Bostons Timeline

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Chapter 2

Jericho

8000 BC

A small city located in the West Bank, Palestinian Territory, in which the ruins date back to about 8000 BCE, making it one of the oldest Neolithic cities in the world

Ziggurats

5000 BC

Stepped temples

Polytheism

5000 BC

Greek for “many gods”; the belief of many deities; pantheon of gods and goddesses; mythology and rituals

Cuneiform

3000 BC

One of the earliest known forms of written expression; Emerged around 30th century BCE in Mesopotamia; began as a system of pictographs; wedge shaped characters

Sargon the Great

2300 BCE

Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 22nd and 23rd centuries BCE; He founded the dynasty of Akkad

Hammurabi

1792 BC - 1750 BC

Hammurabi ruled Babylon, most famous for his code that dealt with basic rights.

Epic of Gilgamesh

1700 BC

The oldest known western literature. Has many resemblances to the tide.

Natufians

1500 BC

They were hunter-gatherers of the near and middle east, who, after the Younger Dryas Event, were forced to establish semi-permanent villages along rivers and adopted farming and domesticating crops. They eventually become semi-nomaidic.

Chapter 3

Narmer

3100 BC

The first pharaoh. He is also known as Menes. He unified Upper and Lower Egypt in 3050 BCE. Established Memphis as the capital.

Old Kingdom

3100 BC - 2200 BC

The most successful era; Giza was constructed; Most things after this copy it; 3100-2200 BCE

Osiris

3000 BC

A chief Egyptian god; ruler of the underworld.

Hieroglyphics

3000 BC

Pictographic writing system of Ancient Egyptians.

Anubis

3000 BCE

Osiris’ consort; god of the underworld; he weighed the souls of the dead.

Horus

3000 BC

The falcon god who symbolized the forces in order.

Memphis

3000 BC

The city from which the Pharaoh governed; capital of the Old Kingdom

Maat

3000 BC

Goddess of regularity and predictability.

Middle Kingdom

2100 BC - 1650 BC

Trade expanded;control expanded further south; working class conditions worsened; religion turned democratic.

Hyksos

1650 BC - 1570 BC

A mysterious people who invaded Egypt in 1650-1570 BCE, they ruled during the second intermediate period.

New Kingdom

1550 BC - 770 BC

Began after second intermediate period; 1550-700 BCE; Spent first 300 years attempting to invade Mesopotamia, but it didn’t work

Akhnaton

1363 BC - 1336 BC

Tried to change Egypt’s beliefs into monotheistic beliefs. This didn't work.

Chapter 4

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

2500 BC

Where archaeologists have found the earliest remnants of India.

Laws of Manu

1500 BCE

An ancient compilation of teachings from Hindu India.Laws of Manu are created by the divine ruler Manu, introduces caste system which divides society into 4 classes which is based on hereditary

Caste System

1500 BC

The social unit in which individuals are born and which dictates most aspects of daily life.

Vedas

1500 BC

The five oral epics of the Aryans. Told the citizens in Ancient India all of their duties.

Siddhartha Guatama

500 BC

Buddha or Enlightened One; His life is well documented; He was the first known king of India; He had many disciples following him

Chandragupta Maurya

330 BC

He founded the Mauryan Dynasty, and created Political unity.

Ashoka

260 BC

The third Mauryan Emporer his policies provided stability

Chapter 5

Tyre and Sidon

1000 BC

Important in old and new testaments; cities; now Lebanon; Phoenicians territory.

Solomon

970 BC - 935 BC

David’s son; most renowned king of the Hebrews.

Ninevah

800 BCE

The main city which later becomes the capital of the Assyrian Empire; on the Eastern bank of the Tigris river.

First Diaspora

722 BC

The scattering of the Jews from ancient Palestine.

Assurbanipal

685 BC - 627 BC

Assyrian king; last strong king of the Empire; Library of Assurbanipal

Cyrus

600 BC - 530 BC

Brilliant warrior king for the Persians; Cyrus the Great; mid 5th century BCE; extended domains.

Talmud

586 BC - 539 BC

New interpretation of the covenant.

Darius I

550 BC - 486 BC

Third great persian ruler who made the empire reach its peak; uniform coinage, calendar, advanced law code; relative of Cyrus.

Zarathustra

500 BC

Or Zoroaster; The mythical founder and chief prophet of the ancient Persian religion known as Zoroastrianism, which influenced Jewish and later Christian belief.

Avesta

300 BC

Zoroastrian Scripture, sacred texts.

Chapter 6

Hsia Dynasty

2070 BC - 1600 BC

It was the first dynasty in China. The dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE).

Shang Dynasty

1600 BC - 1046 BC

They were good at writing and bronze casting. Oracle bones were made, it was writing on a turtle shell, but then they cracked them for prophecies. It succeeded the Xia Dynasty and was followed by the Zhou Dynasty.

Oracle bones

1500 BC

People would write on turtle shells and then crack them for prophecies.

Mandate of Heaven

1100 BC

Was the idea that a ruler was appointed by the gods and they give him the mandate to rule; if his people are happy, he keeps the mandate. If not, he is replaced.

Zhou Dynasty

1046 BC - 256 BC

Unified empire, extended borders, and records were made in first half; second half was not as successful.

Confucius

551 BC - 479 BC

Founder of Confucianism, authority on proper behavior, molder of patterns of education; believed the state should be like a harmonious family, headed by males; people should just be nice (gentility)

Lao Zi

500 BC

Mythical author of the Dao de Jing, or Book of Changes, which has served as the text for various versions of Daoist folklore and philosophy for many centuries in China. Founder of Daoism.

Legalism

400 BC - 225 BC

A philosophy of government rather than private life, strict censorship, justified use of force to make people cooperate; popularized during the Era of Warring States

Mandarins

400 BC

Chinese scholar–officials who had been trained in Confucian principles. Usually associated with the landed elite.

Chapter 8

Knossos

2000 BC

Is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete. This is were King Minos's Palace was

Minoan Culture

2000 BC - 1400 BC

An ancient civilization that was centered on Crete between 2000 and 1400 BCE

Mycenaean Culture

1450 BC - 1100 BC

Referring to the history and culture of the earliest known Indo–European inhabitants of the Greek peninsula. They attacked Troy and took Paris and Helen

Troy

1300 BC

Was attacked by the mycenaeans, wooden horse, lost, Paris and Helen

Dorians

1100 BC - 800 BC

They were diverse in way of life and social organization, varying from the populous trade center of the city of Corinth, known for its ornate style in art and architecture, to the isolationist, military state of Sparta. And yet, all Hellenes knew which localities were Dorian, and which were not. Dorian states at war could more likely, but not always, count on the assistance of other Dorian states. Dorians were distinguished by the Doric Greek dialect and by characteristic social and historical traditions.

Odysseus

850 BC

Was the perhaps fictional Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Had the idea for the wooden horse.

Homer

850 BC

This was the bard who wrote epics like, the Odyssey and the Illiad

Polis

800 BC

Independent city states, containing about 100,000 people each.

Messenians

700 BC - 600 BC

Sparta took them over in 600 BC

Solon

638 BC - 558 BC

Was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens. His reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.

Cleisthenes

570 BC - 508 BC

A fifth century Athenian tyrant who laid the foundations of polis democracy.

Ostracism

500 BC

Was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. They would vote to see if this person was getting to much power.

Battle of Salamis

479 BC

The Athenian navy routed a large Persian Navy in 479 BC and the Persians never seriously threaten Europe again.

Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

War which was started by Athens when Pericles declared war on corinth who went to the Spartans for help. Most of it was stalemate until Athens attacked Sicily and failed and Sparta defeated Athen’s navy with the help of the Persians.

Battle of Chaeronea

338 BC

Battle between Macedonia and Athens and Macedonia which Macedonia won ending the last of the poleis and the Hellenic period.

Alexander the Great

336 BC - 323 BC

Succeeded Philip II and went on to establish a huge empire which ruled all the land rule by the Greeks. Conquered Egypt, Persia, and India. Influenced other cultures with their own Greek culture.

Chapter 9

Parthenon

500 BC

A building on the top of the Acropolis in Athens built by Pericles that required 46 13-ton columns to build. Also required 20,000 tons of marble, $100,000,000 and eight years. the most imitated building in the world. housed a soft statue of patron goddess Athena, called the Pallas Athene, for 92 total statues. used a place for worship.

Socrates

470 BC - 399 BC

First of the three great philosophers of the Greek Classical Age. Questioned the nature of knowledge and ethical conduct. Athenian court tried and executed him for “corrupting” the youth of the city. He was a rationalist.

Plato

427 BC - 347 BC

Student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. Recorded Socrates’ dialogues. Wrote the Metaphor of the Cave and The Republic. He was a Rationalist.

Diogenes

412 BC - 323 BC

Was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as Diogenes the Cynic. he was banished from Sinope. After being exiled, he moved to Athens to debunk cultural conventions. Diogenes modelled himself on the example of Hercules. He believed that virtue was better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle and behaviour to criticise the social values and institutions of what he saw as a corrupt society.

Aristotle

384 BC - 322 BC

One of the three greatest philosophers of Classical Greece. A student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote the Golden mean and he was a Empiricist

Metaphor of the Cave

350 BC

Plato's metaphor used to describe how humans impressions of the world is completely dependent on senses and how everything has an abstract idea that really defines it and people who understand this should be leader

Epicurus

341 BC - 270 BC

He was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism.

Zeno

334 BC - 262 BC

Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue in accordance with Nature. It proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy from the Hellenistic period through to the Roman era.

Alexandria, Egypt

331 BC

Alexandria was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was also home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world.