Devon Smith Timeline

Wars and Military Conflicts

French and Indian War

1756 - 1763

The French and Indian War began with France, wanting to use the area to trade with the Native Americans and get large profit off of these trade items, and the British, with their colonist population expanding and starting to have the need to settle out west, since it was the only way to go. The French territory was out west, which caused the war to start, and in the end, with the help from the colonists, the British side wins. This win for Britain however required much money to be spent on this war, leaving Britain in debt. This caused the king to raise taxes and forbid colonists from going into the recently won territory to avoid more war and debt, which these two actions became one of the many factors for the cause of the Revolutionary War

The American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution was a result of about half the population of America becoming increasingly upset about what the king was doing, and having their minds changed into a mindset of "everyone", or at least white men in general, having civil liberties by the era of the "Enlightenment" in Europe. America eventually wins with the help of France and Spain, and change the order of their government to a democracy.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

After the American Revolution and America's win with France's help, the people of France became influenced by these ideas of liberties. The people of France began to revolt against the king, demanding civil liberties, and in a panic, the king says no and closes himself off from the merchant and basically majority of the French population by not allowing the representatives from the merchant class as he calls together a meeting of parliaments, since they were making so many demands. The reason he called this meeting together was because he was in so much debt from the Revolutionary War. The people who were forced out swore that they would not stop until the king met their demands. Eventually, the people of France overthrew the king, and beheaded him and the rest of his immediate family, but managed to not kill his nephew by accident, which will result in him becoming king later when they have no one else to lead. Then France really begun one of the most radical revolutions in history. They changed and outlawed all the ways of their past lives, as it represented the old France, and soon Catholicism (the main religion), the Gregorian calendar, social classes, and many other defining aspects of France during that time were outlawed, changed, or abolished. It is unsure of how the Revolution ended, as some say it ended with Napoleon becoming crowned emperor, or at the end of the Reign of Terror and the Beginning of the "Directorate Reaction".

Alien And Sedation Acts


The Alien and Sedation Acts were in response to the growing tension between America and France at the time, which Adams feared would turn into a war. As a result, Adams had passed the Alien and Sedation Acts to try to prepare and protect America for a war. The Alien Act forbade all foreigners from entering the country, but didn't nearly cause as much outrage as the Sedation Act. The Sedation Act outlawed all criticism against the government, which could result in a fine or jail time. Many American citizens argued that this violated their first amendment rights, as the most famous examples of outrage being Matthew Lyon (a representative from Vermont who was put in jail for criticizing the government. Actually ran for reelection from jail and won, just to show how outraged people were) and Thomas Jefferson's anonymous Virginia and Kentucky resolutions (also criticized the government very publicly) who was Vice-President at the time, just to show how ironic the situation is. In the end, no war ever happens. Instead, France sells us the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 since it no longer has any value to them after Haiti won it's independence. They sell it to us for 15 million dollars, which gets us about 15 states. Also, another result of the Alien and Sedation Acts is the Jefferson presidential win in 1800.

Proclamations, Acts, Treaties, and Laws

Proclamation of 1763/ Treaty of Paris


The Proclamation of 1763 was an end result of the French and Indian War and the British winning, for the war caused the kind to be in copious amounts of debt, and in order to avoid starting off another war, this time between the colonists and the Indians. By creating this proclamation, it backfired in the long term as later very soon the American Revolution will start, with this as one of the factors of many that angered the colonists.
The Treaty of Paris is the document that states Britain now owns all the land east of the Mississippi River.

Declaration of Independence


America creates and signs the Declaration of Independence to declare itself free from England. It was purposely created to get other countries (mainly France) to ally with America in order to win against England.

Treaty of Paris/ End of American Revolution


To officially end the war, American and British officials met in Paris to sign a treaty to end the war on America, and further more, as payment for Britain's loss, to give all land east of the Mississippi previously owned by Britain to America. Spain also regains control of Florida from Britain, as they had to give it up as a result of the loss of the French and Indian War.

Battles and Military Strategies

Fort Duquesne


Fort Duquesne was a paradigm of a trading post at the time, especially for the French since it was built at the conjunction of two river and let them keep watch and control over the traffic of both of them. George Washington, a colonel at the time, overtook Fort Duquesne driving out it's former inhabitants, now allowing for British colonization there. The fort is renamed after the governor, William Pitt, and is called Pittsburgh

Loss at New York, Victory at Trenton and Princeton


General Howe from the British Army had sailed to just south of New York City with 10,000 troops, where Washington had much of his army moved there. Not much later, Howe attacked Washington's troops, and Washington had no choice but to retreat across the East River. The Loyalists in New York welcomed the British troops, making it harder for Washington to come back. After much fighting, Washington finally retreated across the Hudson River into New Jersey. Although Howe had much of his troops in New York, he still had about 1,400 left in New Jersey, Trenton specifically. Washington decided to take these soldiers by surprise, and by night Washington and his men went to Trenton and arrived at dawn. The soldiers were so surprised that the Patriots were able to take about 900 prisoners, with few british soldiers deaths and if any, even fewer Patriot deaths. Washington attacked Princeton later, driving British regimens from the town. These two victories did much for the American side as it boosted many Patriots spirits.

British Strategy of Howe and Burgoyne

1777 - 1778

British Generals Howe and Burgoyne became apart of a plan devised by the British, which was for Howe to march north from to New York to eventually meet Burgoyne who would march south from Canada, in hopes of threatening New England and draw Washington northward to defeat him. Howe didn't understand his role in the plan, however, and decided to attack Philadelphia. Washington learned of this and quickly marched southward to attack Howe. When the two sides met, it resulted in a battle of which the Americans suffered a terrible loss, and Howe continued to Philadelphia. Burgoyne still unaware of Howe's continued to march southward and recaptured Fort Ticonderoga.

Battle of Saratoga

1777 - 1778

As Burgoyne recaptured Fort Ticonderoga waiting for Howe, the American forces who were retreating blocked paths of the region so in retaliation Burgoyne and his troops cannot escape. Each day American troops started to gather around Saratoga in preparation for attack, under command of Horatio Gates. In September and October the British had a stunning and crushing defeat by Gates' troops, thus proving this battle to be considered the turning point of the war.

The Battle of Yorktown

1781 - 1782

Cornwallis has marched north into Virginia by now, and established his army in Yorktown. Patriot General Lafayette decides to take up positions outside of Yorktown shortly after. Both hearing of this, Washington and French General Rochambeau decided to quit on the plan of attacking New York and instead take positions outside of Yorktown instead. In September of that same year all troops arrive outside of Yorktown, with a combined force of 16,000 troops on land to prevent the troops marching out, and the French Navy on the coast blocking the way for any chance of escape by water. Washington's troops soon opened fire, and Cornwallis sent out a grave and urgent message for backup. No backup was sent, and the Patriots had another major win when Cornwallis surrendered quickly. Although British forces controlled places like Charleston and New York, they gave up and had lost their will to fight anymore as they had now seen that this battle was most likely going to be uphill, which was too hard at this point. In 1782 Parliament decided to no longer extend further prosecution of the war on the British colonies of North America.

Diplomatic and Other Types of Episodes

Boston Massacre


In Boston Massachusetts, some patriots or people who were against the British rule in America started to taunt the British soldiers and throw snowballs at them. In response, the British soldiers opened fire at the group of people, and as a result, five people were killed. It is unclear of why the British shot, as American sides say it was simply to show their power over them or/and they were simply annoyed, and the British sides tell that they were only following orders, some primary sources say that they even hesitated. Whatever the reason, this caused the Patriot side to use it as propaganda and gather more people to their side of the cause, and it's use was effective.

Evacuation Day


The last of the British troops finally leave America and no longer pester us.

Yay Patriotism. Woo Hoo.


XYZ Affair


When the French Revolution happened in France, they declared war on all of Europe. Since France helped out America, they ask for the same favor in return, but in all America says no. This is for many reasons. Some of them being that we had just gotten out of war and won our independence from England, and it looked like France was going to lose. If France lost with America as it's ally, then America would most likely become apart of England again. Also, as a new country, for the future it would probably be best to be on good terms with some of the most powerful countries in the world at that time. Adams becomes president, who also doesn't want to go to war, and begins to negotiate with France, since France is attacking all their ships and stealing the exports. When the ambassadors, named agents X,Y, and Z, get to France, they refuse to just talk to them unless they give them a huge bribe. The Americans, obviously offended, come back, and the story of the XYZ affair gets out. This makes Americans equally as offended, and Adams fears that America might go to war. In preparation and unknowing of the outcome, this causes Adams to get the Alien and Sedation Act passed

Louisiana Purchase (Acquisition of Louisiana)


Result of French loss of the Haitian Revolution
From Montana to Oklahoma, down to New Orleans and up along the Mississippi River to the present Canadian Border, cutting out parts of North Dakota and Minnesota along it.
See Alien and Sedation Acts for more info