The decline of the Ottoman Empire


Treaty of Zsitvatorok


This was a peace treaty that ended the Fifteen Years' War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy on November 11, 1606. The treaty was part of a system of peace treaties which put an end to the anti-Habsburg uprising of Stephen Bocskay.
This is important because it marks the end of a war

Baghdad Captured


Baghdad was one of the most important cities of the Muslim World. In the second half of the Medieval age, Turkic rulers tried to control this city. Ottoman sultan Suleyman I captured the city.
According to a legend only the sultans could capture the city. Murad IV was seen as a warrior hero and In 1638 Ottoman Sultan (five generation younger than Suleyman I) decided to recapture the city.

Battle of Slankamen


Ahmed II is defeated by Louis William I of Baden & Turkey loses Hungary.
This is important to include because once the loss of Hungary plays into the general fall of the Ottomen.

After Battle of Poltava


Grants asylum to Charles XII & Mazepa after their defeat to Russia at Poltava.
The Battle of Poltava was a disaster for Sweden and a turning point in the Great Northern War.



Foreign generals initiate a reform of the infantry and artillery.
Also the founding of Academies for Math, Navigation and Sciences.
This increases the military capacity as well as improving tactics by improving education.

Battle of Navarino


After the battle of Navarino closes the Bosporus to international shipping, a move certain to provoke Russia, whose entire Black Sea trade had to pass through the Straits & revoked the Convention of Akkerman, signed with Russia the previous year.

Convention of London


The treaty summarized recent agreements concerning the Ottoman Empire and its ongoing war with Muhammad Ali's Egypt, brought on by the Great Powers' fear of the destabilizing effect an Ottoman collapse would have on Europe. The signatories offered to Muhammad Ali and his heirs permanent control over Egypt and the Eyalet of Acre (roughly what is now Israel),

Russo-Turkish War


Ottomans give independence to Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The empire is becoming less and less in control.



The Countercoup of 1909 was an attempt to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire and replace it with an autocracy under Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The Sultan's bid for a return to power gained traction when he promised to restore the Caliphate, eliminate secular policies, and restore the sharia-based legal system. Because the coup was an attempt to undermine the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, it became known as the Countercoup

Italo-Tukish War


Ottomans lose Tripolitania, Fezzan, Cyrenaica (Libya), Rhodes and the Dodecanese archipelago.
Here you can see the Ottoman Empire crumble as it starts losing countries.

Balkan War


Albania and most of Thrace is taken from the Ottomans

Battle of Sarikamish


This was a war between the Russian and Ottoman empires during World War I. It took place from December 22, 1914 to January 17, 1915 as part of the Caucasus Campaign. It ended in Russian Victory. The Ottoman troops, not prepared for frigid conditions, suffered many casualties at the Allahüekber mountains.

Gallipoli Campaign


(Between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916, during the First World War).
A joint British and French operation was established to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople and secure a sea route to Russia.The attempt failed, with many casualties on both sides.

Sultanate Abolished


On November 1, 1922, the Ottoman Sultanate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly and Sultan Mehmed VI left the country. This allowed the Turkish nationalist government in Ankara to become the only governing entity in the nation.