A small city located in the West Bank, Palestinian Territory, in which the ruins date back to about 8000 BCE, making it one of the oldest Neolithic cities in the world
Greek for “many gods”; the belief of many deities; pantheon of gods and goddesses; mythology and rituals
One of the earliest known forms of written expression; Emerged around 30th century BCE in Mesopotamia; began as a system of pictographs; wedge shaped characters
Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 22nd and 23rd centuries BCE; He founded the dynasty of Akkad
Hammurabi ruled Babylon, most famous for his code that dealt with basic rights.
The oldest known western literature. Has many resemblances to the tide.
They were hunter-gatherers of the near and middle east, who, after the Younger Dryas Event, were forced to establish semi-permanent villages along rivers and adopted farming and domesticating crops. They eventually become semi-nomaidic.
The first pharaoh. He is also known as Menes. He unified Upper and Lower Egypt in 3050 BCE. Established Memphis as the capital.
The most successful era; Giza was constructed; Most things after this copy it; 3100-2200 BCE
A chief Egyptian god; ruler of the underworld.
Pictographic writing system of Ancient Egyptians.
Osiris’ consort; god of the underworld; he weighed the souls of the dead.
The falcon god who symbolized the forces in order.
The city from which the Pharaoh governed; capital of the Old Kingdom
Goddess of regularity and predictability.
Trade expanded;control expanded further south; working class conditions worsened; religion turned democratic.
A mysterious people who invaded Egypt in 1650-1570 BCE, they ruled during the second intermediate period.
Began after second intermediate period; 1550-700 BCE; Spent first 300 years attempting to invade Mesopotamia, but it didn’t work
Tried to change Egypt’s beliefs into monotheistic beliefs. This didn't work.
Where archaeologists have found the earliest remnants of India.
An ancient compilation of teachings from Hindu India.Laws of Manu are created by the divine ruler Manu, introduces caste system which divides society into 4 classes which is based on hereditary
The social unit in which individuals are born and which dictates most aspects of daily life.
The five oral epics of the Aryans. Told the citizens in Ancient India all of their duties.
Buddha or Enlightened One; His life is well documented; He was the first known king of India; He had many disciples following him
He founded the Mauryan Dynasty, and created Political unity.
The third Mauryan Emporer his policies provided stability
Important in old and new testaments; cities; now Lebanon; Phoenicians territory.
David’s son; most renowned king of the Hebrews.
The main city which later becomes the capital of the Assyrian Empire; on the Eastern bank of the Tigris river.
The scattering of the Jews from ancient Palestine.
Assyrian king; last strong king of the Empire; Library of Assurbanipal
Brilliant warrior king for the Persians; Cyrus the Great; mid 5th century BCE; extended domains.
New interpretation of the covenant.
Third great persian ruler who made the empire reach its peak; uniform coinage, calendar, advanced law code; relative of Cyrus.
Or Zoroaster; The mythical founder and chief prophet of the ancient Persian religion known as Zoroastrianism, which influenced Jewish and later Christian belief.
Zoroastrian Scripture, sacred texts.
It was the first dynasty in China. The dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE).
They were good at writing and bronze casting. Oracle bones were made, it was writing on a turtle shell, but then they cracked them for prophecies. It succeeded the Xia Dynasty and was followed by the Zhou Dynasty.
People would write on turtle shells and then crack them for prophecies.
Was the idea that a ruler was appointed by the gods and they give him the mandate to rule; if his people are happy, he keeps the mandate. If not, he is replaced.
Unified empire, extended borders, and records were made in first half; second half was not as successful.
Founder of Confucianism, authority on proper behavior, molder of patterns of education; believed the state should be like a harmonious family, headed by males; people should just be nice (gentility)
Mythical author of the Dao de Jing, or Book of Changes, which has served as the text for various versions of Daoist folklore and philosophy for many centuries in China. Founder of Daoism.
A philosophy of government rather than private life, strict censorship, justified use of force to make people cooperate; popularized during the Era of Warring States
Chinese scholar–officials who had been trained in Confucian principles. Usually associated with the landed elite.
Is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete. This is were King Minos's Palace was
An ancient civilization that was centered on Crete between 2000 and 1400 BCE
Referring to the history and culture of the earliest known Indo–European inhabitants of the Greek peninsula. They attacked Troy and took Paris and Helen
Was attacked by the mycenaeans, wooden horse, lost, Paris and Helen
They were diverse in way of life and social organization, varying from the populous trade center of the city of Corinth, known for its ornate style in art and architecture, to the isolationist, military state of Sparta. And yet, all Hellenes knew which localities were Dorian, and which were not. Dorian states at war could more likely, but not always, count on the assistance of other Dorian states. Dorians were distinguished by the Doric Greek dialect and by characteristic social and historical traditions.
Was the perhaps fictional Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Had the idea for the wooden horse.
This was the bard who wrote epics like, the Odyssey and the Illiad
Independent city states, containing about 100,000 people each.
Sparta took them over in 600 BC
Was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens. His reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.
A fifth century Athenian tyrant who laid the foundations of polis democracy.
Was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. They would vote to see if this person was getting to much power.
The Athenian navy routed a large Persian Navy in 479 BC and the Persians never seriously threaten Europe again.
War which was started by Athens when Pericles declared war on corinth who went to the Spartans for help. Most of it was stalemate until Athens attacked Sicily and failed and Sparta defeated Athen’s navy with the help of the Persians.
Battle between Macedonia and Athens and Macedonia which Macedonia won ending the last of the poleis and the Hellenic period.
Succeeded Philip II and went on to establish a huge empire which ruled all the land rule by the Greeks. Conquered Egypt, Persia, and India. Influenced other cultures with their own Greek culture.
A building on the top of the Acropolis in Athens built by Pericles that required 46 13-ton columns to build. Also required 20,000 tons of marble, $100,000,000 and eight years. the most imitated building in the world. housed a soft statue of patron goddess Athena, called the Pallas Athene, for 92 total statues. used a place for worship.
First of the three great philosophers of the Greek Classical Age. Questioned the nature of knowledge and ethical conduct. Athenian court tried and executed him for “corrupting” the youth of the city. He was a rationalist.
Student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. Recorded Socrates’ dialogues. Wrote the Metaphor of the Cave and The Republic. He was a Rationalist.
Was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as Diogenes the Cynic. he was banished from Sinope. After being exiled, he moved to Athens to debunk cultural conventions. Diogenes modelled himself on the example of Hercules. He believed that virtue was better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle and behaviour to criticise the social values and institutions of what he saw as a corrupt society.
One of the three greatest philosophers of Classical Greece. A student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote the Golden mean and he was a Empiricist
Plato's metaphor used to describe how humans impressions of the world is completely dependent on senses and how everything has an abstract idea that really defines it and people who understand this should be leader
He was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism.
Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue in accordance with Nature. It proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy from the Hellenistic period through to the Roman era.
Alexandria was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was also home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world.