aka. "Mandate for Palestine"
Draft formally confirmed by Council of the League of Nations (24 July 1922).
Ended at Midnight.
Boundaries set by UN Resolution 181. Rejected by Arabs living in Israel in 1947. Accepted by Jewish Agency.
Vote: For: 33 Abstaining: 10 Against: 13
Established by Arab League on during 1948 War. Soon recognized by all Arab League members, except Jordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.
Sovereign union between Egypt and Syria.
Ended when Syria seceded.
"sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people"
1. recognized by UN and 100+ states
2. 1974 - UN observer status
3. 1991 - (Madrid Conference) = no longer terrorist org. by US/Israel
4. 1993 - PLO recognizes Israel's right to exist in peace
4.5. Israel recognizes PLO as Palestinian people's representative
Approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated to the south-western area of Syria, then a province of the Ottoman Empire. The majority, belonging to the Hovevei Zion and Bilu movements, came from the Russian Empire with a smaller number arriving from Yemen. Many established agricultural communities.
40,000 Jews immigrated mainly from Russia to south-western Syria following pogroms and outbreaks of anti-semitism in that country.
Exchange of letters during World War I, between the Sharif of Mecca, Husayn bin Ali, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the lands under the Ottoman Empire. The Arab side was already looking toward a large revolt (which did not eventuate) against the Ottoman Empire and the British encouraged the Arabs to revolt and thus hamper the Ottoman Empire, which had become a German ally in the War after November 1914. The documents declared that the Arabs would revolt in alliance with the United Kingdom and in return the UK will recognize the Arab independence.
officially "Asia Minor Agreement"
Secret agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and France, with the assent of Russia, defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in Middle East should the Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
The declaration was deliberately contrived to allow the British to renege on earlier promises to France and the Arabs regarding Palestine. Lloyd George reportedly said that British control over Palestine would prevent it from falling into the hands of the agnostic atheistic French. Another hypothesis, is that the declaration was intended to curry favor with the Jews, so that the Jews in the United States and Russia would influence their governments to support the British cause in the war. However, the declaration did not fall as a bolt from the blue, but was rather the culmination of a long tradition in Britain that supported restoration of the Jews to their own land for philosophical, religious and imperialistic motives.
40,000 Jews, mainly from the Russian Empire arrived in the wake of World War I, the British conquest of Palestine; the establishment of the Mandate, and the Balfour Declaration. In spite of immigration quotas established by the British administration, the population of Jews reached 90,000 by the end of this period.
82,000 Jews arrived, many as a result of anti-semitism in Poland and Hungary. The immigration quotas of the United States kept Jews out. Of these approximately 23,000 left the country.
With the rise of Nazism in Germany, a new wave of 250,000 immigrants arrived; the majority of these, 174,000, arrived between 1933 and 1936, after which increasing restrictions on immigration by the British made immigration clandestine and illegal, called Aliyah Bet. The Fifth Aliyah was again driven mostly from Eastern Europe as well as professionals, doctors, lawyers and professors, from Germany.
A nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in the British Mandate for Palestine against British colonial rule and mass Jewish immigration.
formally "Palestine Royal Commission"
British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate for Palestine following the outbreak of the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. It was headed by Lord Peel.
First report that recommended partition in Palestine.
aka. "White Paper of 1939"
Policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the Mandate for Palestine, as recommended in the Peel Commission Report of 1937, was abandoned in favour of creating an independent Palestine governed by Palestinian Arabs and Jews in proportion to their numbers in the population by 1939 (section I). A limit of 75,000 Jewish immigrants was set for the five-year period 1940-1944, consisting of a regular yearly quota of 10,000, and a supplementary quota of 25,000, spread out over the same period, to cover refugee emergencies. After this cut-off date, further immigration would depend on the permission of the Arab majority (section II). Restrictions were also placed on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arabs (section III).
Day before British Mandate was due to expire.
David Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv.
aka. "First Arab-Israeli War"
Israel wins the first war against its Arab neighbors leading to the establishment of the state of Israel. The United States is the first country to recognize Israel in the United Nations.
Israeli legislation gave Jews the right of return and settlement in Israel and gain citizenship. In 1970, the right of entry and settlement was extended to people of Jewish ancestry, and their spouses.
aka. "Tripartite Aggression", "Suez War", or "Second Arab-Israeli War"
The Suez Crisis began on 26 July 1956, when, following the United States’ decision to withdraw its offer of a grant to aid the construction of Egypt’s Aswan High Dam, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. The governments of Britain and France secretly began planning for an invasion of Egypt. Tensions remained high until 15 November, when United Nations forces were brought into Egypt to provide a buffer between the Egyptians and the invasion forces.
Britain and France agree to an unconditional withdrawal from Egypt following invasion in Six-Day War
Forced to fully evacuate by international pressure.
Israel continues to occupy Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip.
Offers aid to nations threatened by Communism, especially the Soviet Union.
Political crisis with U.S. military intervention under Eisenhower Doctrine.
Resignation of President Camille Chamoun, reconciliation government formed under Rashid Karami, intensifying sectarian and political tensions in Lebanon.
aka. "June War", "1967 Arab-Israeli War", "Third Arab-Israeli War"
Low-intensity war fought between Israel and Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula.
1967 Arab League summit following Six-Day War. Three No's: "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with it"
Resolution 242 is one of the most widely affirmed resolutions on the Arab–Israeli conflict, and formed the basis for later negotiations between the parties.
Vote: For: 15 Abstaining: 0 Against: 0
Jordan's ruthless war on the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in September 1970
PLO becomes sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people
aka. "Yom Kippur War", "Ramadan War", "1973 Arab-Israeli War", "Fourth Arab-Israeli War"
Egypt and Syria attack Israel in October of 1973 in an attempt to reclaim lands lost in the Six-Day War. Israel initially suffers major losses until the United States arranged a massive airlift of weapons which helped Israel in its counteroffensive. The other countries needed a retreat.
Egypt and Israel agree to observe scrupulously the cease-fire called for by the UN Security Council.
Both sides agree that discussions between them will begin immediately to settle the question of the return to the 22 October positions in the framework of agreement on the disengagement and separation of forces under the auspices of the United Nations.
The town of Suez will receive daily supplies of food, water and medicines. All wounded civilians in the town of Suez will be evacuated.
There shall be no impediment to the movement of non-military supplies to the east bank of the Suez Canal.
The Israeli check-points on the Cairo-Suez road will be replaced by UN checkpoints. At the Suez end of the road, Israeli officers can participate with the UN in supervising the non-military nature of the cargo at the bank of the Canal.
As soon as the UN check-points are established on the Cairo-Suez road, there will be an exchange of all prisoners of war, including wounded.
Israel refused to negotiate with Syria
Syria refused to attend
Palestinians not admitted to opening meeting
A Disengagement of Forces agreement is signed between the Israeli and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War
Succeeded by Yitzhak Rabin on 3 June 1974.
Israel returns Golan Heights including the city of Quneitra to Syria.
aka. "Sinai Interim agreement"
Signed on 4 September 1975 by Egypt and Israel in Geneva.
"Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination"
Vote: For: 72 Abstaining: 32 Against: 35
Diplomatic Speech from Sadat (Egypt) to Israeli legislature
aka. "1978 South Lebanon conflict"
Israel Defense Forces invade south Lebanon up to the Litani river.
President Jimmy Carter mediates negotiations between Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) leading to the Camp David Accords, the prerequisite to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty. Carter was praised for his handling of the situation. Al-Qaida was created as a result of this event.
Camp David Accords signed by Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) at Washington D.C.
Signed in Washington D.C. following the Camp David Accords.
- PLO expulsion/withdrawal from Lebanon (1982)
- Destruction of Syrian SAM batteries in the Bekaa
- Israeli occupation of the southern half of Lebanon (1982–85), withdrawal started in 1983 according to the 17 May Accord
- Collapse of Maronite-Israeli alliance, failure to achieve lasting Lebanese-Israeli peace
- Israeli Security Zone and the SLA (1985–2000)
- South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000)
- Increased Syrian influence in Lebanon
- Establishment of Hezbollah
aka. "WWI, World War, Great War, First World War"
Results (Allied victory):
- End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
- Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
- Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
- Establishment of the League of Nations
Intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended WWI. First international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
aka. "WWII, WW2, Second World War"
- Dissolution of the Third Reich
- Creation of the United Nations
- Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers
- Beginning of the Cold War
aka. "League of Arab States"
Formed in Cairo with 6 members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Yemen joined on 5 May 1945.
International organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.