European History Timeline

Political

The Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

Causes: English king Edward III Claims right to French throne
Effects: Destroyed French population, prolonged crisis in Church, strengthened monarchs, defined England/France as nations.

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

Causes: Overpopulated with famine and bad health, entered Europe through ports, brought by fleas/rats, spread through major trade routes. First hit Sicily in 1347.
Popular Remedies: Amulets, flight/seclusion, flagellants.
Effects: Less laborers = more pay, less food demand, statute of laborers, restrictions on peasants, cities rebound as artisans pour in, guild masters get political power, 2/5 of pop. killed.

The Golden Bull

1356

Agreement between Princes of HRE that they would elect an Emperor.

Jacquerie

1358

Peasants, tired of paying the brunt of the taxes brought on by the Hundred Years War, revolt in France.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Religious wars equal more witch hunts because when the Catholic Church seems to be losing followers they show the villagers that they can protect them against 'witches'. Between 70k-100k people killed, mostly old women.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Deposed all three Popes and elected a new one.

Early Exploration

1415 - 1492

Portugal explores African coast, this gives them experienced sailors. Spain sends Columbus out and he discovers New World.

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1600

Also known as the 'Age of Discovery', European nations explored the globe, discovered the New World and set down their roots.

Northern Renaissance

1454 - 1536

Evoked by the local invention of the printing press and devoted to religious reforms.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

An educational and religious reformer, he wrote Colloquies which taught manners and life lessons. He also translated Christian texts and wrote other books which were banned by the Church.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1516

Isabella I of Castile marries Ferdinand II of Aragon and brought stability to their two kingdoms through the unification of Spain.

Jesuits

1491 - 1556

Ignatius of Loyola came back from battle wounded and became a 'soldier of Christ' and started a group called the Jesuits who achieve spirituality by self control and discipline.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1750

The exchange of foods, animals, crops, diseases, and ideas between Europeans and Native Americans.

Columbus

1492

Columbus discovers the New World, meets Natives, and begins Columbian Exchange

French Invasions of Italy

1494 - 1527

During war between city-states France is invited to come to Italy and revive their dynastic claim of Naples without knowing they had one for Milan too. League of Venice created to fight France, during Machiavelli's time.

Henry VIII's Reign

1509 - 1547

After his marriage to Catherine of Aragon yielded no heirs he made an Act of Supremacy to give the King full power over the Church of England, allowing him to divorce and take another wife... or 5.

German Peasant Revolt

1524 - 1525

Peasant's used Luther's teachings as a basis to revolt though he later condemned them for 'Un-Christian' acts. 100,000 peasants died.

English Reformation

1529 - 1553

English monarch is head of English religion which is seen as Protestant, and there are '6 Articles' made reaffirming the religion though it isn't very different from the Catholic Church.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Nicknamed 'Bloody Mary' for her orders for the execution of Protestant leaders and many other non-Catholics on heresy. She was a Catholic.

Elizabeth I's Reign

1558 - 1603

A Politique, she subordinated religious issues to political unity, created Anglican Church, reaffirmed Act of Supremacy, Act of Uniformity (redid Book of Common Prayer), created 39 Articles (shaped moderate Protestantism).

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Huguenots, French Protestants, act up as monarchy of France is weakened by feuding families and a captured King.

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

The Dutch, with financial aid from England, fright Spain after it tries to expand their power into their nation.

William I, of Orange

1568 - 1584

Also known as William the Silent, he emerged as Dutch leader against the Spanish in the Dutch Revolt. He even changed his religion twice to rally people to his cause.

Henry IV

1572 - 1610

King Henry IV of France assassinated in 1610, in his life he limited power of Parlements, created monopoly on trade, paved way for mercantilism and forced religious tolerance.

Pacification of Ghent

1577

17 Provinces of the Netherlands unite after Spanish Fury kills 7000 civilians in a day.

Union of Utrecht

1579

Southern Netherlands provinces break away and make peace with Spain

Mary Stuart Execution

1587

Executed after a trial to which she was accused of ordering an assassination on Elizabeth.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

1588

The Spanish plan to destroy England with their Armada, but have to stop in the Netherlands to pick up troops. England sees them pass by and sets fire to their boats at night, scattering the fleet before hunting them down and killing 2/3 of the army.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Bourgeoisie and middle class citizens begin to purchase items that used to only be available to the nobility.

Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1700

The Dutch enjoyed a time of agricultural revolutions, cheap power sources, leading ship building, religious tolerance, migration of skilled Jews, overseas trade, banking, and tulips.

James I of England

1603 - 1625

Was King of Scots before assuming the English throne, he rarely summoned Parliament but defended Anglicans against Puritans before losing his absolutism to the scandal and corruption of the court.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Cardinal Richelieu is chief minister, limited parlements and the rights of Huguenots. His propaganda was 'raison d'etat' or reason of state.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Causes: Fragmented Germany, religious division, Calvinism & the Palatinate.
Bohemian: Protestant rights revoked, Defenestration of Prague, Calvinist elect declared King, Catholic League.
Danish: Raised fears of Re-Catholicization, Lutheran King marched into Germany.
Swedish: Gustavus Adolphus II, Sweden has revolutionary military tactics, Peace of Prague.
Swedish:French: England, Sweden, Spain against Germany. Treaty of Westphalia.

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

The Parliament was called to raise taxes and sat through the English Civil War until the member agreed to disband.

Short Parliament

1640

Charles I called Parliament to levy taxes, the members were not impressed.

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

The Parliament was called to raise taxes and sat through the English Civil War until the member agreed to disband.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

After Elizabeth I dies childless, the King and Parliament go to war over the King's absolute power. King supporters were called Cavaliers and Parliament supporters were called Roundheads, the Roundheads won and enjoyed a Puritan Republic for a couple years.

Louis XIV's Reign

1643 - 1715

Appointed no Chief of Staff, built Versailles to gain complete control over the nobility, supported Divine Right, fought many wars to gain territory, and believed political unity needed religious conformity. France fell into disarray after his death because of the death and lack of a strong King.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

A French revolution wanting to limit the power of the monarchy and extend the power of the parlements.

Scientific Academies

1650 - 1800

Though London was the first major cities across Europe, like Paris, created Scientific Academies for the elite scientists to share ideas and compare inventions.

Puritan Republic

1653 - 1660

Oliver Cromwell is named 'Lord Protector' in a government neither Puritan or Republican, he ignored Parliament, conquered Scotland and Ireland and generally did everything he fought against in the Civil War.

English Restoration

1660 - 1685

Monarchy restored, Parliament controlled taxes and government, and all government officials have to be Anglican.

Royal Society of London Founded

1660

The first Scientific Academy, comes around during Scientific Revolution to share ideas and inventions.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Restored monarchy, Parliament, and Anglican Church. Clarendon Code- excluded Catholics, Presbyterians,and Independents from nation. Allied with France against the Dutch.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Traveled through Western Europe learning all of their secrets and traditions, cam back to Russia after the person he left in charge started executing a lot of people. Gained a warm water port through the Great Northern War, founded St. Petersburg, and made 8 branches of government.

James II

1685 - 1688

Repealed the Test Act, Appointed Catholics to high positions and permitted free worship, and had a Catholic heir to the throne.

Glorious Revolution

1688

A bloodless coup during James II's reign in which Parliament invites William of Orange and his wife Mary to take the English throne. Toleration Act allowed non-Protestants to practice but not hold office and England becomes leader in liberalism.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Restricts power of King and guarantees rights of Parliament.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Slow shift away from subsistence farming and move to mass farming. Rising bread prices and a series of innovations such as animal husbandry, fertilization, potatoes, and the enclosure method are causes.

Robert Walpole

1700 - 1737

Became first real 'Prime Minister' as he lead and reinvented the national and local governments. England became political, naval, and military world power.

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Russia battled Baltic Empire (Sweden, Finland, etc.) for a warm water port and succeeded, securing Peter's title as Peter the Great.

Age of Mercantilism

1700 - 1850

Mother countries strictly controlled trade between them and their colony, believing that you should export more than you import.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Louis XIV tries to get his grandson on the Spanish throne to untie the two nations' powers and the Grand Alliance unites to check their power, Treaty of Utrecht.

Act of Settlement

1701

If the King/Queen of England dies childless the throne goes to the House of Hanover in Germany.

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Charles IV of Austria did not have a male heir to the throne and before he died he made a deal with the nobles that if they gave cooperation to his daughter's rule they would have special privileges.

Frederick Wilhelm

1713 - 1740

Created Prussia's reputation for having a powerful military, also created schools and encouraged farming.

Mississippi Bubble

1720

Government made more money under the assumption that it would jump start the economy, stock holders would exchange the paper money for gold but the bank didn't have enough gold and failed.

War of Jenkins Ear

1739

A British sailor gets his ear cut off by a Spaniard and saves it in a jar, then goes back to England and shows it around. This is the creation of mass public opinion and England does go to war with Spain.

Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786

An Enlightened despot, he put into effect laws on promotion through merit, religious toleration, and administrative and economic reforms.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Fought with England then France in the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War in an unsuccessful attempt to take back the province of Silesia which was taken by Prussia.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria goes to war with Prussia to take back the province of Silesia, France joins due to their hate for the Habsburgs and England joins due to their hate for the French. Ends with Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The domestic system is replaced by factories and this created new jobs, mass production of goods, raised the standard of living, and created problems such as high urbanization, poverty, menial jobs, and economic slavery. The Spinning Jenny spun wool faster, the water frame increased cotton production by 800% and the steam engine was used to pump water out of iron mines.

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

Great Britain sees the War of Austrian Succession as an opportunity to gain French land in the New World. France is stretched too thin to stop them.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

During War of Austrian Succession England sees that it is on the losing side and aligns with Prussia forcing France to unite with Austria to check their power.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Started to enact enlightened reforms but was stopped when the peasants revolted, and she had to give power to the nobility to suppress them.

Joseph II of Austria

1765 - 1790

An enlightened despot he centralized authority, limited church powers, ended serfdom, improved agriculture, tolerated Jews, gave freedom of the press, and limited torture.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The Seven Years War plants a seed of wanting independence in America, this marks the end of the Mercantilist Empire in Europe. Americans resist taxes to pay for Seven Years War, France unites with the Colonies to defeat GB.

The Great Fear

1789

On account of them being terrified for the lives, the nobles and the clergy unofficially give up all of their privileges.

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

A 'Bill of Rights' sort of document, grants civil equality and popular sovereignty to men, specifically not women.

March of the Fishwives

1789

Wives march to Versailles with intent to kill the queen, they don't, then demand that the King stays in Paris so they can keep a good watch on him.

Estates General Meets

1789

Monarchy seeks taxes and nobles claim only Estates General can levy new ones. Three estates come together, but splits up after a short amount of time.

Tennis Court Oath

1789

The newly created National Assembly agrees to not disband until they have written a new constitution for France.

Storming the Bastille

1789

People of Paris create citizen militia and gather weapons with the intent on storming the Bastille and releasing all of the prisoners. This forces the Revolution to speed up their changes.

Legislative Assembly

1791

Radicals meet and order all emigres to return to France, Louis vetoes their ruling on account of them having no authority.

War with Austria

1792

Austria makes Declaration of Pillnitz that says that they will invade France they harm the monarchy, if other countries will do it with them.

Captive King

1792

Parisians storm the palace and imprison the royal family, comfortably. France from then on has no monarchy.

Abolition of Royalty

1792

France becomes a Republic.

Levee en Masse

1793

A mass enlisting of men for the army.

Reign of Terror

1793

France at war with all of Europe, Tribunals, De-Christianization, Republic of Virtue, and Committees.

Louis XVI Guillotined

1793

Tried as Citizen Capet, he is executed for being counterrevolutionary.

Danton Executed

1794

Guillotined for speaking out against the Republic.

Fall of Robespierre

1794

End of the Reign of Terror and the Commune of Paris, he is guillotined along with other member of the Public Safety Committee.

Directory Established

1795

A bicameral legislature with a Council of 500 and a Council of the Ancient, 5 Directors serve at a time.

Napoleon

1799

Napoleon overthrows Directory with a coup d'etat and secures himself as Emperor.

Religion

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The Pope moves to France, and us under strict influence from the French Monarchy, nations start to put limits on the Pope's abilities (taxation, jurisdiction, etc.).

Lollards; John Wycliffe

1350 - 1384

Argued that clergy ought to be content with food and clothing, that personal merit is basis for religious authority, and morality in the clergy is key.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Three Popes at one time in the Roman Catholic Church. One in Avignon, one in Rome and one in Spain, they all excommunicated each other until the Council of Constance eliminated all of them and named a new Pope.

Hussites; John Huss

1403 - 1415

Executed at the stake and became a martyr, as Bohemia revolted after his death and forced the Church to make some changes.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Created Calvinism, a religion based on the Elect being predetermined, and used Geneva as an experiment as it was made into a strict religious unit.

Luther's 95 Thesis

1517

Posts 95 Thesis on Church 'Bulletin Board' questioning the selling of indulgences, this pamphlet goes viral and accidentally creates a new religion.

Diet of Worms

1521

The Diet wanted him to take back what he had said and done but he said it would be against his religion to take back the truth. Excommunicated by the Catholic Church and ran away to Germany to be protected by the Princes.

Act of Supremacy

1534

King Henry VIII becomes head of English religion.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

HRE Emperor Charles V orders Pop to call council to reassert Catholic doctrine, this strengthened the authority of local bishops and reaffirmed Scholastic education.

Peace of Augsburg

1552

Cuius regio, eius religio- In the HRE the Princes get to choose the local religion for their kingdom between Lutheran and Catholic.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

3000 Huguenots killed in PAris, and 20000 more killed in simultaneous attacks throughout France.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Henry IV of France gave minorities religious freedoms.

Galileo Condemned

1633 - 1642

Galileo condemned by the Catholic Church and placed on house arrest for believing in a heliocentric universe.

Civil Constitution of Clergy

1790

Catholic Church is made secular branch of government, Pope condemns the Declaration of Rights and gives the public internal conflict.

Cult of Reason

1793

An atheistic belief system designed to replace religion during the Revolution.

Cult of the Supreme Being

1794

A form of deism meant to be the new state religion of France.

Individuals

Dante

1265 - 1321

Cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature.

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Coexistence of Christian and classical values.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Social commentary and human behavior.

Gutenberg

1454

Invented Printing Press- made a huge impact on spread of information.

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Wrote the Prince in order to show a despot how to unite all of Italy and kick out the French, supported ruthless political expediency.

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Thought of universe as heliocentric.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Gathered extensive and detailed information on the night sky for 20 years.

Bacon

1561 - 1626

Empiricism- using experiments to calculate theories.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Universal human themes and contemporary religious traditions.

Kepler

1571 - 1630

Used Brahe's notes to prove heliocentricity and that planets rotate elliptically.

Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Believes strong central government is critical and people at their core are selfish.

Descartes

1596 - 1650

Rational deduction.

Cervantes

1605

Writes Don Quixote as a novel, becomes very influential in Spanish Golden Age.

Pascal

1623 - 1662

Science takes you to the edge and religion lets you take the leap of faith.

Locke

1632 - 1704

Believes people are reasonable and blank (Tabula Rosa), and believes government should be subject to the concerns of the governed.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Praised England, and popularized Newton. Became literary dictator of the Enlightenment.

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

General Will- Society is more important than the individual so do what benefits the most people.

Smith

1723 - 1790

Wrote 'The Wealth of Nations' and created capitalism based on the theory that resources are unlimited.

Malthus

1766 - 1834

Thought that family size should be limited to increase living conditions for everyone.

Ricardo

1772 - 1823

Credited with systematizing economics.

A Vindication on the Rights of Women

1792

Argues that women could be as great as men if they had the same opportunity for the same education.

Art

Decline of Gothic Art

1100 - 1300

Decline of the very inaccurate and religious artwork.

Italian Renaissance

1300 - 1600

Very Humanist with Greek designs, nature, individuality, etc.

Northern Renaissance

1454 - 1536

like Renaissance art but more focused on religion.

Mannerism

1500 - 1600

Very detailed and exaggerated men, think the Sistine Chapel.

Baroque

1600 - 1800

Very detailed and extravagant, think Versailles.

Rococo

1700 - 1800

The nobility at play.

Neoclassicism

1700 - 1800

Renaissance but more with the times.