Ap Euro 1st semester

Ty Schnurr Period 3 McAvoy



1265 - 1321

Dante was an Italian poet in the Middle ages.
He wrote one of the most literary works, Divine Comedy.


1304 - 1374

Petrach was one of the earliest humanists.
He was considered the father of humanism.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The Avignon Papcy was the period where the Pope moved to Avignon and ruled the Catholic Church
More money went there
Little bit of coruption


1313 - 1375

Boccaccio was a Italian Humanists during the Renaissance.
He wrote the Decameron which talked about human behavior. He was also frieds with Petrach.

100 years war

1337 - 1453

long bows
streathened monarch weakened nobles
french population is desimated
prolonged the church crisis
new nations emerged
no banking systems

black death

1347 - 1352

one third of the population was killed.
economic depression, famine, reduced the over populated europe, a lot of death... dah dah dah. :o

The Golden Bull


The Golden Bull was an agreement between the princes of the Holy Roman Empire where a eletoral colledge would vote for the next emperor.

Renaissance in Italy

1357 - 1527

4 groups
-old Rich, new rich, capitalist, poor
Money new technologies and art



Peasant revolts from the Black Death
Nobles were weakened
Beginning of feudism

the great schism

1378 - 1417

there where two popes
people lost faith in the ligitimacy of the pope in general
it got up to three popes at one time

councel of constance

1414 - 1418

votes from nations
end the schism

Lollards (John Wycliffe)


Church and bible not instinct
Personal Marit
Threat to the pope and church

Hussites: John Huss


doubts the specialty of the clurigy
accused of haresy and then burned
very dogmatic

Printing Press


It was a new way totransfer information
It caused the reformation to expode across europe

Decline of Gothic Art


Gothic Art was the main type of art used in Europe during the Middle Ages.
It was replaced by Renaissance art but would later influenced other European styles.


1450 - 1527

distortion of the human figure, a flattening of pictorial space, and a cultivated intellectual sophistication


1466 - 1536

Erasmus was a humanist that sought to reform some of the Church.
His beliefs sparked conflict with the pope and he later recanted his beliefs. Despite this, many of his ideas found their way into the Reformation.

Ferdinand and Isabella reign and miarrage

1469 - 1543

Freninand and Isabella’s marriage united the kindoms of Aragon and Castile.
Ferninand and Isabella unified many parts of Spain during their rule.
They also ended religous toleration and began killing those that weren’t Catholic.
Sponsered Colobus’s expedition to the New World.


1473 - 1543

Nicolaus Copernicus was one of the major causes of the Scientific Revolution.
He questioned the Ptolemaic System and came up with a heliocentric solar system instead.

Northern renaissance

1480 - 1550

the printing press, making essays, treatises, and literature available throughout Europe

Witch Hunts

1480 - 1570

Witch-hunts rose in times of disaster and fell during times of peace.
Most victims of these hunts were women due to using magic not authorized by the church.
They were ended due to the rise of reason, the hunts getting out of control, and the shear brutality of the executions.


1483 - 1546

posted his grievances on october 31, 1517
faith alone
common practice

Commercial revolution


economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism

henry VIII reign

1491 - 1547

6 marriages
invaded france

Columbus and the Spanish Empire


In the year 1492, Columbus discovered the Americas.
This led to Spain conquering both the mighty Aztecs and Incas in search for gold.
Spain later created colonies in the Americas to further it’s wealth.

columbian exchange

1492 - 1648

the transfer of food, people and disease to and from america to europe
deits and lifestyle were changed on both continents

Early Exploration-Portugal and Spain


Portugal and Spain began to create over seas empires in the late 15th century.
They conquered much of South and Central America and found faster routes to get to India.

Italy's decline by invasions

1494 - 1527

After years of entering the Renaissance.
The Italian states where invaded by France.
They made an alliance and pushed back the French twice but where later crushed thus ending the Italian Renaissance.

agricultural revolution

1500 - 1850

more food
inovations that make farming more effician
good benifets
except rise of bread cost
-animal husbandry
-iron plow
-seed drill
-rotation of crops
enlossure mothod
-more food, money
-almost private property

Pope Julius II Reign

1503 - 1513

Pope Julius II was the Pope who regain the Church’s control over Romagna and secured the Papal States.
He later gave the French king control over the French Clergy in exchange for recognizing his authority.

Calvin/ Geneva

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was the founder of Calvinism during the refromation.
He believed in pre-destination and that nothing should distract you from god.
He was responsible for the religous reformation of Geneva.
Geneva was a city where people revolted against the Church. After winning, John Calvin reformed the government so that the Protestant church ruled the city.
This caused Geneva to become a haven for Protestants fleeing from religous percecution.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1517

Clergy were under monarchs rule- act of supremacy
Conservative about religion
Head of the church
English reformation-catholic

Machiavelli the prince


How to rule, rule by tyran

Mary I of England

1516 - 1558

Mary I was the Queen of England after here half brother Edward VI died.
She attempted to return England to Catholicism by killing or exiling Protestants.

95 Theses Martin Luther


faith alone
started to get people thinking about the reformation
didn't intend to start a new religion
common practice


1517 - 1563

started in northern europe
more ideas, education, discusion
protesants breake away

Diet of Worms


Martin Luther with the council by the holy romen empire
only 2 sacraments
denied the infallibility of the pope
ML was excommunitated by the curch

german peasant revolts

1524 - 1526

series of local revolts
divine support would be redressed
100,000 peasant killed
try to increase social and political position

william of orange

1533 - 1584

WIlliam of Orange was the leader of the Durch revolt against the Spanish.
This led to the creation of the Netherlands and the House of Orange.

english reformation


Henry VIII was the head of the church in England
England broke away from the church

John Calvin


birth of calvanism

council of trent

1545 - 1563

no docrinal consessions
eliminate the corruption
papal bulls
1/2 protstent go back to cathlicism

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was a reponse by the Catholic Church to the Reformation.
They were tasked with reforming the Church inorder to regain all their lost followers.
Their reforms brought many Protestants back to Catholicism.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Brahe was a Danish astronomer who tried to prove the Ptolemaic solar system.
Despite his work to prove the Ptolemaic, much of his findings were used by Kepler to support the Coperinicus sytem.

Baroque Art

1550 - 1750

Baroque art was art that used the Baroque style that played on heavy colors and extreme details.

Henri IV

1553 - 1610

Began the policies that were the foundation of royal absolutism
Limited the power of the parlements
Monopoly on: gunpowder, miners, salt
Funds on the king

Peace of Augsburg


The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty made by Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League over religion.
They issued the Cuius regio, eius religio which allowed the ruler of the state to determine the official religion.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Elizabth I was the Queen of England after Mary I.
She allowed religous toleration of most religous groups and beat The Armada of Spain.
She also had Mary, Queen of Scots executed for treason.

act of surpremacy


queen is the "upreme governor"
religous toleration

Religious wars

1562 - 1598

9 separate wars
Religion and politics was a factor
Nobility tried to take the kings position
France diversities- Catholicism, Huguenots

French religious wars

1562 - 1598

Huguenots- nobles resisting the king
Catholic- king
Religion and politics are factors

Thrity Nine Articles


Queen Elizabeth I made this document to make Protestantism the offical religion of England, replacing Catholicism.


1564 - 1616

Shakespeare was the greast English playwriter.
He wrote satires on occuences in history.
They often stroke universal human themes and were very popular.

Dutch revolt

1566 - 1664

Clash of cultures
Successful revolt of this Dutch
Dutch Protestant
Spanish catholic

James I

1566 - 1625

James I was the king of England who ruled after Queen Elizabeth I.
He tried to end the need for Paliment by using impositions but only angered the Protestants.
His government was corrupted and he had bad foreign policies which would contsibute to the English Revolution.

Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands

1568 - 1648

Due to unrest with Spanish ruele, the Spanish Netherlands began to revolt against Spain.
The Nothern Netherland states became independent but weren’t recognized unto the Treaty of Westpholia.
The United Netherlands would later become the dominant sea power.


1571 - 1630

Kepler was a assistant to the astronomer Brahe and believed in the Copernicus System.
He used Brahe’s data to explain the planets’ orbits which was the biggest problem with the system.

Rise of the Netherlands-Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

After gaining independence from Spain, the Netherlands created a vast overseas empire and dominated sea trade.
They had religous toleration and contol over many colonies.

St Bartholomew's Massacre


Violence against the Huguenots
3,000 Huguenots killed in one day
20,000 killed in one week

Pacification of Ghent

1576 - 1584

Northern and southern provinces revolt against Spain

Union of Utrecht


Brings the northern Dutch together

Mary Stuart Executed


Mary Stuart was a contender for the English throne and an oppentent to Queen Elizabeth.
After having a failed attempt on her life.
Queen Elizabeth had Mary executed for treason.
This ended Catholic hopes of reconcerting England.

Spanish Armada


The Spanish Armada's task was to overthrow protestant England lead by Queen Elizabeth I.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Thomas Hobbes was a philosoper during the Scientific Revolution.
He supported a absolute monarchy and stated that men are natural evil and can not rebell against the government.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

The Consumer Revolution was the period in which the demand for goods expanded that could be supplied.
It raised the standard of living and was head by Great Britain.


1594 - 1650

Descartes was a mathematician during the Scientific Revolution.
He came up with the famous quote “I think therefore I am” which showed people they didn’t need God to prove their existance.

Blaise Pascal

1613 - 1662

Pascal was a French mathematician that later joined the Jansenism movement.
He also influenced the development of modern economics and social science.



People have to work for the king for a little bit of time
Forced religious toleration
-edict of Nants

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

The 30 Years War caused the destruction of Holy Roman Empire.
Many major European countries were drawn into this such as France and Sweden.
The result allowed the ruler of a territory to decide the religion. It also should Catholics that there was no way to stop Protestants.

Bacon: Novum Organum


A book written by Francis Bacon, Novum Organum attacked scholastic belief and supported emperical evidence.

Charles I reign

1625 - 1649

Charles I was the King of England after James I.
He tried to operate without the help of Parliment but had to when wars started up.
He was dethroned during the English Revolution and executed.

Oliver Cromwell


Parliaments wins over the stuart kings
He makes and alliance with Scotland
Very good leader

Galileo Condemed


Galileo was tried by the Pope over his book Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems because of his findings supporting a heliocentric solar system.



James 1- king vs. parliament
Charles 1- Petition of right- parl try's to restrict kings power
Parliament won

English civil war

1640 - 1646

Who would rule?
Stuart kings wanted absolute power
Puritans and Anglicans
Nobles wanted to keep power

Long Parliment

1640 - 1660

The Long Parliment was the Parliment that met for 20 years during the reign of Charles I. This Parliment also rebelled against the king ending with Charles I executed.

Short Parliment


The Short Paliment was the period in which Charles I recalled Parliment to finace his war against Scottland and then dispanded them the next month because of them wanting more power.

Louis XIV: Mazarin reign

1642 - 1661

Mazarin was the first and last minister to Louis XIV.
During his time, he furthered the monarchies power but the nobles rebelled against the monarchy’s increasing powers.
The nobles failed and led Louis XIV to deeply distrust nobles.

Louis XIV reign

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV was a absolute monarch of France.
Under his rule, France entered into a number of wars which they all lost.
He was built Versailles in order to gain a advantage over the nobility.
This act and the wars would later put France in a huge debt that would lead to a revolution.
He also ended the Edict of Nantes.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

The Fonde was the period in which the French nobility rebelled against the monarchy’s increasing power.
They failed in the end, and Louis XIV took the throne.

Puritan republic

1653 - 1660

Ignored parliament
Spent more money than Charles
Burnout together Great Britain conquered Scotland and Ireland.

The restoration


Parliament taxed themselves to control the government
Odds over religion
Communion in the Anglican church

Charles II reign

1660 - 1685

Charles II was the English King who Parliment gave the throne too after Cromwell died.
He made secret dealings with France against the Dutch and tried to convert England to Catholicism.
He was able to put royal friendly people in Parilment before his death.

Royal Society of London


The Royal Society was a gathering of English scientists to discuse findings and ideas made by others.
They published people’s findings, allowing the population to gain knowledge.
The French Academy of Science (1666) and the Berlin Academy of Science (1700) were other types of societies in Europe.

Peter the Great reign

1682 - 1725

Peter the Great was the ruler of Russia that introduced European ideas into Russian society.
He captured lands by warm seas and created year long ports. He moved Russia’s capital to Saint Petersburg.

James II reign

1685 - 1688

James II was the English king after Charles II.
Despite having royal friendly Parliment members, he constantly fought with Parliment and it ended with him being dethroned and replaced with WIlliam of Orange.

Revocation of the Edict of Naunts


During his reign, Louis XIV revocted the Edict of Nantes in hopes of crushing the Huguenots.
Instead he insighted Protestant anger across Europe.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


During his reign, Louis XIV revocted the Edict of Nantes in hopes of crushing the Huguenots.
Instead he insighted Protestant anger across Europe.

Newton principia mathanalica


A book he wrote
Planets orbit because of gravity
-found out the law
Laws of motion

Glorious revolution


Parliament offer the thrower to William and Mary
William of orange
Gets rid of the catholic problem

English bill of rights


Rights of parliament
No laws without parliament consent
- not the right of individuals

Voltaire: Candide

1694 - 1778

Voltaire was one of the first philosophes during the Enlightenment. He supported ideas of religous toleration and made many plays and books that dominated Europe.

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

The Great Northern War was a attemp by Peter the Great to capture a warm water port from Sweden.
It ended with Sweden defeated and Russia gaining a much needed access to warm waters.


1700 - 1810

Neoclassicism was a art style that dominated the Enlightenment period.
It reintroduced ideas and techniques used by the Greek and Romans and often had morals hidden in paintings.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

The War of Spanish Succession occured because France put Louis’s grandson Philip V on the throne and England, Holland, and the Holy Roman Empire formed an alliance to counter their power.
The war ended with Philip V on the Spanish throne but he lost his claim to the French throne.

Decline of Netherlands


After the death of William III of orange, no new military leader was chosen for Netherlands.
This led to a economic decline with losing naval supremecy and retaining financial dominace.


1712 - 1778

Rousseau was a French philosophe during the Enlightenment. He believed that people should work for the common good in a democracy.
His ideas were later used in the French Revolution.

Treaty of Utretch


The treaty brought the end of the War of Spanish Succession.
It kept Philip V on the Spanish throne in return for him to give up his right to the French throne.

Charles VI: Pragmatic Sanction


Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction in order for his daughter to take the throne with no conflict.
It failed though since he did not provide her with a sufficient military which Prussia played upon.

Frederick Wilhelm reign

1713 - 1740

Frederick Wilhelm was the Prussian ruler that made Prussia the dominant army in Europe.
He rarely used the army and instead used it as a symbol but his strong army was used by his successor Frederick II to capture Silesia.

Death of Louis XIV


The death of Louis XIV weakened the power of France.
The kings that followed him were incompetent of ruling France and only made the finacial crisis worse.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

The Mississippi Bubble was a financial crisis that occured in France.
John Law established a paper currency which was backed by gold but later failed due to a lack of gold to back the money.

Rococo emergence


Rococo style began to emerge in France after Nobles began to return to France following Louis XIV’s death.
It was used to make fun of the aristocracy which insighted anger in those who believed the paintings.

Emergence of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

Walpole rose to power during the reign of George I of England. With royal support and control over the House of Commons, peace was attained throughout England along with loyal citizens.

War pf Jenkins's Ear

1739 - 1748

The War of Jenkins’s ear was a war between Spain and England over Spanish treatement to British mercants.
While minor, it was the start of future wars in Europe that would not end until 1815.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

The War of Austrian Succession started when Prussia captured Silesia from Austria.
Maria Theresa was able to preserve Austria through the event. France entered the war in hopes of crushing Austria and England entered to help Austria.
This later led to French and Indian Wars in North America.

Federick II Reign

1740 - 1786

Federick the II or Federick the Great was an Enlightened monarch of Prussia.
He reformed much of his kingom like allowing Religous toleration, increased agriculture, and promotion through merit.

Marie Theresa reign

1740 - 1780

Marie Theresa took the Austrain throne after her father died. She led Austria through the War of Austrian Succession.
She taxed every social class in Austria and brough relief to serfs.

End of Witch Hunts


Witch-hunts officially ended in Europe in 1750. T
he cause of their end was the rise of reason when dealing with problems, the hunts getting out of control, and the shear brutality of the hunts.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The Industrial Revolution was the period in which companies were revolutionized into efficient, mass producting businesses. This was due to new technologies and and increase in the poplulation which created jobs
lifestyles where changed
Spinning Jenny
-still at home, human powered
Water fraim
-in a factory spinning
steam engine
-unlimited power
-used first for coal and iron

Diplomatic Revolution


The Diplomactic Revolution was that year that England signed an alliance with Prussia and France created an alliance with Austria, completely changing sides and goals of the countries.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years’ War was started when Frederick the Great invaded Saxony in response to fears of France, Saxony, and Austria crushing Prussia.
It spread all the way to North America and caused France to lose all of its North American colonies.



was a satire made by Voltaire about European society.
He attack both the Protestant and Catholic churches and spoke about the human condition.

Treaty of Paris


The Treaty of Paris was the offical end to the Seven Years’ War.

Age of Mercantilism

1763 - 1828

The Age of Mercantilism was the period in which European empires followed mercantilism and used mercantilism when trading with their colonies.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Joseph II was an absolute monarch of Austria.
He allowed religous toleration and abolished serfs.
After his death, though, most of his acts were repealed.


1766 - 1834

Malthus was a clssical economists.
He belived that the middle class would only become worse but later adopted a more optomistic view.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution was the rebellion of England’s thirteen American Colonies.
Despite superior training and technology, Britain lost the war and the colonies.
The revolution caused England to begin to reform various aspects of its government.

Estates General Called


Due to France’s increasing debt, Louis XVI called back the Estaes in hopes of providing finacial aid.
This would later give rise to the National Assembly which would replace the French Government.

The Great Fear


The Great Fear was the widespread panic of France’s peasants when they heard Louis XVI was placing troops in rural districts.
This led to people targeting nobles and clergy for control over wealth and food.

Nobles Renounce Feudal Priveleges.


In response to the Great Fear, the French nobles renounced their feudal priveleges in hopes to calm the peasants.
This put everyone in France under the same and equal laws.

Tennis Court Oath


The tennis court oath was an agreement made by the National Assembly members to not stop their work until they created a Constitution for France.

March of the Fishwives


In response to high bread prices, women marched from Paris to Versailles and captured the king and his family.
They returned him to Paris and thus put him in the center of Paris’s problems.

Storming the Bastile


With news that Louis XVI was stationing troups outside of France, people became frightened and sought a way to defend them selves.
They broke into Paris’s infamous prison the Bastile and killed the guards.
This led to people beliving that they could take on the king and win.

Rights of Man and Citizen


The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was a declaration made by the National Constitute Assembly stating that all men are born free and equal.
It also stated that the law applied to everyone equaly and fairly

Legislative Assembly meets


The Legislative Assembly was the French government that replace the National Constitutional Assembly.
It was a failer and left France in turmoil.

Convention meets


The National Convention was the French government that replaced the Legislative Assembly.
It held very radicall people who sought to make France a complete Republic.
It created the Committee of Public Safety to carry out executive orders.

Tileries Stormed


Due to anger of France not getting any better, peasants attack the king’s home and killed many of his guards.
They captured him and put him on trial where they found him guilty.
This ended the French monarchy.

French war with Austria

1792 - 1802

Due to the execution of Louis XVI, many countries went to war with France. At first, the French lost every battle but were able to win in the end. The war also made Napoleon famous and started his rise to power.

Levee en Masse


The levee en mass was a law made by theCommittee of Public Safety that forced men of France to join the army.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

The Reign of Terror was the period in which the Committee of Public Safety ruled France and executed thousands of people. It was headed by Robspierre and ended with his execution.

Danton Executed


Danton was a member of the Convention and was executed by Robspiere because he feared Danton was getting to powerful. His death led to the Convention to kill Robspiere himself out of fear.

Constitution of Year III-Directory Established


The Constitution of Year III disposed of the National Convention and replaced it with the Directory.
The Directory was a dictatorship but allowed the people to vote in members at the beginning.
It failed in the end and allowed Napoleon to gain power.


1795 - 1799

The Directory was the government that replaced the National Convention.
Despite being a dictatorship, the Directory allowed people to vote in members at the beginning.
It came to an end when Napoleon seized power and overthrew the government.

Napoleon's coup Brumaire


The coup Brumaire was the coup d’etat where Napoleon overthrew the Directory and became the ruler of France.