1st semester timeline



1265 - 1321

creates a cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature w/ help of Petrarch


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism
critical textual studies, elitism, and contempt for the learning of the Scholastics were features that he believed in, and as well as many later Humanists

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1377

needed funding to keep papacy alive
-papal taxes expanded
-indulgences were created to raise money - Clement VI

John Wycliff

1320 - 1384

followes called Lollards
ideas gave justification to gov't restriction and even confinscation of Churh properties of England
personal merit was the true basis of religious authority

The Hundred Years of War

may 1337 - October 1453

struggle between France and Englad to gainnational identitiy and control of territory.
Devastated France, Awakened French nationalism and hastened the transition from a feudal monarchy to a centralized state. Burgundy became a major european power. Urged England to make own clothing industry and foreign markets

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

overpopulation, economic depression, famine, and bad health all caused Eurpoe to be weakened
entered francthrough portsin Venice, Genoa, and Pisa
Manufactred luxury items rose in price
Labor supply shrinks Peasant revolts
decline in value of the estates of the nobility

Boccaccio - Decameron


writes a social stinging commentary (exposes sexual and economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior
along with the Decameron, he assembled an Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology

The Golden Bull


7 member electoral collge
finally get an agreement between the princes and the cities

John Huss

1371 - July 6, 1415

Formed Hussites
Rights of royalty against the secular pretentions of the pope
After Huss's death, the HUssites gained sinificant religious reforms and control over the Bohemian church

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

influence rational and statistical thinking

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

France's king Charles V lent support to the cardianls to keep the papacy
2 popes
Concilliar theory of Church Gov't Council of Pisa
Council of Constance Council of Basel
greater responsibilities onnto the latity and secular gov'ts
secular control of national or territorial churches increased
ing asserts power over church



French peasant uprising

Northern Renaissance

1400 - 1509

permitted men and women to live a shared religious life without making formal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
Printing Press
Humanism and Reform

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

elected Martin V as pope after the three contending popes had either rsigned or been deposed

The Printing Press


created by Johann Gutenburg
creates an istant authority for anone who reads
rulersin church and state now had to deal with less credulous and less docile laity
powerful tool for propaganda


1466 - 1536

most famous humanist
mixed classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with Christian ideals of love and piety

Machiavelli - The Prince

1469 - 1527

Machiavelli wrote "The Prince" in 1513 as cynical satire on the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious reccomendation of unprincipled despotic rule
Machiavellian Ruler

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1592

Christoper Columbus's second trip to the Americas brought disease and new livestock.
disease - syphilis
animals - with new animals came new agriculture and crops

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

supressed Borgias & placed their lands of Romagna under papal jurisdiction

John Calvin

1509 - 1576

Calvin, along with Farel, abolished religious ceremonies and holidays withing Geneva
Organized Genevan Church into 4 offices
1) Pastors 2) teachers or doctors to teach and defend true doctrine 3)elders 4) deacons - despense things topoor people

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Married Catherine (Spain) have child, Mary
Henry was also involved w/ Anne Boleyn
the Covocation reconized Henry as the headofthe church of England
Thomas Cranmer invalidating Hery's marriage to Catherine allowing him to marry Anne Boleyn

Jane Seymour gave him the boy h wanted - Edward VI
Got rid of Protestantry

95 Thesis - Martin Luther

October 31, 1517

Luther posts 95 thesis, which protested against the selling of indulgences.
Mostly against John Tetzel and his creation of the card that remmited sins and released unrepentant sinners from punnishment in purgatory
Ideas went far beyond traditional practices and put salvation on the market

Diet of Worms

June 27, 1519

Luther challenged infallibilty of the pope and inerrancies of the church councils
Came up with the idea of salvation by faith alone


1520 - 1580

artistic and philosophic passing of high rennaisance painting

Diet of Worms

April 1521

Luther presents ideas
Luther is ordered to recant, but he resists, so then he is dubbed an outlaw

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants thought Luther to be an ally
Luther originally sympathsized with the peasants, but when it came time to save his own life, he turned on the peasants during their revolts against the landlords
Ended promise of the Reformation as a social and moral force in history

William of Orange (the Silent)

1533 - 1584

placed the well being of the state over religion

Act of Supremacy


declares Henry VIII as only supreme ruler of the church of England

Copernicus; On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres


In his text he described a heliocentric (sun centered) system and retained epicycles. also he discovered that the further away the planet was from the sun, the longer it took to revolve around it

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

strengthened the authority of the local bishops so they could effectively dicipline popular religious practices
curtail the sellin of church offices and other religious goods
Preists mus be trained
reaffirmed the traditional Scholastic education of the clergy

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

advocated the geocentric system, but had ideas that would help Kepler in discovering a heliocentric system and the paths of the planets were not circular, but elyptical

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1547 - 1616

Cervantes wrote Don Quixote, a fictional character, in which was supposed to satirize the chivalric romaces then the popular in Spain
appealed to the philosohes and theologens

English Reform

1550 - 1553

Protestant reformation

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

brought back Catholic religious practices to England

Peace of Augsburg: cuius regio, euis religio

September 1555

ruler of the land will determine its religion

Elizabeth (England) I

1558 - 1603


1560 - 1650

displayed as life in luxury

Thirty Nine Articles


made a moderate Protestantism the official religion within the church of England


1564 - 1616

his works struck many universal human themes, may of which were rooted in contemporary religious traditions

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 4, 1572

got rid of any Frencch opposition to Pope Gregory XIII, to subdue his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

unified opposition to Spain

Union of Utrecht

January 1579

made peace with Spain

Mary Stuart Executed

February 18, 1587

Spanish Armada


Spanish Armada defeated by English

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Edict of Nantes
ended hostility between France and Spain

Edict of Nantes


Heugonots of at least qualified religious freedoms reconizing minority religious rights within what was to remain an officially Catholic country


1599 - 1658

led new model army
defeated royalists in English civil war
conqured Ireland and Scotland
ruled as lord protector

Baroque Art


portrayed religious events, mostly from the Bible

End of Witch Hunts

1600 - 1699

advancements in medicine and rationality evoked the dismissal of the theory of witches

James I

1603 - 1625

publishehd against tobacco, which caused James to rise taxes on it
created a royal monopoly to import tobbacco - helped gov't

Kepler: the New Astronomy


took a Copernicus view to the subject and discover that the universe was infact sun centered.
discovered that cirular orbits would not work for a heliiocentric system, but rather epicycles

Louis XIII: Richlieu

1610 - 1643

worked under Louis XIII
powerful chief minister

Henry IV Assasinated

May 1610

Thirty Years of War

1618 - 1648

religious and political differences between Catholics against Protestants and Calvinists against Luherans
Last religious war
casued the mordern nationalism we see today

Bacon: Novum Oragnum


attacked scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered, and just needed explination


1623 - 1662

'leap of faith'
if God does exist, the believer will gain everything, whereas, if God prove not to exist, comparitively little will have been lost by having believed in him

Charles I

1625 - 1649

levied new trariffs, attempted to collect discontinued taxes, and subjecting land owners to a forced loan
all because the gov't wouldnt fund England for the war and England lost a ton of money

Condemnation of Galileo


it showed the forces of religion covering up scientific knowlege

Descartes: Discourse on Method


rejected scholastic philosophy & education & advocated thought on mathematical law

Louis XIV: Mazarin & Personal Reign

1643 - 1715

-concentrate unprecidented authority in the monarchy
Personal Reign
-Symolized an Absolute Monarchy



the restoration of the monarchy after death of Oliver Cromwell

Royal Society of London


followed Francis Bacon

Charles II

1660 - 1685

restored the English monarcy
also tried scandlous things to gain money from Louis XIV

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

made sustained attacks on the boyars
developed a navy

James II

1685 - 1688

Glorious Rev.
direct attack on the local authority of the nobles, landowners, the church and other corprate bodies

Newton - Principia Mathematicia


inertia applied to bodies both at rest snf in motion.
the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction

Glorious Revolution


proclaimed William of Orange (William II) and Mary II as the new monarchs

English Bill of Rights


limited powers of monarchy and garunteed the civil liberties of the English privlaged classes

Locke: Treaties on Gov't (1&2)


-cleared philosophical "decks" of a long-standing traditional argument
-argument for a gov't that is both responsible for, & responsive to the concerns of the people

Agriculural Revolution: Enclosures


replaces open field method
greater commercial profits



associated with the aristocracies of the Old Regime
portrayed aristocracy as lavish and extravagant

Act of Settlement


Provided for the English crown to got to the protestant House of Hanover in Germany if Queen Anne died without issues

Charles VI (r.): Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

the Pragmatic Sanction was created by Charles VI to insure a single line of inheritance to the throne (Maria Theresa)

Louis XIV Death


after War of Spanish Sucession, France was in turmoil when Louis died

Mississippi Buble

1719 - 1720

John Law came up with the Mississippi Company which was a monopoly onm trading privlages with the French Colony of Louisiania in NA

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Fredrick II invaded the Austrain province of Silesia and broke Pragmatic Sanction
British stood with Austria against France, which worsened France's chances

Fredrick (the Great) II of Prussia

1740 - 1786

embodied enlightened absolutism
Promotion through merit
most religious toleration
codified Prussian laws

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

preserved Hapsburg Empire as a major political power

Diplomatic Revolution


Defensive aliance between France and Austria

The Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

caused by Fredrick II
left major consequences for the British colonies in North America

Voltaire: Candide


satire that attacked war, religious persecution, and unwarrented optimism about humans

Rousseau: Social Contract


outlines Rousseau's perfect political structure
overcome the evils of contemporary politics and society

Spinning Jenny


permitted the spinning of numerous spindles on a single machine
increased factory work

Joseph II of Austria

1765 - 1790

Centralized authority
Extended religious toleration to Lutherans, Calvinists, and the Greek Orthodox
Also granted Jews the same toleration
Abolished many tarrifs and most of serfdom

Water Frame


designed to permit the production of a purely cotton fabric rather than a cotton fabric containing aluminum fibers
increased productivity in factories

Smith: Wealth of Nations


gov't should provide schools, armies, navies, and roads
also undertake certain commercial ventures

- four stage theory

Steam Engine


james watt
pumped water from mines and in Cornwall

Malthus: Principle of Population


population must eventually strip food supply

French Revolution

Estates General Meets


2nd estate wanted to limit monarchy's power
3rd estate wanted to avoid control by nobles
3rd wanted power

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

First truely "Revolutionary" act of the revolution

Fall of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

Peasants marched into Bastille to get weapons for their militia and to free political prisioners
98 killed
Peasants aqquired weapons and freed prisioners (out of all 7 None were political prisioners)

The Great Fear

August 4, 1789

To keep the peasants calm the aristocrats
- ablolished right to evade taxes -abolished legal classes
- abolished feudal dues and obligations -abolished serfdom
-abolished church tithes -opened up gov't jobs to merit and equality before the law

Nobles Renounce Feudal Privilages

August 4, 1789

nobles renounced their privilages to save themselves (the Great Fear) this gave all people in France same and equal laws

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26, 1789

Men have rights and the gov't protects those rights
Freedom for arbitatry arrest
Freedom of assembly, sppech, religion, and press garunteed

March of the Fishwives

October 5, 1789 - October 6, 1789

Persian women march, armed on Versilles
caused by rise in bread prices
"a hungry woman is an angry woman"

Declaration of Pillntz

August 17, 1791

under Leopold
if anything happens to the royal family, they will attack

Legislative Assembly Meets

October 1, 1791

Politically segregated themselves

War Declared on Austria

April 20, 1792

Enemies everywhere, so the French fight wars to get rid of the enemies

Louis XVI executed

January 21, 1793

He was put on trail as a citizen
on trail for conspiriacy against the people

Levée en Masse

August 23, 1793

Created by Lazare Carnot
essentially a military draft for men throughout the entire population

Danton Executed

April 1794

accused of profiting from the Rev. rejecting link between politics and moral virtue, and insufficiently in militiant on the war

Cult of the Supreme Being

June 1794

Law of 22 Prairial

June 10, 1794

quickened the killing - no more trials

Robespirre's Fall

July 26, 1794 - July 27, 1794

26th - Robespierre announces that people are plotting against him
27th - Robespierre captured and beheaded