Architectural Deceits come in 3 forms:
Suggestion of structure
Painting of surfaces
The use of cast or machine-made ornaments
3 Magnets - Town, Country, and Town-Country
Raymond Unwin + Barry Parker did the arch
When the population exceeded 32,000 a new city would be formed
Documented the dismal living conditions in NYC tenaments.
NYC tried to help with ordinances, but was met with resistance by everyone involved
Ornament is OK, as long as it is integrated into the design process from the beginning.
Form ever follows function.
Came up with the model skyscraper.
Henry van de Velde:
Use materials how they are meant to be used.
People need to be both artists and rational thinkers.
Don't forget about the past but move on to the future in an educated way.
Adapting older structures is ok.
Progress can't be forced, but must come on its own.
Ornament is primitive and not economical.
We as a civilization have outgrown ornament.
Frank Lloyd Wright:
Buildings, furnishings, and environments are all part of the building.
All parts of the building work together
The Arts and Crafts movement has given a new shape to buildings
Modern buildings are brutal and lack culture
Muthesius & Van de Velde:
Muthesius - standardise the new styles
Van de Velde - standardization should not happen
Marinetti & Sant'Ella:
Endorses technology, proper material use, and reasoned plan
Rejects old buildings, classical forms, and using new materials to emulate old ones.
Architecture should be the driving force behind the betterment of humanity
All public buildings should be picked by anonymous competitions
The old focuses on the individual & the new focuses on the universal
Traditions, dogmas, and individual pride get in the way of progress
Glass, iron, and concrete provide new opportunities for new forms
New arch. shouldn't draw inspiration from history, but rather from its own vision of space
Ultimate aim of all visual arts is the complete building
Art can't be taught but individual crafts can be
Collaboration between arch. and other disciplines required
Group formed to "liberate" art and provide it to the masses
Arch. should be an ally to the other arts
Museums should be available to the public
Architecture is the expression of man's noblest thoughts
Gothic arch. is the pinnacle of architecture
Exhibitions are good Things
Naum Gabo/Antoine Pevsner:
Reject solid mass, color, decoration
Buildings should not be plastic, but should convey movement
Mass - geometrical and mathematical forms are beautiful
Surface - best if divided by direct and simple lines
Plan - "the generator"
Regulating lines bring order to architecture
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe:
Office buildings should be undivided and made of concrete, iron, and glass
Buildings consist of skin and bones - columns and curtain walls
Old towns are unorganized, dirty, and unworthy of the age
Cars and their speed will change the city forever
Le Corbusier/ Pierre Jeanneret:
Piloti; Roof Garden; Free plan; Free facade; Horizontal windows
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe:
The new era is a fact regardless of our acceptance
We must establish new values for this new era
Frank Lloyd Wright:
The house is a machine for living but it also has a symbolic meaning
Architects should not box up spaces
Modern architecture is married to the ground
Interior space is as vital as the exterior
4 Keys to Planning: Housing, work, recreation, traffic
All dimensions of the city must be based on the human scale
Technology has enabled the reproduction of art but has diminished the aura that surrounds artwork
Geometric design and order are at the heart of architecture
There is little collaboration between architects - holding back arch.
Modernists disregard history and precedent
2nd Gen. modernists emphasize structure, precedent, regionalism
Main Ideas contradictory to Robert Moses
4 generators of diversity: mixed use, short city blocks, buildings of different ages, concentration of urban population
International Style is too simple
Function & Structure is in the Zeitgeist
Building partis should be all-encompasing
Giulio Carlo Argan:
The search for type establishes a connection with history and gives architecture legitimacy
Type allows for a base design and thus variations upon it.
A study on human interactions and the factors that drove them
He related physical structure to the formation of friendships
2 Factors - Physical distance and positional relationships
Advocates complexity and rejects the glass box - less is a bore
Arch. should not oversimplify everything, should solve all problems at once
Rejects the free plan and advocates "things within things" plan.
Vernacular architecture acts as context to the high style buildings
Vernacular buildings have a type which can be altered as needed
Vernacular buildings are best analyzed by construction techniques
Buildings should adapt to their context
A balance between a traditional city and a modern one is needed
Venturi & Scott-Brown
Architecture is influenced by the speed of the car
Advocates the use of the 'decorated shed" over the "duck"
An architecture of communication over an architecture of space
Collage is the ideal way to make a city
Cities should remind us of the past but look towards the future
Foxes vs Hedgehogs
Classical utopias are meant to be ideas
Activist utopias are meant to be built
Modernist architecture tried to achieve utopia, but failed.
Architecture is the result of details which add meaning
Tectonics unify the tangible and intangible
The joint is the beginning of ornament
Design should respond to local social, political, economical, and environmental problems and conditions
Design should be regional, not universal
HIstoricism studies institutions in their historical context
Arch. should use history to guide design but improve upon it.
History should be viewed subjectively to be properly examined
Arch. has been reduced to scenography
Tectonics have been lost as an art and need to be brought back.
Arch. forms should embody structure and vice-versa
Vernacular architecture is not built by designers, but rather by laymen to meet their needs.
Positive theory says how the world is
Normative theory says how the world should be
Positive can lead to normative
Normative theory should be questioned and improved upon
Phenomenology makes architecture meaningful
Introduces genius loci - the spirit of the place
Chronicles the slum problem in urban areas
Europe - public housing solution
America - private sector
Solutions proposed because of fire, decease, real estate prices
Postmodernism stresses individualism and piecework solutions
Modernism stresses universal solutions and a top-down approach
Postmodernism accepts fragmentation, individuality, chaos, and anarchy.
Postmodernism is a collage of fragments within a single space
Presence, Significance, Materiality, Emptiness
The world is important because of itself and doesn't need symbolism
Folding structures are heterogeneous and satisfy both the theoretical and practical needs of today's designers.
Folding allows buildings to relate to their neighbors through reflections
Schneekloth & Shibley:
Placemaking should include users and builders as well as designers
Similar and related to critical regionalism
Theory poses alternative solutions to the status quo
Theory is biased, unlike the facts of history
Architects often place too much emphasis on theory
Held and McGrew:
Globalization - interconnectedness of economies, politics, and ideas of the world that is changing the notion of nation-states.
Transformationalists - nation-states hold power over their borders, but it's not absolute. Globalization drives change in the world.
Hyperglobalists - nation-states are unnatural, they claim that a truly global civilization will arise.
Globalization is a historical process that can be traced centuries back.
Digital narratives are frequently utopian, socialist, and futurist
Computer skills are similar to craft skills, writing, and publishing.
Digital narratives are disembodied, not physical
Digital and non-digital are not exclusive
Counters the argument that digitalization will eliminate architecture
Skeptic of globalization says that its neither good nor bad and that the nation-state is resilient but not dead
Globalization is blurring the concepts of space and place
Economic, political, and cultural processes shape globalization
Postmodernism responded to individual problems - everyone has a voice; one universal solution no longer adequate; no meta-narrative
1968 - Pivotal year for social events.
Modernism didn't die out in the 1970s. It was still used in large-scale commercial projects
Shows examples of tech and engineering driving aesthetics.
The world is made of boundaries pierced by network access points
In the digital world, destinations outweigh the journey of the message - who cares where email is in between inboxes
You no longer have a home turf, you are always connected
The American skyscraper drove the European imagination
Skyscrapers were not generally modernist buildings
NYC had taller buildings due to better soil conditions
1916 NYC Zoning Code; Chicago Tribune competition
No prevailing theory since modernism
Postmodernists realized that architecture can't change the world
Theory is getting replaced by practice
Postmodernism is an obsolete idea with a convoluted language
Claims subjectivity, but opinions are driven by media, politics, etc