Causes: English king Edward III Claims right to French throne
Effects: Destroyed French population, prolonged crisis in Church, strengthened monarchs, defined England/France as nations.
Causes: Overpopulated with famine and bad health, entered Europe through ports, brought by fleas/rats, spread through major trade routes. First hit Sicily in 1347.
Popular Remedies: Amulets, flight/seclusion, flagellants.
Effects: Less laborers = more pay, less food demand, statute of laborers, restrictions on peasants, cities rebound as artisans pour in, guild masters get political power, 2/5 of pop. killed.
Agreement between Princes of HRE that they would elect an Emperor.
Peasants, tired of paying the brunt of the taxes brought on by the Hundred Years War, revolt in France.
Religious wars equal more witch hunts because when the Catholic Church seems to be losing followers they show the villagers that they can protect them against 'witches'. Between 70k-100k people killed, mostly old women.
Deposed all three Popes and elected a new one.
Portugal explores African coast, this gives them experienced sailors. Spain sends Columbus out and he discovers New World.
Also known as the 'Age of Discovery', European nations explored the globe, discovered the New World and set down their roots.
Evoked by the local invention of the printing press and devoted to religious reforms.
An educational and religious reformer, he wrote Colloquies which taught manners and life lessons. He also translated Christian texts and wrote other books which were banned by the Church.
Isabella I of Castile marries Ferdinand II of Aragon and brought stability to their two kingdoms through the unification of Spain.
Ignatius of Loyola came back from battle wounded and became a 'soldier of Christ' and started a group called the Jesuits who achieve spirituality by self control and discipline.
The exchange of foods, animals, crops, diseases, and ideas between Europeans and Native Americans.
Columbus discovers the New World, meets Natives, and begins Columbian Exchange
During war between city-states France is invited to come to Italy and revive their dynastic claim of Naples without knowing they had one for Milan too. League of Venice created to fight France, during Machiavelli's time.
After his marriage to Catherine of Aragon yielded no heirs he made an Act of Supremacy to give the King full power over the Church of England, allowing him to divorce and take another wife... or 5.
Peasant's used Luther's teachings as a basis to revolt though he later condemned them for 'Un-Christian' acts. 100,000 peasants died.
English monarch is head of English religion which is seen as Protestant, and there are '6 Articles' made reaffirming the religion though it isn't very different from the Catholic Church.
Nicknamed 'Bloody Mary' for her orders for the execution of Protestant leaders and many other non-Catholics on heresy. She was a Catholic.
A Politique, she subordinated religious issues to political unity, created Anglican Church, reaffirmed Act of Supremacy, Act of Uniformity (redid Book of Common Prayer), created 39 Articles (shaped moderate Protestantism).
Huguenots, French Protestants, act up as monarchy of France is weakened by feuding families and a captured King.
The Dutch, with financial aid from England, fright Spain after it tries to expand their power into their nation.
Also known as William the Silent, he emerged as Dutch leader against the Spanish in the Dutch Revolt. He even changed his religion twice to rally people to his cause.
King Henry IV of France assassinated in 1610, in his life he limited power of Parlements, created monopoly on trade, paved way for mercantilism and forced religious tolerance.
17 Provinces of the Netherlands unite after Spanish Fury kills 7000 civilians in a day.
Southern Netherlands provinces break away and make peace with Spain
Executed after a trial to which she was accused of ordering an assassination on Elizabeth.
The Spanish plan to destroy England with their Armada, but have to stop in the Netherlands to pick up troops. England sees them pass by and sets fire to their boats at night, scattering the fleet before hunting them down and killing 2/3 of the army.
Bourgeoisie and middle class citizens begin to purchase items that used to only be available to the nobility.
The Dutch enjoyed a time of agricultural revolutions, cheap power sources, leading ship building, religious tolerance, migration of skilled Jews, overseas trade, banking, and tulips.
Was King of Scots before assuming the English throne, he rarely summoned Parliament but defended Anglicans against Puritans before losing his absolutism to the scandal and corruption of the court.
Cardinal Richelieu is chief minister, limited parlements and the rights of Huguenots. His propaganda was 'raison d'etat' or reason of state.
Causes: Fragmented Germany, religious division, Calvinism & the Palatinate.
Bohemian: Protestant rights revoked, Defenestration of Prague, Calvinist elect declared King, Catholic League.
Danish: Raised fears of Re-Catholicization, Lutheran King marched into Germany.
Swedish: Gustavus Adolphus II, Sweden has revolutionary military tactics, Peace of Prague.
Swedish:French: England, Sweden, Spain against Germany. Treaty of Westphalia.
The Parliament was called to raise taxes and sat through the English Civil War until the member agreed to disband.
Charles I called Parliament to levy taxes, the members were not impressed.
The Parliament was called to raise taxes and sat through the English Civil War until the member agreed to disband.
After Elizabeth I dies childless, the King and Parliament go to war over the King's absolute power. King supporters were called Cavaliers and Parliament supporters were called Roundheads, the Roundheads won and enjoyed a Puritan Republic for a couple years.
Appointed no Chief of Staff, built Versailles to gain complete control over the nobility, supported Divine Right, fought many wars to gain territory, and believed political unity needed religious conformity. France fell into disarray after his death because of the death and lack of a strong King.
A French revolution wanting to limit the power of the monarchy and extend the power of the parlements.
Though London was the first major cities across Europe, like Paris, created Scientific Academies for the elite scientists to share ideas and compare inventions.
Oliver Cromwell is named 'Lord Protector' in a government neither Puritan or Republican, he ignored Parliament, conquered Scotland and Ireland and generally did everything he fought against in the Civil War.
Monarchy restored, Parliament controlled taxes and government, and all government officials have to be Anglican.
The first Scientific Academy, comes around during Scientific Revolution to share ideas and inventions.
Restored monarchy, Parliament, and Anglican Church. Clarendon Code- excluded Catholics, Presbyterians,and Independents from nation. Allied with France against the Dutch.
Traveled through Western Europe learning all of their secrets and traditions, cam back to Russia after the person he left in charge started executing a lot of people. Gained a warm water port through the Great Northern War, founded St. Petersburg, and made 8 branches of government.
Repealed the Test Act, Appointed Catholics to high positions and permitted free worship, and had a Catholic heir to the throne.
A bloodless coup during James II's reign in which Parliament invites William of Orange and his wife Mary to take the English throne. Toleration Act allowed non-Protestants to practice but not hold office and England becomes leader in liberalism.
Restricts power of King and guarantees rights of Parliament.
Slow shift away from subsistence farming and move to mass farming. Rising bread prices and a series of innovations such as animal husbandry, fertilization, potatoes, and the enclosure method are causes.
Became first real 'Prime Minister' as he lead and reinvented the national and local governments. England became political, naval, and military world power.
Russia battled Baltic Empire (Sweden, Finland, etc.) for a warm water port and succeeded, securing Peter's title as Peter the Great.
Mother countries strictly controlled trade between them and their colony, believing that you should export more than you import.
Louis XIV tries to get his grandson on the Spanish throne to untie the two nations' powers and the Grand Alliance unites to check their power, Treaty of Utrecht.
If the King/Queen of England dies childless the throne goes to the House of Hanover in Germany.
Charles IV of Austria did not have a male heir to the throne and before he died he made a deal with the nobles that if they gave cooperation to his daughter's rule they would have special privileges.
Created Prussia's reputation for having a powerful military, also created schools and encouraged farming.
Government made more money under the assumption that it would jump start the economy, stock holders would exchange the paper money for gold but the bank didn't have enough gold and failed.
A British sailor gets his ear cut off by a Spaniard and saves it in a jar, then goes back to England and shows it around. This is the creation of mass public opinion and England does go to war with Spain.
An Enlightened despot, he put into effect laws on promotion through merit, religious toleration, and administrative and economic reforms.
Fought with England then France in the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War in an unsuccessful attempt to take back the province of Silesia which was taken by Prussia.
Austria goes to war with Prussia to take back the province of Silesia, France joins due to their hate for the Habsburgs and England joins due to their hate for the French. Ends with Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle.
The domestic system is replaced by factories and this created new jobs, mass production of goods, raised the standard of living, and created problems such as high urbanization, poverty, menial jobs, and economic slavery. The Spinning Jenny spun wool faster, the water frame increased cotton production by 800% and the steam engine was used to pump water out of iron mines.
Great Britain sees the War of Austrian Succession as an opportunity to gain French land in the New World. France is stretched too thin to stop them.
During War of Austrian Succession England sees that it is on the losing side and aligns with Prussia forcing France to unite with Austria to check their power.
Started to enact enlightened reforms but was stopped when the peasants revolted, and she had to give power to the nobility to suppress them.
An enlightened despot he centralized authority, limited church powers, ended serfdom, improved agriculture, tolerated Jews, gave freedom of the press, and limited torture.
The Seven Years War plants a seed of wanting independence in America, this marks the end of the Mercantilist Empire in Europe. Americans resist taxes to pay for Seven Years War, France unites with the Colonies to defeat GB.
On account of them being terrified for the lives, the nobles and the clergy unofficially give up all of their privileges.
A 'Bill of Rights' sort of document, grants civil equality and popular sovereignty to men, specifically not women.
Wives march to Versailles with intent to kill the queen, they don't, then demand that the King stays in Paris so they can keep a good watch on him.
Monarchy seeks taxes and nobles claim only Estates General can levy new ones. Three estates come together, but splits up after a short amount of time.
The newly created National Assembly agrees to not disband until they have written a new constitution for France.
People of Paris create citizen militia and gather weapons with the intent on storming the Bastille and releasing all of the prisoners. This forces the Revolution to speed up their changes.
Radicals meet and order all emigres to return to France, Louis vetoes their ruling on account of them having no authority.
Austria makes Declaration of Pillnitz that says that they will invade France they harm the monarchy, if other countries will do it with them.
Parisians storm the palace and imprison the royal family, comfortably. France from then on has no monarchy.
France becomes a Republic.
A mass enlisting of men for the army.
France at war with all of Europe, Tribunals, De-Christianization, Republic of Virtue, and Committees.
Tried as Citizen Capet, he is executed for being counterrevolutionary.
Guillotined for speaking out against the Republic.
End of the Reign of Terror and the Commune of Paris, he is guillotined along with other member of the Public Safety Committee.
A bicameral legislature with a Council of 500 and a Council of the Ancient, 5 Directors serve at a time.
Napoleon overthrows Directory with a coup d'etat and secures himself as Emperor.
The Pope moves to France, and us under strict influence from the French Monarchy, nations start to put limits on the Pope's abilities (taxation, jurisdiction, etc.).
Argued that clergy ought to be content with food and clothing, that personal merit is basis for religious authority, and morality in the clergy is key.
Three Popes at one time in the Roman Catholic Church. One in Avignon, one in Rome and one in Spain, they all excommunicated each other until the Council of Constance eliminated all of them and named a new Pope.
Executed at the stake and became a martyr, as Bohemia revolted after his death and forced the Church to make some changes.
Created Calvinism, a religion based on the Elect being predetermined, and used Geneva as an experiment as it was made into a strict religious unit.
Posts 95 Thesis on Church 'Bulletin Board' questioning the selling of indulgences, this pamphlet goes viral and accidentally creates a new religion.
The Diet wanted him to take back what he had said and done but he said it would be against his religion to take back the truth. Excommunicated by the Catholic Church and ran away to Germany to be protected by the Princes.
King Henry VIII becomes head of English religion.
HRE Emperor Charles V orders Pop to call council to reassert Catholic doctrine, this strengthened the authority of local bishops and reaffirmed Scholastic education.
Cuius regio, eius religio- In the HRE the Princes get to choose the local religion for their kingdom between Lutheran and Catholic.
3000 Huguenots killed in PAris, and 20000 more killed in simultaneous attacks throughout France.
Henry IV of France gave minorities religious freedoms.
Galileo condemned by the Catholic Church and placed on house arrest for believing in a heliocentric universe.
Catholic Church is made secular branch of government, Pope condemns the Declaration of Rights and gives the public internal conflict.
An atheistic belief system designed to replace religion during the Revolution.
A form of deism meant to be the new state religion of France.
Cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature.
Coexistence of Christian and classical values.
Social commentary and human behavior.
Invented Printing Press- made a huge impact on spread of information.
Wrote the Prince in order to show a despot how to unite all of Italy and kick out the French, supported ruthless political expediency.
Thought of universe as heliocentric.
Gathered extensive and detailed information on the night sky for 20 years.
Empiricism- using experiments to calculate theories.
Universal human themes and contemporary religious traditions.
Used Brahe's notes to prove heliocentricity and that planets rotate elliptically.
Believes strong central government is critical and people at their core are selfish.
Writes Don Quixote as a novel, becomes very influential in Spanish Golden Age.
Science takes you to the edge and religion lets you take the leap of faith.
Believes people are reasonable and blank (Tabula Rosa), and believes government should be subject to the concerns of the governed.
Praised England, and popularized Newton. Became literary dictator of the Enlightenment.
General Will- Society is more important than the individual so do what benefits the most people.
Wrote 'The Wealth of Nations' and created capitalism based on the theory that resources are unlimited.
Thought that family size should be limited to increase living conditions for everyone.
Credited with systematizing economics.
Argues that women could be as great as men if they had the same opportunity for the same education.
Decline of the very inaccurate and religious artwork.
Very Humanist with Greek designs, nature, individuality, etc.
like Renaissance art but more focused on religion.
Very detailed and exaggerated men, think the Sistine Chapel.
Very detailed and extravagant, think Versailles.
The nobility at play.
Renaissance but more with the times.