AP Euro Timeline

General/Political History

Wars, Rulers, Treaties, etc.

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

English king edward 3 put a claim to the french throne, weakness in france was internal disunity and english had the long bow. english won with Treaty of Troyes which made Henry V king of england and france, he dies and his son was king of both until Joan of Arc rose in france and united the people which gave them a series of victories and took back the french throne

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

Spread from Asia by rats, who would ride in boats to highly and densely populated ports or cities. Spread due to bad sanitary conditions and treatments. Effects: Centralized monarchy, increased need for church and church income, questioned peoples faith, emergence of middle class/artisans.

The Golden Bull


7 members who elected the holy roman emperor



peasantry was forced to pay increasing taxes by nobles to secutr their rights, so they rose up in rebellions called jacqueris

Witch hunts

1400 - 1650

100,000 people killed in witch hunts, most of whom were women. they were believed to have bad magic. ended because of scientific revolution and rationality surpassing superstitions

Council of Constance


John huss won an audience here, went thinking he could convince them of his ideas but was accused of heresy and condemned instead

Start of the Spanish Empire/ Columbus


Columbus discovers the new world and all fo its free resources, inluding the slaves and gold and silver which all lead up to rise of Spanish empire but also bring it down

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1590

exchange of animals goods and disease between NW and old world, introduciotn of new species of animals and new diseases which killed many people

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

drove venetians out of rome, but france kept comin back so they had the CONCORDAT OF BOLOGNA which gave france control over its clergy in exchange of its recognition of pope superiority and collection of taxes by church in france

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Henry married wife Catherine, who only popped out a female, so he wanted an annulment which wouldn't be approved by the church. He then decided to take matters in his own hands and made the Reformation Parliament, which met in 1529, was a 7 year period, and eventually resulted in the declaration that the King was the head of the church of england, ACT OF SUPREMACY

German Peasant revolts

1524 - 1525

peasants opposed their leaders who were secular and ecclesiastical. resulted in tens of thousands of peasant deaths

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

reformed church policies sush as the selling of church offices, strengthened bishop offices. council under popes control.

Mary I of england

1553 - 1558

catholic, married Philip II pf Spain, tried to put out all attempts at protestanism

Elizabeth I of England

1558 - 1603

daughter of Henry VIII. issued her 39 ARTICLES(1563) made a moderate protestanism which would be teh official religion w/in the church of england.

Dutch Revolt against Spain

1559 - july 22, 1581

Philip of Spain tried to impose his will on netherlands.
wanted to tighten control of catholic heirarchy over them, who were mostly calvinist and tolerant of religions. got tithes from councils which were refused to be paid. ghent and utrecht and on july 22 1581 declared philip no longer their ruler.

Spanish Armada

1585 - 1588

huge fleet of Spanish ships which were used to stop rebellions and in the wars. was defeated by the english which fueled protests errywhere

Henri IV France

1589 - 1610

Henry of Navarre became henri 4 after henri III was assassinated. said that Paris is worth a mass after he converted to catholicism, and proclaimed the edict of nantes

Loius XIII and Richeliu

1610 - 1643

righeliu kept habsburg armies tied down to protect france, made france a leading power,

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

had absolutism in france, and defended the divinde right of the kind by saying letet cest moi, or i am the state, drained power from the nobles especially with versailles, was the sun king, but had a massive debt

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - July 1713

After charles the sufferer dies, one of Louis' grandsons has claim to be heir of the throne of Spain which could possibly combine both lands, so everyone else teams up against them to check France's power. Ends with peace made in Utrecht, TREATY OF UTRECHT

Charles the VI of Austria

1711 - 1740

HAPSBURG charles had no male heir, and fearing that on his death surrounding territories might invade he made the pragmatic sanction where he soke the approval of surrounding realms his family and major foreign powers although this was broken almost immediately after his death

Treaty of Utrecht


replaced the spanish habsburgs w/ the French Bourbons.
ended the war of spanish succession

War of Jenkins Ear


The spanish stopped some merchant traders, british, and cut off jenkins ear, which he had in a jar and then showed to the parliament to make them go to war with Spain, which they did because the publis demanded it

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia invades Austria at Silesa breaking the Pragmatic Sanction and eventually is joined by france which then forces britain to join the fight to check frances power, end in a stalemate and treaty

Industrial Revolution

1800 - 1900

domestic system (putting out system) involved many different groups of peasants, some would make yarns, then another group would weave into clothes, and this was the system before rev.
spinning jenny, the water frame, steam engine,
textile manufacturinf moved into factories

Consumer revolution

1800 - 1850

sprung from industrial revolution, caused by a surplus of cunsimer goods by a demand for these goods in daily life, people had more disposable income. the new things were always needed/wanted over the old. effects: challenged the social assumptions of teh day, fashion wasin demand,

Agricultural revolution

1800 - 1900

new crops and new methods of farming, innovations in agriculture like the enclosure method, potato, animal husbadry, FEWER PEOPLE COULD PRODUCE MORE FOOD there was a surplus of food now, a mass agriculture


Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The papacy moved to Avignon, France, which meant revenue would go there, wihch caused need for a pope in italy, Great Schism

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

French and Italian wanted their own popes, there were two popes and confusion in power, where the revenue would go to. UNAM SANCTUM- church's way of trying to say theyre over state, temporal authority under spiritual. Ended by the Council of Constance

John Wycliff and the Lollards

1385 - 1401

against the church teachings, first examples to want reformation in chuch. preached in vernacular and wanted secular ruling.

John Huss


followers were Hussites, they were partly with wycliff in breaking against the church.

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

divine predestination, replaced lutheranism as leading protestant

Luther's 95 Theses

october 31, 1517

posted on the door of a church, they were meant to reform many corruptions in the catholic church especially the selling ot indulgences.

Diet of Worms

April 1521

This diet ordered Luther to recant. but ltuher said that to do so would be to act against the scripture and in May he was made an outlaw. DECLARED LUTHER AN OUTLAW

diet of Augburg


ordered all lutherans to convert back to catholics

Peace of Augsburg


agreement which recognized cuius regio, eius religio or ruler of a land picks the religion. somewhat religious toleration

Saint Bartholomew's Massacre

August 24, 1572

Coligny and 3,000 fellow huguenots were killed in Paris. Within three days, attacks across France killed about 20,000 Huguenots.The pope and Spain reportedly celebrates this, because now France would not be able to subdue rebellions in the Netherlands. It became an international struggle to survive against any adversary whose cruelty justified any means of Resistance.

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

assured religioius freedom to Huguenots , recognized minority religious rights within catholic france. RELIGIOUS TRUCE

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas

Philosophers, books and authors...


1265 - 1321

Wrote and established the italian vernacular. wrote the divine comedy.


1304 - 1374

Considered the father of humanism, he held sholastic learning in contempt


1313 - 1375

pioneer of humanist studies, wrote the decameron

Printing Press


Johann gutenburg invented the printing press which allowed ideas to spread more rapidly than ever in the vernacular.

Machiavellie- The Prince


satire of how rulers would rule, not an actual guide to ruling



Written by Thomas More
Was a criticism of the society in his time


1564 - 1616

established the english vernacular, viewed govt through individual rulers

Cervantes- Don Quixote


Satire of chivalry in spain

Bacon- Novum Organum


the father of empiricism attacked the idea that most truth had already been discovered, experimentation in science

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

wrote about dogmatism and skepticism, believed in human sin and predestination, REASON SHOULD DRIVE FAITH TO GOD allied with the jansenists, believed in reason and faith

Descartes Discourse on Method


he developed trhe scientific method, rejected the scholastiocs and philosphy, advocated mathematics and reason

Kepler- The New Astronomy


published first model of solar system that included motions with it

Copernicus- On the revolution of heavenly spheres


wrote about a heliocentric system, earth isnot the center of the universe

Hobbes (leviathan)


thought people to be generally bad, selfish centered beasts that needed a strong authority so that they wouldnt destroy themselves . levaiathan included a strong central auhtority fgiure

Newton- Principia Mathematica


Newton's ideas and mathematical works. talked about gravity and objects in motion. newton believed in empiricism

Locke- Treatises on govt


swaid that philisophy could not win against rigorous analysis. believed people are generally good, clean slate, govt must protect the basic natural rights of people.

Voltaire- Candide


greatest enlightened writer, he made a satire of his social socialness in the time

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract


said that govt and people must be bound in social contract fro common good, people give up some liberties in exchange for the govt protecting their natural rights. in emile he wrote about a conservative role for women

Smith- Wealth of NAtions


the most important work during the elightenment, inclded enlightened writeing on politics and the social system, economic liberty, and we should focus on the individual. "LET THE INDIVIUAL PURSUE THEIR OWN SELFISH ECONOMIC INTERESTS

Malthus Principle f Population


population might surpass the food supply

Ricardo- Iron Law of Wages


if you raise wages, parents will have more children and work in labor, which would eventually lower wages


Baroque, Renaissance, Rococo, Dutch Golden Age, etc.

Renaissance in Italy

1400 - 1530

petrarch considered the father of humanism, main character of renaissance. which means rebirth. focused on education and reform. arts got better with shading and detail.

Northern renaissance

1460 - 1540

esoecially wanted reform in the church because of their location with holy roman empire, erasmus, martin luther, john calvin


1500 - 1550

overexaggeration of man, made them look heroic and musclar, was high renaissance art


1550 - 1700

extremely elaborate art with lots of gold and really lavish

European Unification

How europe was unified

English Civil War

Cromwell sandwich n all that stuff

James I of England

1567 - 1624

king of scotland and son of queen of scots, developed impositions instead of calling parl for revenue, divine right of kings, doubted his protestant loyalty

Charles I of England

1624 - 1649

distrust w/ monarchy caused parl not to fun war w/ spain, he resorted to other means of revenueeventually parl had to meet in 1628 but would do anything until he agreed w/ petition of Right , that no freeman should be imprisonedw/out due cause troops cant sleep in your house, he agreed but didnt keep his word. made peace w/ france and spain

english Civil War

1642 - 1646

Split between supporters of the King (Cavaliers) and supporters of Parl. (Roundheads) conflict because of distrust in monarchy and parl.


1649 - 1660

England now a Puritan Republic under Ovliver Cromwell, who conquered Ireland and Scotland w/ his army which Parl. wanted to disband, so he disbanded them and titled himself Lord Protector. He dies in 58 and England is ready to restore monarchy in 60

Restoration of Monarchy


After cromwell england is ready to restore the monarchy. returned to status quo of 1642. declaration of indulgence and test act passed.

Charles II of England

1660 - 1685

restoration of the monarchy
england returned to status quo of 1642 w/ heriditary monarchy
issued a declaration of indulgence which tolerated almost all religion (cath. prot.) but after Parl. passed a Test Act

test act


passed by Parl. recquires all officers in army to swear an oath againt catholocism

declaration of indulgence


all laws against other religions like clarendon code suspended, which then caused parl to refuse to fund war until he revoked it.

The Age of Walpole

1676 - 1745

was the first prime minister, had ability to handle House of Commons. he maintained peace and spread fprgeign trade.

James II of England

1685 - 1688

demanded repeal of the test act, but parl refused so he disbanded it and appointed catholics to high points. there was a catholic heir to throne, so parl. invited Will of Orange to invade

English Bill of Rights


limited power of monarchy giving more power to parl.. gauranteed the civil liberios of the english nobles. monarchs would be subject to laws of parl and rule under their consent

Act of Settlement


provided for the english crown to fo to the protesteant house of Hanover where George I became king in 1714

French Revolution


William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

put being of netherlands over religion, was leader of teh movement for independence of netherlands from spain,

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

17 provinces in netherlands, catholic and protestant, joined in oppsition against spain after the Spanish Fury which left 7000 dead in the streets.

Union of Utrecht

January, 1579

southern provinces in netherlands fromed a union and made peace w/ spain, so northern provinces formed the Union of Utrcht,

The thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

calvanism and religious division cause for war, people sent from spain thrown out the window in prague and thats what starts the war, calvinist declaring themselves.
4 periods: bohemian, danish, swedish, swedishfrench. ended w/ TREATY OF WESTPHALIA