The First Amendment protects some of the most important rights of humans. With the establishment clause, it ensures that no one's religious rights will be infringed upon. It guarantees that people will be able to say what they want unrestricted, as well as gather, and the ability to appeal to the government directly.
The sixth amendment ties into the fifth amendment. It also protects the rights of citizens when the government is trying to enforce justice. It makes sure that trials are public and that people will have access to an attorney. Regardless of wealth. They are also able to see who is accusing them, and acquire their own witnesses.
This amendment enshrines in the constitution that a citizens right to privacy and private property. It keeps the authorities from overreaching with their powers. This is important for any government that has the best intentions for its citizens above its own power.
This amendment ensures a person's guilt will be decided by trial. Instead of by a judge in the pay of the government. This is to ensure neutrality and impartiality amongst the courts.
This important amendment keeps the government from arbitrarily deciding on justice. It prevents the government from sending people to jail for the rest of their life just because they suspect them of something. It also keeps them from being tried for something over and over again for the same crime. It keeps someone from being forced to testify against themselves.
The eighth amendment keeps the government from inflicting inhumane punishments on the guilty. It keeps fines from being exorbitant. It is another important and necessary part of maintaing human rights when dealing with issues of justice.
The thirteenth amendment ends the vile insult to human dignity known as slavery. Slavery was a system which attempted to strip humans of their basic rights by denying that they were even human. This is one of the most important amendments, and forever changed our country for the better.
The fifteenth amendment attempts to give necessary and important voting rights to more citizens after some states tried to limit those rights to African-Americans. While not perfect, (women were still denied suffrage) it helped continue to fight for equality.
The terrible thing about this amendment is that it took so long. This finally made women's suffrage legal and was yet another step towards equality in the United States. Everything was not perfect at the time (Jim Crow laws, distinct lack of gender equality), but this was an important win for progress.