Wars, Rulers, Treaties, etc.
English king edward 3 put a claim to the french throne, weakness in france was internal disunity and english had the long bow. english won with Treaty of Troyes which made Henry V king of england and france, he dies and his son was king of both until Joan of Arc rose in france and united the people which gave them a series of victories and took back the french throne
Spread from Asia by rats, who would ride in boats to highly and densely populated ports or cities. Spread due to bad sanitary conditions and treatments. Effects: Centralized monarchy, increased need for church and church income, questioned peoples faith, emergence of middle class/artisans.
7 members who elected the holy roman emperor
peasantry was forced to pay increasing taxes by nobles to secutr their rights, so they rose up in rebellions called jacqueris
100,000 people killed in witch hunts, most of whom were women. they were believed to have bad magic. ended because of scientific revolution and rationality surpassing superstitions
John huss won an audience here, went thinking he could convince them of his ideas but was accused of heresy and condemned instead
Columbus discovers the new world and all fo its free resources, inluding the slaves and gold and silver which all lead up to rise of Spanish empire but also bring it down
exchange of animals goods and disease between NW and old world, introduciotn of new species of animals and new diseases which killed many people
drove venetians out of rome, but france kept comin back so they had the CONCORDAT OF BOLOGNA which gave france control over its clergy in exchange of its recognition of pope superiority and collection of taxes by church in france
Henry married wife Catherine, who only popped out a female, so he wanted an annulment which wouldn't be approved by the church. He then decided to take matters in his own hands and made the Reformation Parliament, which met in 1529, was a 7 year period, and eventually resulted in the declaration that the King was the head of the church of england, ACT OF SUPREMACY
peasants opposed their leaders who were secular and ecclesiastical. resulted in tens of thousands of peasant deaths
reformed church policies sush as the selling of church offices, strengthened bishop offices. council under popes control.
catholic, married Philip II pf Spain, tried to put out all attempts at protestanism
daughter of Henry VIII. issued her 39 ARTICLES(1563) made a moderate protestanism which would be teh official religion w/in the church of england.
Philip of Spain tried to impose his will on netherlands.
wanted to tighten control of catholic heirarchy over them, who were mostly calvinist and tolerant of religions. got tithes from councils which were refused to be paid. ghent and utrecht and on july 22 1581 declared philip no longer their ruler.
huge fleet of Spanish ships which were used to stop rebellions and in the wars. was defeated by the english which fueled protests errywhere
Henry of Navarre became henri 4 after henri III was assassinated. said that Paris is worth a mass after he converted to catholicism, and proclaimed the edict of nantes
righeliu kept habsburg armies tied down to protect france, made france a leading power,
had absolutism in france, and defended the divinde right of the kind by saying letet cest moi, or i am the state, drained power from the nobles especially with versailles, was the sun king, but had a massive debt
After charles the sufferer dies, one of Louis' grandsons has claim to be heir of the throne of Spain which could possibly combine both lands, so everyone else teams up against them to check France's power. Ends with peace made in Utrecht, TREATY OF UTRECHT
HAPSBURG charles had no male heir, and fearing that on his death surrounding territories might invade he made the pragmatic sanction where he soke the approval of surrounding realms his family and major foreign powers although this was broken almost immediately after his death
replaced the spanish habsburgs w/ the French Bourbons.
ended the war of spanish succession
The spanish stopped some merchant traders, british, and cut off jenkins ear, which he had in a jar and then showed to the parliament to make them go to war with Spain, which they did because the publis demanded it
Prussia invades Austria at Silesa breaking the Pragmatic Sanction and eventually is joined by france which then forces britain to join the fight to check frances power, end in a stalemate and treaty
domestic system (putting out system) involved many different groups of peasants, some would make yarns, then another group would weave into clothes, and this was the system before rev.
spinning jenny, the water frame, steam engine,
textile manufacturinf moved into factories
sprung from industrial revolution, caused by a surplus of cunsimer goods by a demand for these goods in daily life, people had more disposable income. the new things were always needed/wanted over the old. effects: challenged the social assumptions of teh day, fashion wasin demand,
new crops and new methods of farming, innovations in agriculture like the enclosure method, potato, animal husbadry, FEWER PEOPLE COULD PRODUCE MORE FOOD there was a surplus of food now, a mass agriculture
The papacy moved to Avignon, France, which meant revenue would go there, wihch caused need for a pope in italy, Great Schism
French and Italian wanted their own popes, there were two popes and confusion in power, where the revenue would go to. UNAM SANCTUM- church's way of trying to say theyre over state, temporal authority under spiritual. Ended by the Council of Constance
against the church teachings, first examples to want reformation in chuch. preached in vernacular and wanted secular ruling.
followers were Hussites, they were partly with wycliff in breaking against the church.
divine predestination, replaced lutheranism as leading protestant
posted on the door of a church, they were meant to reform many corruptions in the catholic church especially the selling ot indulgences.
This diet ordered Luther to recant. but ltuher said that to do so would be to act against the scripture and in May he was made an outlaw. DECLARED LUTHER AN OUTLAW
ordered all lutherans to convert back to catholics
agreement which recognized cuius regio, eius religio or ruler of a land picks the religion. somewhat religious toleration
Coligny and 3,000 fellow huguenots were killed in Paris. Within three days, attacks across France killed about 20,000 Huguenots.The pope and Spain reportedly celebrates this, because now France would not be able to subdue rebellions in the Netherlands. It became an international struggle to survive against any adversary whose cruelty justified any means of Resistance.
assured religioius freedom to Huguenots , recognized minority religious rights within catholic france. RELIGIOUS TRUCE
Philosophers, books and authors...
Wrote and established the italian vernacular. wrote the divine comedy.
Considered the father of humanism, he held sholastic learning in contempt
pioneer of humanist studies, wrote the decameron
Johann gutenburg invented the printing press which allowed ideas to spread more rapidly than ever in the vernacular.
satire of how rulers would rule, not an actual guide to ruling
Written by Thomas More
Was a criticism of the society in his time
established the english vernacular, viewed govt through individual rulers
Satire of chivalry in spain
the father of empiricism attacked the idea that most truth had already been discovered, experimentation in science
wrote about dogmatism and skepticism, believed in human sin and predestination, REASON SHOULD DRIVE FAITH TO GOD allied with the jansenists, believed in reason and faith
he developed trhe scientific method, rejected the scholastiocs and philosphy, advocated mathematics and reason
published first model of solar system that included motions with it
wrote about a heliocentric system, earth isnot the center of the universe
thought people to be generally bad, selfish centered beasts that needed a strong authority so that they wouldnt destroy themselves . levaiathan included a strong central auhtority fgiure
Newton's ideas and mathematical works. talked about gravity and objects in motion. newton believed in empiricism
swaid that philisophy could not win against rigorous analysis. believed people are generally good, clean slate, govt must protect the basic natural rights of people.
greatest enlightened writer, he made a satire of his social socialness in the time
said that govt and people must be bound in social contract fro common good, people give up some liberties in exchange for the govt protecting their natural rights. in emile he wrote about a conservative role for women
the most important work during the elightenment, inclded enlightened writeing on politics and the social system, economic liberty, and we should focus on the individual. "LET THE INDIVIUAL PURSUE THEIR OWN SELFISH ECONOMIC INTERESTS
population might surpass the food supply
if you raise wages, parents will have more children and work in labor, which would eventually lower wages
Baroque, Renaissance, Rococo, Dutch Golden Age, etc.
petrarch considered the father of humanism, main character of renaissance. which means rebirth. focused on education and reform. arts got better with shading and detail.
esoecially wanted reform in the church because of their location with holy roman empire, erasmus, martin luther, john calvin
overexaggeration of man, made them look heroic and musclar, was high renaissance art
extremely elaborate art with lots of gold and really lavish
How europe was unified
Cromwell sandwich n all that stuff
king of scotland and son of queen of scots, developed impositions instead of calling parl for revenue, divine right of kings, doubted his protestant loyalty
distrust w/ monarchy caused parl not to fun war w/ spain, he resorted to other means of revenueeventually parl had to meet in 1628 but would do anything until he agreed w/ petition of Right , that no freeman should be imprisonedw/out due cause troops cant sleep in your house, he agreed but didnt keep his word. made peace w/ france and spain
Split between supporters of the King (Cavaliers) and supporters of Parl. (Roundheads) conflict because of distrust in monarchy and parl.
England now a Puritan Republic under Ovliver Cromwell, who conquered Ireland and Scotland w/ his army which Parl. wanted to disband, so he disbanded them and titled himself Lord Protector. He dies in 58 and England is ready to restore monarchy in 60
After cromwell england is ready to restore the monarchy. returned to status quo of 1642. declaration of indulgence and test act passed.
restoration of the monarchy
england returned to status quo of 1642 w/ heriditary monarchy
issued a declaration of indulgence which tolerated almost all religion (cath. prot.) but after Parl. passed a Test Act
passed by Parl. recquires all officers in army to swear an oath againt catholocism
all laws against other religions like clarendon code suspended, which then caused parl to refuse to fund war until he revoked it.
was the first prime minister, had ability to handle House of Commons. he maintained peace and spread fprgeign trade.
demanded repeal of the test act, but parl refused so he disbanded it and appointed catholics to high points. there was a catholic heir to throne, so parl. invited Will of Orange to invade
limited power of monarchy giving more power to parl.. gauranteed the civil liberios of the english nobles. monarchs would be subject to laws of parl and rule under their consent
provided for the english crown to fo to the protesteant house of Hanover where George I became king in 1714
put being of netherlands over religion, was leader of teh movement for independence of netherlands from spain,
17 provinces in netherlands, catholic and protestant, joined in oppsition against spain after the Spanish Fury which left 7000 dead in the streets.
southern provinces in netherlands fromed a union and made peace w/ spain, so northern provinces formed the Union of Utrcht,
calvanism and religious division cause for war, people sent from spain thrown out the window in prague and thats what starts the war, calvinist declaring themselves.
4 periods: bohemian, danish, swedish, swedishfrench. ended w/ TREATY OF WESTPHALIA