Chapter 2


8000 BCE

a small city located in the West Bank, Palestinian Territory, in which the ruins date back to about 8000 BCE, making it one of the oldest Neolithic cities in the world.


5000 BCE

Greek for “many gods”; the belief of many deities; pantheon of gods and goddesses; mythology and rituals.


5000 BCE

The stepped and elevated temple structures that ancient Mesopotamian civilization erected in honor of its gods.


3000 BCE

One of the earliest known forms of written expression; Emerged around 30th century BCE in Mesopotamia; began as a system of pictographs; wedge shaped characters.

Sargon the Great

2300 BCE

Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 22nd and 23rd centuries BCE; He founded the dynasty of Akkad.

Epic of Gilgamesh

1700 BCE

the oldest known western literature.


1700 BCE

This was the ruler who established one of the first written set of laws in ancient history.


1500 BCE

hunter-gatherers of the near and middle east, who, after the Younger Dryas Event, were forced to establish semi-permanent villages along rivers and adopted farming and domesticating crops.

Chapter 3

Old Kingdom

3100 BCE - 2200 BCE

The most successful era; Giza was constructed; Most things after this copy it; 3100-2200 BCE


3100 BCE

The first pharaoh. He is also known as Menes. He unified Upper and Lower Egypt in 3050 BCE.


3000 BCE

Osiris’ consort; god of the underworld; he weighed the souls of the dead.


3000 BCE

Goddess of regularity and predictability.


3000 BCE

The city from which the Pharaoh governed; capital of the Old Kingdom.


3000 BCE

The falcon god who symbolized the forces in order.


3000 BCE

A chief Egyptian god; ruler of the underworld.


3000 BCE

Pictographic writing system of Ancient Egyptians.

Middle Kingdom

2100 BCE - 1650 BCE

Trade expanded; control expanded further south; working class conditions worsened; religion turned democratic.


1650 BCE - 1570 BCE

a mysterious people who invaded Egypt in 1650-1570 BCE, they ruled during the second intermediate period.

New Kingdom

1550 BCE - 770 BCE

Began after second intermediate period; 1550-700 BCE; Spent first 300 years attempting to invade Mesopotamia, but it didn’t work; 1250-700 BCE Egypt declined.


1300 BCE

Tried to change Egypt’s beliefs into monotheistic beliefs. This didn't work.

Chapter 4

Mohenjo-Daro and Harrapa

2500 BCE

Where archaeologists have found the earliest remnants of India.

Caste System

1500 BCE

The social unit in which individuals are born and which dictates most aspects of daily life.

Laws of Manu

1500 BCE

An ancient compilation of teachings from Hindu India. These laws describe the descriptions and behaviors of each caste.


1500 BCE

The five oral epics of the Aryans. Told the citizens in Ancient India all of their duties.

Siddhartha Guatama

500 BCE

Buddha or Enlightened One; His life is well documented; He was the first known king of India; He had many disciples following him.

Chandragupta Maurya

340 BCE - 298 BCE

Chandragupta Maurya, was the founder of the Maurya Empire. He succeeded in conquering almost all of the Indian subcontinent and is considered the first unifier of India as well as its first genuine emperor.


304 BCE - 232 BCE

was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. His empire stretched from the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan to present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra Pradesh

Chapter 5

Tyre and Sidon

1000 BCE

Important in old and new testaments; cities; now Lebanon; Phoenicians territory.


970 BCE - 935 BCE

David’s son; most renowned king of the Hebrews.


800 BCE

The main city which later becomes the capital of the Assyrian Empire; on the Eastern bank of the Tigris river.

First Diaspora

722 BCE

Also known as the Jewish diaspora, was the historical exile of Jews from the region of the Kingdom of Judah and Roman Judaea, as well as the later emigration from wider Eretz Israel.


685 BCE - 627 BCE

Assyrian king; last strong king of the Empire; Library of Assurbanipal.

Darius I

600 BCE

Third great persian ruler who made the empire reach its peak; uniform coinage, calendar, advanced law code; relative of Cyrus.


586 BCE - 539 BCE

New interpretation of the covenant.


500 BCE

or Zoroaster; move towards an ethical religion in Persia.


300 BCE

Zoroastrian Scripture, sacred texts.

Chapter 7

Hsia Dynasty

2100 BCE - 1700 BCE

The Xia Dynasty is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. The dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang Dynasty.

Shang Dynasty

1700 BCE - 1100 BCE

writing and bronze casting. Oracle bones were made, it was writing on a turtle shell, but then they cracked them for prophecies.

Oracle Bones

1500 BCE

Turtle shells, people would write on them and then crack them for prophecies.

Zhou Dynasty

1100 BCE - 400 BCE

unified empire, extended borders, and records were made in first half; second half was not as successful.

Mandate of Heaven

1100 BCE

the idea that a ruler was appointed by the gods and they give him the mandate to rule; if his people are happy, he keeps the mandate. If not, he is replaced.


551 BCE - 479 BCE

founder of Confucianism, authority on proper behavior, molder of patterns of education; believed the state should be like a harmonious family, headed by males; people should just be nice (gentility).

Lao Zi

500 BCE

ounder of Daoism; author of the The Way of the Dao; believed the best government is the least government and the way of nature is perceived through meditation and observation.


400 BCE - 225 BCE

philosophy of government rather than private life, strict censorship, justified use of force to make people cooperate; popularized during the Era of Warring States.


400 BCE

A mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China, and also in the monarchist days of Vietnam where the system of Imperial examinations and scholar-bureaucrats was adopted under Chinese influence.

Chapter 8

Minoan Culture

2000 BCE - 1400 BCE

Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and came to dominate the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea.


2000 BCE

Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete.

Mycenaean Culture

1450 BCE - 1100 BCE

The Mycenaean culture was an early Greek culture during the Bronze Age, on the Greek mainland and on Crete.


1300 BCE

attacked by the mycenaeans, wooden horse, lost, Paris and Helen.


1100 BCE - 800 BCE

The Dorians were one of the four major Greek ethnē into which the Ancient Greeks, or Hellenes, of the Classical period considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians. Ethnos has the sense of ethnic group. Herodotus uses the word with regard to them. They are almost always referenced as just "the Dorians", as they are in the earliest literary mention of them in Odyssey, where they already can be found inhabiting the island of Crete.


800 BCE

A mythical character created by homer in the story Odyssey. He was lost at sea for 20 years because he committed hubris.


800 BCE

Author of the Odyssey and Illiad


800 BCE

Polis, literally means city in Greek. It could also mean citizenship and body of citizens. In modern historiography "polis" is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, so polis is often translated as "city-state."


700 BCE

Messenia is a regional unit in the southwestern part of the Peloponnese, one of 13 regions into which Greece has been divided by the Kallikratis plan, implemented 1 January 2011. Before 2011 Messenia was a nomos.


600 BCE

Solon was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens.


508 BCE - 494 BCE

Cleisthenes was a noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family. He is credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.


500 BCE

Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances clearly expressed popular anger at the victim, ostracism was often used preemptively.

Battle of Salamis

479 BCE

The Battle of Salamis was fought between an Alliance of Greek city-states and the Persian Empire in September 480 B.C.E., in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens. It marked the high-point of the second Persian invasion of Greece which had begun in 480 BC.

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The Peloponnesian War, 431 to 404 BC, was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese attempting to suppress signs of unrest in its empire.

Battle of Chaeronea

338 BCE

The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the forces of Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes. The battle was the culmination of Philip's campaign in Greece and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

was a king of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful commanders.

Chapter 9


500 BCE

A building on the top of the Acropolis in Athens built by Pericles that required 46 13-ton columns to build. Also required 20,000 tons of marble, $100,000,000 and eight years. the most imitated building in the world. housed a soft statue of patron goddess Athena, called the Pallas Athene, for 92 total statues. used a place for worship


469 BCE - 399 BCE

Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers.


427 BCE - 347 BCE

Plato was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.


384 BCE - 322 BCE

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.

Metaphor of the Cave

350 BCE

Plato describes how humans impressions of the world are completely dependent on senses and how everything has an abstract idea that really defines it. He believed that people who understand this should be a leader.

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

was a king of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful commanders.

Alexandria, Egypt

332 BCE

Alexandria was founded around a small pharaonic town by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 64.


300 BCE

Zeno of Elea was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of southern Italy and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. Aristotle called him the inventor of the dialectic


300 BCE

Diogenes of Sinope was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as Diogenes the Cynic, he was born in Sinope, an Ionian colony on the Black Sea, in 412 or 404 BC and died at Corinth in 323 BC.


300 BCE

Epicurus was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain.