Arab-Israeli Conflict



Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1923

(Turkish Empire)

British Mandate for Palestine

29 September 1923 - 14 May 1948

aka. "Mandate for Palestine"

Draft formally confirmed by Council of the League of Nations (24 July 1922).

Ended at Midnight.

UN Partition Plan for Palestine (Res. 181)

29 November 1947

Boundaries set by UN Resolution 181. Rejected by Arabs living in Israel in 1947. Accepted by Jewish Agency.
Vote: For: 33 Abstaining: 10 Against: 13

State of Israel

14 May 1948 - Present

All-Palestine Government

22 September 1948 - 1959

Established by Arab League on during 1948 War. Soon recognized by all Arab League members, except Jordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.

1949-1967 Armistice Lines

24 March 1949 - 5 July 1967

United Arab Republic

1958 - 1971

aka. "UAR"

Sovereign union between Egypt and Syria.
Ended when Syria seceded.

Palestine Liberation Organization

28 May 1964 - Present

aka. "PLO"

"sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people"
1. recognized by UN and 100+ states
2. 1974 - UN observer status
3. 1991 - (Madrid Conference) = no longer terrorist org. by US/Israel
4. 1993 - PLO recognizes Israel's right to exist in peace
4.5. Israel recognizes PLO as Palestinian people's representative

Israel's territory: after Six-Day War

10 June 1967 - 24 October 1973

Jerusalem after Six-Day War

27 June 1967

Golan Heights Cease-fire Lines

24 October 1973

Yom Kippur War Cease-fire Lines

24 October 1973

Israel-Syria Disengagement Agreement

31 May 1974

Interim Agreement with Egypt

4 September 1975

Peace Treaty with Egypt and Sinai Redeployment

25 April 1982


First Aliyah to Palestine

1882 - 1903

Approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated to the south-western area of Syria, then a province of the Ottoman Empire. The majority, belonging to the Hovevei Zion and Bilu movements, came from the Russian Empire with a smaller number arriving from Yemen. Many established agricultural communities.

Second Aliyah

1904 - 1914

40,000 Jews immigrated mainly from Russia to south-western Syria following pogroms and outbreaks of anti-semitism in that country.

McMahon-Hussein Correspondence

14 July 1915 - 30 January 1916

Exchange of letters during World War I, between the Sharif of Mecca, Husayn bin Ali, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the lands under the Ottoman Empire. The Arab side was already looking toward a large revolt (which did not eventuate) against the Ottoman Empire and the British encouraged the Arabs to revolt and thus hamper the Ottoman Empire, which had become a German ally in the War after November 1914. The documents declared that the Arabs would revolt in alliance with the United Kingdom and in return the UK will recognize the Arab independence.

Sykes-Picot Agreement

16 May 1916

officially "Asia Minor Agreement"

Secret agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and France, with the assent of Russia, defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in Middle East should the Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

Balfour Declaration

2 November 1917

The declaration was deliberately contrived to allow the British to renege on earlier promises to France and the Arabs regarding Palestine. Lloyd George reportedly said that British control over Palestine would prevent it from falling into the hands of the agnostic atheistic French. Another hypothesis, is that the declaration was intended to curry favor with the Jews, so that the Jews in the United States and Russia would influence their governments to support the British cause in the war. However, the declaration did not fall as a bolt from the blue, but was rather the culmination of a long tradition in Britain that supported restoration of the Jews to their own land for philosophical, religious and imperialistic motives.

Third Aliyah

1919 - 1923

40,000 Jews, mainly from the Russian Empire arrived in the wake of World War I, the British conquest of Palestine; the establishment of the Mandate, and the Balfour Declaration. In spite of immigration quotas established by the British administration, the population of Jews reached 90,000 by the end of this period.

Fourth Aliyah

1924 - 1929

82,000 Jews arrived, many as a result of anti-semitism in Poland and Hungary. The immigration quotas of the United States kept Jews out. Of these approximately 23,000 left the country.

Fifth Aliyah

1929 - 1939

With the rise of Nazism in Germany, a new wave of 250,000 immigrants arrived; the majority of these, 174,000, arrived between 1933 and 1936, after which increasing restrictions on immigration by the British made immigration clandestine and illegal, called Aliyah Bet. The Fifth Aliyah was again driven mostly from Eastern Europe as well as professionals, doctors, lawyers and professors, from Germany.

Arab revolt in Palestine

1936 - 1939

A nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in the British Mandate for Palestine against British colonial rule and mass Jewish immigration.

Peel Commission

11 November 1936 - 18 January 1937

formally "Palestine Royal Commission"

British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate for Palestine following the outbreak of the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. It was headed by Lord Peel.

Peel Commission Report

7 July 1937

First report that recommended partition in Palestine.

MacDonald White Paper

23 May 1939

aka. "White Paper of 1939"

Policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the Mandate for Palestine, as recommended in the Peel Commission Report of 1937, was abandoned in favour of creating an independent Palestine governed by Palestinian Arabs and Jews in proportion to their numbers in the population by 1939 (section I). A limit of 75,000 Jewish immigrants was set for the five-year period 1940-1944, consisting of a regular yearly quota of 10,000, and a supplementary quota of 25,000, spread out over the same period, to cover refugee emergencies. After this cut-off date, further immigration would depend on the permission of the Arab majority (section II). Restrictions were also placed on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arabs (section III).

Israeli Declaration of Independence

14 May 1948

Day before British Mandate was due to expire.
David Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv.

1948 Arab-Israeli War

15 May 1948 - 10 March 1949

aka. "First Arab-Israeli War"

Israel wins the first war against its Arab neighbors leading to the establishment of the state of Israel. The United States is the first country to recognize Israel in the United Nations.

Law of Return

5 July 1950

Israeli legislation gave Jews the right of return and settlement in Israel and gain citizenship. In 1970, the right of entry and settlement was extended to people of Jewish ancestry, and their spouses.

Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal

26 July 1956

1956 Suez Crisis

29 October 1956 - 7 November 1956

aka. "Tripartite Aggression", "Suez War", or "Second Arab-Israeli War"

The Suez Crisis began on 26 July 1956, when, following the United States’ decision to withdraw its offer of a grant to aid the construction of Egypt’s Aswan High Dam, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. The governments of Britain and France secretly began planning for an invasion of Egypt. Tensions remained high until 15 November, when United Nations forces were brought into Egypt to provide a buffer between the Egyptians and the invasion forces.

Britain/France agree to Egypt withdrawal

3 December 1956

Britain and France agree to an unconditional withdrawal from Egypt following invasion in Six-Day War

British and French troops out of Egypt

22 December 1956

Forced to fully evacuate by international pressure.
Israel continues to occupy Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip.

Eisenhower Doctrine

5 January 1957

Offers aid to nations threatened by Communism, especially the Soviet Union.

1958 Lebanon Crisis

15 July 1958 - 25 October 1958

Political crisis with U.S. military intervention under Eisenhower Doctrine.

Resignation of President Camille Chamoun, reconciliation government formed under Rashid Karami, intensifying sectarian and political tensions in Lebanon.

1967 Six-Day War

5 June 1967 - 10 June 1967

aka. "June War", "1967 Arab-Israeli War", "Third Arab-Israeli War"

War of Attrition

1 July 1967 - 7 August 1970

Low-intensity war fought between Israel and Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula.

Khartoum Resolution

1 September 1967

1967 Arab League summit following Six-Day War. Three No's: "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with it"

UNSC Resolution 242

22 November 1967

Resolution 242 is one of the most widely affirmed resolutions on the Arab–Israeli conflict, and formed the basis for later negotiations between the parties.

Vote: For: 15 Abstaining: 0 Against: 0

Black September

1 September 1970 - 30 September 1970

Jordan's ruthless war on the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in September 1970

Nasser dies --> Anwar Sadat becomes president

28 September 1970

Soviet-Egyptian Treaty of Friendship

27 May 1971

Sadat expels Soviet advisors

July 1972

PLO represents Palestine

October 1973

PLO becomes sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people

1973 October War

6 October 1973 - 22 October 1973

aka. "Yom Kippur War", "Ramadan War", "1973 Arab-Israeli War", "Fourth Arab-Israeli War"

Egypt and Syria attack Israel in October of 1973 in an attempt to reclaim lands lost in the Six-Day War. Israel initially suffers major losses until the United States arranged a massive airlift of weapons which helped Israel in its counteroffensive. The other countries needed a retreat.

UNSC Resolution 338 *cease-fire

22 October 1973

The Six-Point Agreement

11 November 1973

Israeli-Egyptian cease-fire

  1. Egypt and Israel agree to observe scrupulously the cease-fire called for by the UN Security Council.

  2. Both sides agree that discussions between them will begin immediately to settle the question of the return to the 22 October positions in the framework of agreement on the disengagement and separation of forces under the auspices of the United Nations.

  3. The town of Suez will receive daily supplies of food, water and medicines. All wounded civilians in the town of Suez will be evacuated.

  4. There shall be no impediment to the movement of non-military supplies to the east bank of the Suez Canal.

  5. The Israeli check-points on the Cairo-Suez road will be replaced by UN checkpoints. At the Suez end of the road, Israeli officers can participate with the UN in supervising the non-military nature of the cargo at the bank of the Canal.

  6. As soon as the UN check-points are established on the Cairo-Suez road, there will be an exchange of all prisoners of war, including wounded.

Geneva Peace Conference of 1973

21 December 1973

Israel refused to negotiate with Syria
Syria refused to attend
Palestinians not admitted to opening meeting

Disengagement of Forces Agreement (Egypt-Israel)

18 January 1974

A Disengagement of Forces agreement is signed between the Israeli and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War

Golda Meir resigns as Prime Minister

11 April 1974

Succeeded by Yitzhak Rabin on 3 June 1974.

Israeli-Syrian disengagement agreement

31 May 1974

Separation of Forces between Israel and Syria

31 May 1974

Israel returns Golan Heights including the city of Quneitra to Syria.

PLO granted UN observer status

13 November 1974

Lebanese civil war begins

April 1975

Sinai II Agreement

1 September 1975

aka. "Sinai Interim agreement"

Signed on 4 September 1975 by Egypt and Israel in Geneva.

UN GA Resolution 3379

10 November 1975

"Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination"

Vote: For: 72 Abstaining: 32 Against: 35

Sadat prepared to go to Jerusalem

9 November 1977

Sadat addresses Knesset (in Israel)

19 November 1977 - 20 November 1977

Diplomatic Speech from Sadat (Egypt) to Israeli legislature

Begin meets Sadat in Ismailia

25 December 1977 - 26 December 1977

Operation Litani

14 March 1978

aka. "1978 South Lebanon conflict"

Israel Defense Forces invade south Lebanon up to the Litani river.

Camp David Summit

5 September 1978 - 17 September 1978

President Jimmy Carter mediates negotiations between Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) leading to the Camp David Accords, the prerequisite to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty. Carter was praised for his handling of the situation. Al-Qaida was created as a result of this event.

Camp David Accords

17 September 1978

Camp David Accords signed by Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) at Washington D.C.

1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty

26 March 1979

Signed in Washington D.C. following the Camp David Accords.

Arab League expels Egypt

31 March 1979

Sadat assassinated

6 October 1981

1982 Lebanon War

6 June 1982 - 17 May 1983

- PLO expulsion/withdrawal from Lebanon (1982)
- Destruction of Syrian SAM batteries in the Bekaa
- Israeli occupation of the southern half of Lebanon (1982–85), withdrawal started in 1983 according to the 17 May Accord[3][4]
- Collapse of Maronite-Israeli alliance, failure to achieve lasting Lebanese-Israeli peace
- Israeli Security Zone and the SLA (1985–2000)
- South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000)
- Increased Syrian influence in Lebanon
- Establishment of Hezbollah


World War I

28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918

aka. "WWI, World War, Great War, First World War"

Results (Allied victory):
- End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
- Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
- Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
- Establishment of the League of Nations

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

aka. "LN"
Intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended WWI. First international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

Nazi Germany

1933 - 1945

World War II

1 September 1939 - 2 September 1945

aka. "WWII, WW2, Second World War"
- Dissolution of the Third Reich
- Creation of the United Nations
- Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers
- Beginning of the Cold War

1945 | Start of IB Syllabus for prescribed


Arab League

22 March 1945 - Present

aka. "League of Arab States"
Formed in Cairo with 6 members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Yemen joined on 5 May 1945.

United Nations

26 June 1945 - Present

aka. "UN"
International organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.