
-individual economic choice

Free labor was a new way of work that came about in the early 1800's in America. Free labor allowed people to labor wherever they could, at whatever wages their skills or their bargaining could command. Now people could work at their actual skill level. Free labor also allowed for individual economic choice; the people were worth only as much as their skill would allow. Free labor showed a sign of industrializition; people earning wages. Free labor began a dispute between the North and South that contained through the 1800's.

War of 1812


-France vs. Britain at first
-America takes neutrality (Embargo Act)
-Britain does not respect American independence so America goes to war

-American army & navy, small & weak due to Jefferson's economizing
-British quickly established a strong blockade, harrassing coastal shapping along Atlantic & attacking coastal settlements at will
-British burned Washington in summer of 1814, forcing President & Congress to flee
-American frigate destroyed 2 British men-of-war

Lowell Mills


Where: Boston, Massachusetts
Who: Francis Cabot Lowell
-toured British textiles & sketched machines
-returned to U.S. & worked with Paul Moody (mechanic) to improve the British models
-made the machinery for spinning cloth more efficient
-made the power loom
*-now all aspects of the textile manufacture could be gathered together in the same factory
*-the efficiency allowed them to survive the British competition following the war of 1812

-Six mills & company housing for all workers
Who worked there: single, young female workers, from farm families
--earning a wage to give back to family
--send women because of economic troubles
--*model town: plenty of churches, live with other women, lots of work opportunity
----appeals to families to send their daughters to

Lowell Mills were mills created by Francis Cabot Lowell in 1814 in Boston. Francis toured Britain textiles, sketched the machines, and paired up with Paul Moody to improve the British models. He made the machinery for spinning cotton more efficient, created the power loom, and allowed for all aspects of textile manufacturing to be gathered together in the same factory. The profits made and the efficiency allowed the mills to survive the hardships of the War of 1812. There was company housing, all same-sex, and many churches, which appealed to families by seeming like a model town to send their daughters to. Lowell Mills was a prime example of industrialization and what was to come with factories.

The Hartford Convention


Where: Hartford, Conneticut
Who: Federalist representatives from the 5 New England states met to discuss their grievances
-insisted that a state had the right "to interpose its authority" to protect its citizens against unconsitutional federal laws"

-we have the right to declare a law void if it doesn't match up with the Constitution
-ahev problem with the Embargo Act
--ports have become useless
--hardest hit by depression



Any governing body declaring a law null

Treaty of Ghent


Where: Ghent, Belgium
-peace treaty ending the War of 1812

American System


-A program of national economic development
--chartering of a national bank
--tax on imported goods to protect American manufacturers
--national system of roads and canals
*-support that Monroe gave to these ideas following the War of 1812 was a crucial sign of the dynamism of the American commercial economy
*-Many Republicans now acknowledged that the government had a role to play in fostering the economic and commercial conditions in which both yeomen farmer and merchant could succeed
*-Second Bank of the United States was a sign that they strength of commercial interests had grown to rival that of farmers

The American System was a program of national economic development founded the the late 1810's in America. the American System believed in bank, tariffs, and roads. Chartering of a national bank (Second Bank of America), tax on imported goods to protect American manufacturers (Tariff of 1816), national system of roads and canals (National Road and Erie Canal) are the executions of the system. Many Republicans now acknowledge that the government had a role to play in fostering the economic and commercial conditions in which both yeomen farmer and merchant could succeed. Support that Monroe gave to the American System beliefs was a crucial sign of the dynamism of the American commercial economy. The Second Bank of the United States was a sign that the strength of commercial interests had grown to rival that of farmers.

Era of Good Feelings


-Monroe's politics reflected changing times
-Phrase applies to Monroe's presidency (1817-1825)
-Death of the Federalist Party

The Era of Good Feelings was the deth of the Federalist Party in 18152 in America. The death of the Federalist Party left only one party, the Democratic Republicans. Due to this occuring during Monroe's presidency, his politics reflected changing times.

Erie Canal


Began building in 1817, finished on October 25,1825
-link between New York City & Great Lakes through Hudson River
-364-mile long canal stretching from Albany to Buffalo
--Provided easy passage to and from interior, both for people & goods
--drew settlers from east & overseas
--by 1830some 50,000 people a year were moving West on the canal to the rich farmland of Indiana, Illinois, & territory farther west
--earlier settlers now had much market for their produce

Impact: rapid decline in the production of homespun cloth in the towns & countries along the route
--farm families began purchasing household goods & cloth (formerly made at home)
-Towns along canal--Utica, Rochester, and Buffalo--became cities & important commercial centers in its own right

-New York City quickly established a commercial & financial supremacy no other city could match
*-success: prompted other states to construct similar waterways to tap the rich interior market

-spurt of canal building ended the geographical isolation of much of the country

The Erie Canal was a 364-mile long canal created in 1830 that stretched from Albany to Buffalo. The Erie Canal provided easy passage, for people and goods, which drew settlers from east and west and overseas. Earlier settlers now have much market for their produce. Farm families began purchasing household goods and cloth instead of homespun cloth. The Erie Canal led to the spurt of a canal building, which ended the geographical isolation of much of the country. Commercial and financial supremacy came out of the Erie Canal.

Election of 1816


FEDERALIST: James Monroe

Monroe won

Tariff of 1816


-first substantial protective tariff in American history
-British manufacturers flooded the U.S. market
-American's complained that the British were dumping goods below cost in order to prevent the growth of American industries
*-Congress responded with a tariff on imported woolens and cottons, on iron, leather, hats, paper, and sugar

The Tariff of 1816 was a tariff to protect America manufacturers in 1816 in America. British manufacturers flooded the U.S. market and American's complained that the British were dumping goods below cost. The goods at below cost were preventing the growth of American industries. Congress responded with a tariff on imported woolens and cottons, on iron, leather,, hats, paper, and sugar. This was the first substantial protective tariff in American history. This began the dispute between the South and the government,

The American System of Manufactures


-A gun was broken down into its component parts & an exact mold was made for each
-all pieces made from the same mold matches a uniform standard
-standardized production quickly revolutionized the manufacture of items
-spread slowly
*-interchangeable parts

The American System of Manufactures was founded in 1816 in America. It was founded as a new way to improve how to fix broken parts. A gun was taken apart into its component parts and an exact mold was made for each. All pieces from the same mold matched a uniform standard. This made it so new parts could be made to go in a gun without needing to buy a new gun. Standardized production quickly revolutionized the manufacture of items. Interchangeable parts spread slowly, but hold true to this day.

The American Colonization Society


Who: northern religious reformers (Quaker prominent) & a number of Southern slave owners (most from Upper South & border states)
-first national attempt to "solve" the problem of slavery was a plan for gradual emancipation of slaves & their resettlement in Africa

-remarkably ineffective
--The reaction of blacks to resettlement; "we are natives of this country"

Panic of 1819


-British merchant ships went back on route and American shipping boom ended
-European Farm production recovered and international demand for American foodstuff declined
-Second Bank of the United States forced banks to foreclose on many bad loans and small farmers ruined
-Urban workers lost their jobs as international trade declined & as manufacturers failed because of competition from British imports
-Southern planters hurt by tariffs (manufacturers lobbied to habe them higher, and achieved it against farmers protests
*-Southerns began to express doubts about the fariness of a political system in which they were always outcounted
*-Showed how far the country had moved since 1800, from Jefferson's agrarian, toward a nation dominated by commerce

The Panic of 1819 was an economic crisis in 1819 in America. The American shipping boom ended, international demand for American foodstuff declined, urban workers lost their jobs as international trade declined, and manufacturers failed due to British competition. The Second Bank of the United States forced banks to foreclose on many bad loans, ruining small farmers. Southern planters hurt by tariffs that they protested against, but manufacturers protested for. This shows how far the country has moved since 1800, from Jefferson's agrarian, toward a nation dominated by commerce. Southerners began to express doubts about the fairness of a poltiical system in which they were always outcounted.

The Missouri Compromise


-Congress achieved compromise over the sectional differences
-maintained the balance between free & slave states: Maine (which had been apart of Massachusetts) was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state the following year
-A policy was also enacted with respect to slavery in the rest of the Louisianna Purchase: slavery was prohibited north of the 36-30 north latitude, the southern boundary of Missouri-& permitted south of that line

-Meaning the vast majority of the Louisianna territory would be free
-could only be a temporary solution, because it left open the question of how the balance between slave & free states would be maintained

-Southerners now realized that slavery was under attack & quickly built new arguments to defend it

Second Great Awakening



Election of 1820


-Death of the Fedrealist Party
-Democratic Republicans (only party)
-Era of Good Feelings

-Polk wins



Empresarios were land agents in 1821 in texas. Stephen F. Austin became the first American empresario. Empresarios allowed for fully legal settlements, unlike illegal land claims previously. Most owned their lands as a result of formal contracts with the Mexican government. In exchange they agreed to become Mexican citizens & adopt the Catholic religion. Most of the people living on the land treated it as a way to make money off of crops & never bothered to become a citizen or a Protestant. These Americans teamed up with the Tejanos for Texas independence, and ultimately/eventually admittance into the U.S.

The Corrupt Bargain


-Adams won the Presidency against Jackson, yet named Henry Clay his secretary of state, the traditional stepping stone to the highest office
-Jackson's supporters accused them of a "corrupt baragin"

The Corrupt Bargain was a political accusation against Adams in 1824 in America. Adams won the presidency against Jackson in 1824 by a small margin. Following his win, Adams named Henry Clay his secretary of state, instead of Jackson. It was well known that the position of secretary of state was a stepping stone to presidency, therefore Jackson's supporters accused Adams of a corrupt bargain. This accusation ruined Adams' term, and caused him to make no significance in his term. The corrupt bargain accusation led to Jackson's 8 year presidency, in which many significant changes occured.

The Democratic Paty


Jackson's supporters

Election of 1824


Andrew Jackson VS. Quincy Adams

It was tied and then Henry Clay threw his support in the House, causing Adams to win

-The Corrupt Bargain

American Society for the Promotion of Temperance


-to encourage young men to "take the pledge" not to drink
-dominated by evangelicals

-excessive drinking was a national problem & a masculine one
--heavy drinking men hurt their families economically by spending their wages on drinks
--excessive drinking also led to violence & crime, both within the family & in the larger society

-The new middle class, preoccupied with respectability, morality, & efficiency, found the old easygoing drinking ways unacceptable

-temperance became a social & political issue

Tariff of 1828


-nicknamed the "Tariff of Abominations"
*-Special target of Southern anger because Jackson's supporters in Congress had passed it, over Southern objections, in order to increase northern support for him in the presidencial campaign that year

*-Southerners claimed unconstitutional because it violated the rights of some states

---Nullification Crisis (most serious threat to national unity)

The Tariff of 1828 was a tariff created un 1828 in America. As the North industrialized and new industries demanded, the Tariff of 1828 raised rates still higher and protected more items. The Southerners protested against the tariff, but were outvoted in Congress by northern and western representatives. The tariff was a special target for Southern anger because Jackson's supporters in Congress only passed it, against southern protests, to achieve northern supoprt in the election. Southern states grew weary of their say in government, and proposed the tariff was unconsitutional because it violated the rights of some states. The Tariff of 1828 proved to southern states that it was not a national measure but rather a sectional one, and that the government helped only some groups while harming others. This led to the Nullification Crisis, the most serious threat to national unity.

Election of 1828


Beginning of Andrew Jackson's Presidency

Maysville Road Bill of 1830


Where: Kentucky
-To help with the need for better transportation & to help provide federal funding for internal improvements
-Jackson rejected
Jackson will to fund: obvious interstate projects
Jackson unwilling to fund: project in individual state

The Maysville Road Bill of 1830 was built for better transportaion in 1830 in Kentucky. The bill was to help with the need for better transportation. Also, the bill was to help provide federal funding for internal improvements. Jackson rejected the bill because he was unwilling to do projects in individual states.

William Lloyd Garrison


Who: head of third & best known group of antislavery reformists
-broke from the American Colonization Society 7 began publishing his own paper, the Liberator
-:immediatist" tactic was to mount a sweeping crusade condeming slavery as sinful & demanding its immediate abolition
-did not expect that all slaves would be freed immediately but did want & expect everyone to aknowledge the immortality of slavery
-took the racial step of demanding full social equality for blacks, referring to them indivually as "a man and a brother" & "a woman and a sister"
-determination electrified the antislavery movement
-radicalized northern antislavery religious groups

Nat Turner


Who: a slave
Where: Southampton, VA
-led a revolt

-Northern antislavery opinion & the fear of slave uprisings were fimly linked in Southern states
-Northerners thought South was paranoid, stemmed from the basic nature of a slave society: anything that challeneged the master-slave relationship was viewed as a basic threat to the entire system

Tariff of 1832


-Congress retained high taxes on woolens, iron, and hemp, although it reduced duties on other items

The Tariff of 1832 was a tariff created in 1832 in America. Congress retained high taxes on woolens, iron, and hemp. The tariff also reduced duties on other items. This tariff was created due to the nullification controversy becoming a full-blown crisis. South Carolina responded to the Tariff of 1832 with the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, refusing to pay taxes. South Carolina threatened to secede; and by doing so they felt the had made an impact on the unfair economic crisis.

The Bank War


-Jackson vetoed bill approved by Congress for Bank
-Recession: Bittle called in loans
-Speculation out West
-New state banks, chartered
-British investors called in their loans
-Contraction credit: Bank will not give people credit

Panic of 1837
-Bank refusing to pay out
-unemployment goes above 10%

The Bank War was a dispute between Andrew Jackson and Nicholas Biddle in 1832 in America. Jackson vetoed the bill approved by Congress to continue the Second Bank of the United States Recession hit hard when Biddle called in loans, and when Biritsh called in loans. The banks would not give people credit. The Panic of 1837 hit, banks refused to pay out, and unemployment rises above 10%. The Bank War damaged the eonomy and turned people against Jackson, creating the Whig Party.

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification


-South Carolina rejects the Tariff of 1832 and refuses to collect the taxes it required
-state called for a militia & threatened to secede from the Union if Jackson used force against it

FORCE BILL: authorizing the federal government to collect the taxes at gunpoint if needed

--outher Southern states refused to follow SC

TARIFF ACT OF 1833: Jackson asked Congress to revise the tariff

The South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification was a rebellion in 1832 in South Carolina. The rebellion was the rejection of the Tariff of 1832 and the refusal to collect the taxes it required. South Carolina further issued a call for a volunteer militia and threatened to secede from the Union if Jackson used force against it. Jackson obtained a Force Bill to take the taxes, but also asked Congressto revise the tariff. South Carolinians, by threatening to secede, had forced concessions on a matter they believed of vital economic importance: tariffs. This rebellion was proof of the unrest between the south and the government.

The Whig Party


Who: people who opposed Jackson
-called on everyone to resist tyranny
*-their near success at winning the 1836 election showed that the basis for a united national opposition did exist
-often the initators & beneficiaries of economic change & were more receptive to it
-belief in the importance of a strong federal role in the national economy
-supported Henry Clay's American System: a strong central government, the Bank of the United States, a protective tariff, & internal improvements
-favored government intervention in both economic & social affairs, calling for education & social reforms, such as temperance, that aimed to improve the ordinary citizen

The Whig Party was the group opposed toJackson, created in 1833 in America. The Whig Party was created after the Bank War and called on everyone to resist tyranny. They believed in the importance of a strong fedreal role in the national economy. They were supporters of Henry Caly's American System: a strong central government, the Bank of the United States, a protective tariff, and internal improvements. They favored government intervention in both economic and social affaris, calling for education and social reforms, such as temperance, that aimed to improve that ordinary citizen. The WHig pArty were often the initiators and beneficiaries of economic change and were more receptive to it. Theur near success at winning the 1836 election showed that the basis for a united national opposition did exist.

Female Moral Reform Society


Where: founded in New York
Who: evangelical women

-one of the earliest & most effective anitprostitution groups
-quickly realized prostitution was not as much a moral as an economic issure & moved to organize charity & work for porr women & orphans
-took direct action against the patrons of prostitutes by printing their names in local papers & then successfully lobbied the New York State legislature for criminal penalties against the male clients as well as the women themseleves

-insane assylums in 28 states
-prison & reform establishment of orphanages, homes of refuge, & hospitals
-penitentiaries were by strict order & discipline, these prisons were supposed to reform rather than simply incarcerate their inmates, but the regimes of silence & isolations causes depair more often than rehabilitation

Election of 1836


Andrew Jackson Vs. Whig Party

-Northerners pro tariff because industrialists against foreign competition
-South & west want Indian land claims
-Rejection of Maysville Road Bill of 1830 (favor state government, don't want strong central government)
-Bank War (lack of available credit to small farmers, don't want wealthy investors controlling government institution)

-Sotherners against tariff
-Indian Removal Act & Trail of Tears (Northerners favor assimilation)
-Rejection of Maysville Road Bill of 1830 (American System supported by Monroe & Adams, many enjoyed the benefits)
-Bank War:
--merchants/busines men, bank investors
--stabalizes currency
--keeps states bank from giving out too much money that they can't back up & people can't pay back
-Panic of 1837 (vetoed 2nd Bank of U.S., abuse of presidencial power)

Trail of Tears


Where: resisiting Cherokees were driven west to Oklahoma
-perhaps a quarter of the 16,000 Cherokees died along the way
HAPPENED BECAUSE: Indian Removal Act was required to use force if Indians resisted

The Trail of Tears was the removal of Cherokee Indians in 1838 in America. There were the last indians to leave their lanf, they were driven west to Oklahoma along this "trail". Perhaps a qarter of the 16,00 Cherokees dies along the way. This drastic decrease in population might be connected with the Americans giving the Indians blankets infected with small pox. This forceful removal of Indians shifted the United States policy towards Native Americans, but also divided the regions. The North wanted to assimilate the Indians and the South & West wanted the Indians to leave.

"Oregon Fever"


-laying claim to lands to whicht they had as yet no legal right, because neither Britain nor the U.S. had concluded land treaties wih Oregon's Indian peoples
-President James K. Polk said "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" suggesting the U.S. would go to war if it didn't get control of all the territoy south of the 54-40 north latitude

Oregon Fever was the movement of Midwest farmers to Oregon in the 1840's in America. This movement was a wave of enthusiasm that seemed promising of free land & patriotism. Most lived in the Willamette Valley & illegally laid claims on land. The ongoing of Americans living there caused America to want the land even more. President Polk was relentless until America was given land. The arrival of the farmers signaled Oregon's transition away from a "frontier of inclusion". The 49th parallel & Oregon's Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 came of the 'Orgeon Fever'.

Slave Power


A group of aristocratic slave owners who conspired to control the fedreal government, posing a danger to free speech and free institutions throughout the country

Manifest Destiny


Manifest Destiny was an American thought about expansion created in 1845 by John O'Sullivan in America. O'Sullivan believed that Americans had a God-given right to bring the benefits of American democracy to other more backward peoples-i.e. Mexicans & Indians- by force, if necessary. This summed up the powerful combination of pride in what America had achieved missionary zeal, & racist attitudes toward other peoples that lay behind the thinking of many expansionists. This led to more sectionalism in national politics. Uncontrollably, Manifest Destiny created more tension on the expansion of slavery. Manifest Destiny set the path for expansionism in America.

-expansion was deeply tied to national politics
-wholehearted supporters of expansion
-feared the industrialization that Whigs welcomed
Saw: uncontrolled urban growth, economic depression, growing social unrest
-the anwser to the nation's social ills was to continue Thomas Jefferson's vision of establishing agriculture in the new territories in order to counterbalance industrialization
-many were southerners, meaning the continual expansion of cotton growing lands was a matter of social faith as well as economic necessity

-opposed expansion
-Welcomed most of the changes brought by industrialization bu advocated strong government policies that would guide growth & development within the country's existing boundaries
-feared (correctly) that expansion would raise the contenious issue of the extension of slavery to new territories

Wilmot Proviso

August 1846

Who: David Wilmont began the sectional controversy over expansionism
What: proposed that slavery be banned in all territories aquired from Mexico
Why: Because of practical politics, the dramatic rise of the Liberty Party (abolitionists) threatened to take away votes from both the Whig and the Democratic Parties

-Southern Whigs & Southern Democrats were against this, while Northern Whigs & Northern Democrats were for it

-Triggered the 1st breakout of he national party system and reopened the debate about slavery's place in the nation's future

Sutter's Mill

January 1848

Where: California
-carpenter James Marshall notices small flakes of gold
-Soon he &all the rest of John Sutter's employees were panning for gold in streams

-Autumn of 1848: East Coast hears abuot discovery of gold
-thousands ledt farms & jobs and headed out west


-known as "forty-niners" for the year that gold rush began
-people come from all over the U.S. & the world
-transformed what had been a quiet ranching paradise into a teeming & tumultuous community in search of wealth
-racism against Chinese
-San Fransico sprang to life & grew
--suggested that the real money was not panning for gold but in the feeding, clothing, housing, provisioning, & entertaining the miners

-virtual extermination of California Indian peoples
-the disposession of many Californios who were legally deprived of their land grats
-growth of racial animosity toward the Chinese in particular

Seneca Falls Convention


-first women's rights convention in American history
-was an outgrowth of almost 20 years of female activity in social reform

--every year women gathered to hold women's rights conventions & to work for political, legal, & social equality

--states passed property laws that were more favorable to women
--altered divorce lwas to allow women to retain custody of a child
--teaching positions in higher education opened up to women, as did jobs in some other occupations
--women gained the right to vote in some states



What: a calculated adjustment of abolitionist principles to practical politics
--Moved the focus from the question of morality of slavery to the ways in which slavery posted a threat to northern expansion
-the free soil doctrine thus created a direct link between expasion, which most Americans supported, and sectional politics
-Were willing to allow slavery to continue in the existing slave states because they supported the Union, not because they supported slavery
-Were unwilling to allow to extension of slavery to new and disorganized territory
-Thought that the Northern values of freedom and individualism would be destroyed if the slave-based southern labor system were allowed to spread
-meant 'anti'black" when they said "anti-slavery"
--Most Northerners were unwilling to consider social equality for blacks

Election of 1848


WHIG: Zachary Taylor
DEMOCRAT: Lewis Cass

Taylor won

Treaty of Gaudalupe-Hidalgo

Feb. 2, 1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War on Feb 2, 1848. Mexico had to cede its northern provinces of California & New Mexico. Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas. U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million in individual claims against that nation. Polk still wanted more, which exemplified the hunger te expansionists had. This treaty allowed for peace, more land, and the hope for more expansionism.

*showed that war was the key to expansionism

-Nicholas Trist delivered Polk's terms for peace
-Polk still wanted more

Compromise of 1850


What: 5 separate bills with 3 different compromises

FIRST: California was admitted as a free state
-but the status of the remaining former Mexican possessions was left to popular soveriegnty when they applied for statehood
-result: 15 slave states and 16 free states

SECOND: Texas (a slave state) was required to cede land to New Mexico territory (free or slave status undecided)
-In return, the government took $10 million from Texas before it was a state

THIRD: the slave trade, but not slavery itself, was ended in Washington D.C.
-but a stronger fugitive slave law, to be enforced in all states, was enacted

"Beeding Kansas"


-Missourians took up land claims, established proslavery strongholds, & repeatedly, & blatantly swamped Kansas elections with Missouri votes
-Many Northern migrants were free soilers & many were religious reformers as well
*-Kansas soon became a bloody battleground as the two struggled to secure the mandate of "popular soverignty"
-heavy crates labeled "Books" actually held rifels & were sent to Northern migrants
-Southern sent people well armed

*-summer 1856, exploded into open warfare
--proslavery forces burned & looted Lawrence ( a free-soil town)
--John Brown led his sonds in a raid on proslavery settlers, killing 5
--armed bands roamed the countryside

-the rest of America watched in horror as the residents of Kansas slaughtered each other in the pursuit of sectional goals

*-America's pride in their nation's great achievements was threatened by the endless violence in once small part
--but a part that increasingly seemed to represent the divisions of the whole

Fugitive Slave Law


Increased the power of slave owners to capture escaped slaves

Gadsden Purchase


-America payed $10 million
-parts of present day New Mexico & Arizona
-added another 30,000 square miles to the U.S. in 1853

*-determined final border with Mexico

Republican Party


-combined characteristics of the Whigs with a westward looking, expansionist, free-soil policy
-included many former Northern Whigs who opposed slavery absolutely, many free soil party supporters who were opposed to the expansion of slavery but were willing to tolerate it in the south, & many northern reformers concerned about temperance & Catholicism
-Attracted the merchants & industrialists who wanted a strong national government to promote economic growth by supporting a protective tariff, transportation improvement, & cheap land for western farmers

Kansas-Nebraska Act


Who: Stephen Douglas introduced it
Why: stunning example of the expanionist pressures generated by the market revolution
-to further the construction of a transcontinental railroad
-Douglas wanted the rail line to terminate in Chicago (his state of Illinois) rather then St. Louis
--for that to happen, the land west of Iowa & Missouri had to be organized into territories
-Douglas needed the votes of Southern Democrats who were unwilling unless the territories were to have slavery
--Douglas proposed that the status of slavery in the new territories be governed by the pricipal of popular sovereignty
-favored a northern route for the tanscontinental railroad

*-repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which barred slavery north of the 36-30 line
-passed, but badly strained the major political parties
--Southern Whigs vs. Northern Whigs which made the Whig party unable to field a presidential candidate in 1856
--Northern democrats lost 2/3 of their seats, giving Southern Democrats the dominant voice both in Congress & within the party

*-Douglas had committed one of the greatest miscalulations in American political history

Election of 1856


Democratic nomination: James Buchanan of Pennsylvannia
-the "northern man with southern principals"

Republican candidate: John C. Fremont

American Candidate: Former president Mildred Fillmore

Race in north: Buchanan vs. Fremont
(Fremont won 11 of 16 states)

Race in south: Buchanan vs. Fillmore
(Fillmore attracted more than 40% of the vote in 10 slave states)

-Buchanan won the election with only 45% of the popular vote, because he was the only national candidate

***Republican Party had clearly defeated the American Party in the battle to win designation as a major party

Lecompoton Constitution


-proslavery constitution
-free-soilers boycotted
-appplied to Congress for admission to the Union under its terms
-Buchanan, in the single most disastrous mistake of his administration, endorsed the proslavery Constitution, because he feared the los of the support of Southern Democrats
*-seemed that Kansas would enter the Unoin as a 16th slave state, making the number of slave & free states equal

-Stephen Douglas opposed the consitution on the grounds that it violated the principal of popular sovereignty
--insisted that it must be voted on by Kansas voters in honest elections
--Congress refused admission & Kansas refused constitution

*-Kansas finally admitted as a free state in January of 1861

Dred Scott v. Sandford

March 6, 1857

Who: Dred Scott (a slave)
-Scott's owner was an army surgeon John Emerson
-Emerson took Scott on his military assignments to Illinois (Free State) and Wisconsin territory (free territory, north of the Missouri Compromise)
-Scott married another slave, Harriet & their child was born in free territory

-returned to Missouri (slave state) & there Scott sued for his freedom & that of his wife & daughter on the grounds that residence in free lands had made them free
-took 11 years to get to the Supreme Court
--Court declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
--Chief Justice Roger B. Tanney, speaking for the majority, asserted that the federal government had no right to interfere with the free movement of property throughout the territories

-Dismissed the case on the grounds that only citizens could bring suits before federal courts & that black people were not citizens

- South said that opposition to slavery is now opposition to Constitution & morally treason against the government
-North seriously questioned the power of the Supreme Court to establish the "law of the land"
-by invalidating the Missouri Compromise, swept away the free-soil foundation of the Republican Party

Lincoln-Douglas Debates


Terms with Long Dates

Spain in Cuba and Mexico

1510 - 1520

English Pirates (Sir Raleigh and Drake)

War between Spain and England

1588 - 1604

-Spanish powerful in New World
-French extremely powerful in New World (trade with Indians, not trying to destory them)
-English always need constant reinforcement

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Where: Europe, Asia, and America
Who: Great Britain (supported by Prussia) against France (supported by Spain)
-Was sparked by territory disputes
-also known as French and Indian War
-First 2 years awful for Britain
-Britain wins

-Removes French from America
-Colonists bond
-colonists angered for not being recognized for their part

The Seven Years War was a war between the French and the British in 1756 fought over multiple countries. This war was sparked by territory. Within the first two years, it was difficult and tragic for Britain. However, the colonists helped hugely in Britain's major comeback and eventual victory. The war removes France from America. The colonists bond together, and eventually feel they need recognition for their efforts, but none comes and a spark of desire for representation emerges.

Salem Witch Trials

1790 - 1793

-342 New England women were accused by their neighbors of witchcraft
-Most were unmarried, childless, widowed, or had reputations in their communities for assertiveness and independence
-Wives who failed to have children, or widows who were economically independent, arroused significant suspicion amoung their neighbors

1692: group of girls claimed they had been bewitched by a number of old women

1693: colonial governor ends persecutions
(by then 20 had been tried, condemed, and executed)

-social tensions that attacked outsiders
-economic inequality: victims came from the prospering east side, accusers came from the stagnant western side

-Accused: Anglican, Quaker, Baptist, majority of old women (due to living alone and without the guidance of men)

The Salem Witch Trials was a periodic scare about "witches" in the 17th century in Salem, Massachusetts. These accusations came about due to colonists indifference to the ways of other women. hundreds of cases were brought to court, but only a select few were convicted/killed. This mess spread like wildfire, and random women were being accused. At the time this symbolized the inequality of colonists. over time, this symbolized how Massachusetts has failed as a non-oppressive colony.

Mexican-Ameican War

1846 - 1848

-Congress declared war on Mexico due to a small squirmish in the disputed zone
-politically divisive
-Whigs critics in Congress questioned Polk & accused him of misleading Congress & manuevering the country into an unnecessary war
-as casualities & costs mounted, opposition increased especially amoung northern antislavery Whigs
-expansionist dreams served to fuel sectional antagonisms
-Northern states witnessed both mass & individual protests against the war
*-In Masachusetts: legislature passed a resolution condeming Polk's declaration of war as unconstitutional
*-Henry David Thoreau went to jail rather than pay taxes he believed would support the war effort

The Mexican-American War was a war that started on May 13, 1846 in both countries. The war was due to a small squeamish in Mexico. Americans opposed President Polk for 'maneuvering the country into an unnecessary war'. America became more divided and so did the government; expansionist dreams served to fuel sectional antagonisms. Mexico continued to be unwilling to negotiate, which led to higher causality rates, leading to more outburst in America. Polk assumed the overall planning of the war's strategy of the president as commander in chief during wartime. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave a lot to America & helped in the partial want for expansionism.

Terms with Longest Dates

Market Revolution

1820 - 1850

The Market Revolution was a growth period in the 1800's in America. American cities dramatically increased in size and ctities formed at critical points on the new transportation network. Due to all the urban growth, a surge of immigration hit the United States in the 1820's and accelerated after 1830. Ethnic neighborhoods were created, which caused the character of urban life to change due to sharpening class differences. The Market Revolution helped America, but destroyed the small town, everyone likes everyone vibe. The Market Revolution helped America become wealthy again.