AP European History 1st Semester


The Black Death

1348 - 1350

Plague brought from Asia that traveled West to Europe via the Silk Road. Kills 30-60% of Europe's population

Jan Hus and the Hussites

1369 - 1415

Jan Hus and his supporters, forerunners of the Protestant Revolution. Questioned the eucharist and religious domination

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Split in the Catholic church. Two people claim to be the true pope, one in Avignon, France and another in Rome, Italy. Settled by the Council of Constance and the election of a new pope and disposition of the other two

Agricultural Revolution

1400 - 1500

Agricultural innovations that increased the production of food and therefore a rise of population. Innovations include draining water in the lower countries such as the Netherlands and the Enclosure Method which made farming more efficient

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Ended the Avignon Papacy by disposing or authorizing the resignation of the current three popes and appointing the new pope, Martin V

Decline of Gothic Art


Medieval art, replace by the Renaissance art and Mannerism

Guttenberg: Printing Press

1450 - 1451

Guttenberg invents the Printing Press, allowing more materials to be printed and spread throughout the populace, educating more people

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1550

Geared towards religious, political, and social reforms. Art and paintings were less religious and contained more secular content.

Witch Hunts

1480 - 1570

Women accused of being witches are burned or hung or otherwise executed. Misogyny. Women targeted mostly those who the society feared they would have to take care of. Caused by the Reformation's removal of Catholic ceremony and protection, therefore citizens felt a lack of safety

Ignatius of Loyola and the Society of Jesus/Jesuits

1491 - 1540

Extremely dedicated Catholics. Completely loyal to the pope. Advocate education

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1698

Exchange of agriculture, livestock, culture, religion, and disease between European Nations and the New World Colonies

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

Period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism. Economy and trade heavily regulated by the government. Colonies exist to serve the mother country

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Stopped the Borgias. The Warrior Pope. Let Henry VIII of England marry Katharine of Aragorn


1517 - 1648

Begins with Martin Luther's posting of his 95 Theses, creates the subdivisions withing Christianity of Lutheranism and Calvinism in addition to Roman Catholicism

End of Witch Hunts


I feel like this one is pretty self explanatory? The Witch Hunts ended though because of people started thinking more scientifically and logically so logically witches weren't exactly as pressing as a problem as they previously thought

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)

1571 - 1680

Gaudy, grand, exuberant, ornate, over the top art. Representative of the pageantry of the Catholic Faith.

Consumer Revolution

1580 - 1820

More goods available for consumption, more consumption

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Initially a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the HRE (Calvinist still seek legal recognition) and ends as a Hapsburg-France power struggle

Treaty of Westphalia

05/15/1648 - 10/24/1648

Ends Thirty Years' War. Brandenburg Prussia and Austria emerge as powerful German states. Calvinism is legally recognized

Age of Mercantilism

1650 - 1750

Government regulated trade. Founded on the idea that resources are limited.Colonies exist to serve the mother country

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687 - 1688

Published in 1687. Laws of motion, classical mechanics, laws of gravity. Mechanistic view of the world.


1700 - 1800

Art style of the Enlightenment. Ancient Greek and Roman influences

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

Changes in agriculture, mining, and producing create a different economy and social structure. Increase in production, consumption, standard of living, and population. Sustained economical growth

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Balance of power war. Trying to stop the expansion of France

Treaty of Paris


Ends Seven Years' War. Starts GB's reign as a prominent global power

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

American colonies declare independence from Britain


Events concerning the country of France

Avignon Papacy/Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

Due to conflict with the French Crown, Pope Clement V moves to France and becomes under heavy influence of the French Crown. Seven Popes serve in Avignon under increasing French influence, Pope Gregory XI moves back to Rome. Starts the Great Schism

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

King Edward of England claims a right to the French throne, ends with the French House of Valois keeping the throne


06/01/1358 - 08/01/1358

French peasant revolts during the 100 years war. Centralized in Paris

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Civil fighting between French Catholics and French Protestants (Huguenots). Also disputes between the Houses of France, Guises (Catholic) and Bourbons (Huguenot). Fighting concludes with the Edict of Nantes

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

08/11/1572 - 08/12/1572

Catholics kill a bunch of Huguenots outside of a church. Turning point of the war, Huguenot side is crippled

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Politique. Changed religion to Catholicism to gain public favor. "Paris is well worth a mass"

Edict of Nantes

04/13/1598 - 04/14/1598

Henry IV declares forced toleration of the Huguenots in order to stop civil conflict between the religions of France.

Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Laid down the foundations of absolutism. Took rights and power away from the nobles.

Assassination of Henry IV

05/14/1610 - 05/15/1610

Henry IV, king of France, is assassinated in Paris by a catholic fanatic. His widow, Marie de' Medici rules as regent for her son Louis XIII after his death

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

French mathematician. Wrote Pensees. Worked in natural sciences and supported the scientific method. Identified as a Jansenist which is a branch of Catholicism

Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method


Start by doubting everything. Then use rational deduction to prove things

Louis XIV: Mazarin

1643 - 1661

Tried to tax nobles and they got angry and started rioting.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Civil war in Paris, influences the court moving to Versailles

Louis XIV: Personal reign

1661 - 1715

Makes the salt tax (taille) and the land tax (gabelle). Moves the royal court to Versailles

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Edict of Fountainbleau. Takes rights away from Huguenots. Centralizes Louis XIV's power by making everyone the same religion as him (Catholic)

Emergence of Rococco

1710 - 1750

Very elaborate and ornate Art style, emphasis on pastel colors

Death of Louis XIV


The Mississippi Bubble


Over printing of paper bank notes. More paper money than gold to back it up

Voltaire: Candide


French Satire. Criticizes government, religion, and the philosophy of optimism

Rousseau: The Social Contract


General will. Citizens must give up their independent rights for the greater good of the state

Rousseau: Emile


On the nature of education and man. Men and women live in separate spheres

Great Britain

Events concerning Great Britain

John Wycliffe and His Supporters, the Lollards

1320 - 1384

Early church reformer. Believed that the church shouldn't interfere with secular power, and advocated religious documents be printed in the vernacular.His followers, the Lollards, advocated anticlerical and biblically-centered reforms

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

King Edward of England claims a right to the French throne, ends with the French House of Valois keeping the throne

English Reformation

1500 - 1600

The Church of England breaks away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church

Reign of Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Married a bunch of girls and had to divorce somebody to get a male heir so he broke away from the Catholic Church and made himself the controller of the Church of England not the Pope. Big deal cause he just said he was in charge, and not the Pope, so checking the authority of the church on his country

Henry VIII: Act of Supremacy

11/01/1534 - 12/01/1534

Declares Henry VIII the supreme head over the Church of England. Not the Pope.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Catholic. Tried to turn the nation Catholic after her brother made it Protestant. People were not cool with that. Nicknamed "Bloody Mary". Succeeded by Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Politique. Religiously tolerant, never married. England fluorished under her reign. Conflict with Spain (Spanish Armada). Supported Henry of Navarre. Executed Mary Queen of Scots.

Thirty-Nine Articles

1563 - 1564

Declares the position of the English Church, meeting halfway between Catholics and Protestants. Creates the Anglican Church


1564 - 1616

Great English Writer. Codified the English Language

James I

1567 - 1625

Stuart king. Wanted absolute power like in the French Monarchy. Collected taxes without Parliament's consent. Started the English Civil War

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart)


Elizabeth I sees Mary Queen of Scots as a rival to her throne and discover's Mary's plot against her so Elizabeth has Mary executed

Francis Bacon: Novum Organum


Treatise on logic and the empirical method/gathering of empirical evidence

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Tried to pull the divine right thing and collect taxes without Parliaments consent. They executed him

James II

1633 - 1701

Dethroned in the Glorious Revolution. Replaced by William of Orange. Last Catholic ruler of GB

Long Parliament/Short Parliament

1640 - 1648

King cannot dissolve Parliament without their consent

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Series of conflicts between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers) for who would dominant the English government. Ends with Parliamentary victory

Hobbes: Leviathan


Argues for a social contract, absolute rule (whether parliamentary or monarchical), and a very strong central government

Stuarts, Cromwell, Puritan Republic

1653 - 1658

After the removal of the Monarchy and end of the House of Stuarts reign aas monarchs, Oliver Cromwell instated the Puritan Republic as the government of England, though it was more like a dictatorship.

Charles II

1660 - 1665

First monarch after the Puritan Republic

The Royal Society of London/Scientific Societies


With the emergence of scientific thought, natural philosophers came together in societies to discuss their ideas and collaborate

Restoration of the Monarchy, The Glorious Revolution

1660 - 1688

In 1660, the English Monarchy was restored and the first monarch to rule was Charles I. In 1688, King James II was overthrown by Parliament and William III of Orange and his wife Mary II of England were given the thrown. Their throne comes with the knowledge that Parliament has more power than them

Locke: Treatise on Government (1st and 2nd)


First treatise criticizes the patriarchal system while the second treatise sets a foundation for a society based off of natural rights

English Bill of Rights

03/01/1689 - 12/16/1689

Puts William III and Mary II on the throne. Puts limits on the power of the crown, gives Parliament the right to free speech, other such rights, and concessions to Protestants

Act of Settlement


Decides that the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland will go to the Hanover's and their protestant heirs

Death of William III


Brings an end to the House of Orange

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

First Prime Minister of Great Britain. A Whig. Heavy influence in the parliamentary cabinet

War of Jenkins' Ear

1739 - 1742

First war brought on by public opinion, makes public opinion something governments can no longer ignore

Steam Engine

1763 - 1775

Revolutionizes mining and pumping, fuels various machinery to aid in production of products. Credited to James Watt

Water Frame

1764 - 1765

Uses water power to fuel machines rather than people. Takes production out of the home

Spinning Jenny

1764 - 1765

Reduces amount of work needed to create yarn

Smith: Wealth of Nations


Most important economical text. The idea of commercialism, an economy with no government interference

Malthus: Principle on Population


Afraid of overpopulation depleting resources, did not expect production to overcome consumption

Holy Roman Empire

Events concerning the Holy Roman Empire

Golden Bull


Declares that the Holy Roman Emperor would be elected by electorate state


1446 - 1536

"Prince of Humanists". Advocated religious toleration. Piety. Used humanist ideas on the existing doctrines and sacraments

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire


Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492. Went to the Americas/West Indies and started colonizing the region

Luther's 95 Thesis

1517 - 1518

Luther's complaints about the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church practices, esp. the selling of indulgences

Diet of Worms

01/28/1521 - 03/25/1521

The Roman Catholic Church meets and declares Luther a heretic and bans his writing, and I think this is when they fix some corruption in their system like the selling of church office? Anyway, Luther runs away and is hidden by German nobles

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1526

German Peasants think Luther's ideas are cool and try to revolt in order to gain freedom and influence. Because Luther is being protected by the nobles that these guys are rebelling against he does not approve and deems the revolts unchristian

John Calvin-Geneva

1541 - 1549

Passed reforms onto the church and preached frequently. Created Calvinism and the idea of predestination, that those who are going to heaven have already been decided (The Elect) and there's no way to change that. Act like you're already in

Copernicus: On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres


An alternative heliocentric model of the universe as opposed to Ptolemy's geocentric model. Still highly inaccurate, but closer

William of Orange (the Silent)

1544 - 1584

Politique. Leader of the Netherlands revolt against Spain.

Council of Trent

12/13/1545 - 12/4/1563

Pope and church officials say Protestants are heretics and that the writing of the church fathers and church doctrine are official and that all seven of the holy sacraments are right

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Danish scientist who observed the stars. Believed in geocentricism. Kepler's Mentor

Peace of Augsburg


Cuius regio, eius religio.
The ruler of the region, picks the religion.
Choice between either Lutheranism or Catholicism. NOT CALVINISM. Leads to Thirty Years' War later on

Dutch Revolt against Spain

1568 - 1648

Revolt of Protestant provinces, lead by William of Orange, against Catholic imperial forces of Spain lead by Philip II

Rise of the Netherlands: The Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

Dutch banking system gets really good. Trade increases with the tulip crop. The era has it's own art style characterized by still life's and portraits of common people

Pacification of Ghent

11/08/1576 - 11/09/1576

Signed on November 8th, 1576, the Pacification of Ghent allied the Habsburg provinces of the Netherlands to fight Spanish mercenaries.

Union of Utrecht

01/13/1579 - 01/14/1579

Unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands against imperial Spain (Habsburgs)

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Kepler uses Brahe's data on Mars to prove heliocentric-ism and retrograde motion

Decline of the Netherlands


Inflation and other political problems cause the Netherlands to fall as a power

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


Created economical ideas like minimum wage and rent


Events concerning the country of Prussia

Frederick Wilhem and Prussian Militarism

1713 - 1740

Soldier King. Makes Prussia a great military power

Frederick II (The Great)

1740 - 1786

Enlightened despot. Extensive religious toleration, centralizes the bureaucracy.


Events concerning the country of Austria

Charles VI and the Pragmatic Sanction


Assured that his empire would pass to his daughter, Maria Theresa, after his death. Eventually leads to the war of Austrian Succession

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

After Charles' death, Prussia and France try to take over Austria and keep Maria Theresa from gaining the throne. Great Britain allies with Austria

Maria Theresa

1745 - 1765

Gets throne after the War of Austrian Succession. Catholic. Not religiously tolerant

Diplomatic Revolution


War of Austrian Succession starts out with France and Prussia against GB and Austria. GB allies with Prussia, forcing France and Austria to ally. Weird cause Hapsburgs and France hadn't gotten along prior to this

Joseph II

1764 - 1790

Enlightened despot. Religiously tolerant, made church a tool of the state. Centralized power of the Emperor


Events concerning the country of Russia

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Westernized Russia, centralized power, took rights away from nobles, beard tax

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Russia vs. Sweden. Russia gains territory on the Black Sea

Catherine II (The Great)

1762 - 1796

Enlightened despot. Forced to stop reforms because of peasant rebellions. Gains Russia a warm water port.


Events concerning the country of Spain

Early Exploration: Portugal and Spain

1415 - 1550

Prince Henry gives Columbus a path to sail, ends up in North America. Thinks the Bahamas are Asia. They're not.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1504

Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragorn have a politcal marriage to conjoin their kingdoms. Militant Catholics. Create the Inquisition. Sponsor Christopher Columbus

Spanish Armada

1588 - 1589

Spanish fleet that sails to England, attempting to overthrow Elizabeth I and to stop her helping the Netherlands in their revolt against Spain and the pirateering of Spanish traders by English pirates. Spain lost.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1605 - 1606

Published in 1606, considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

The last Hapsburg king of Spain dies, leaving the throne open. The French Bourbon Monarchy claims to have a right to the throne. War erupts in Europe to keep the kingdoms of Spain and France from uniting

Treaty of Utrecht


A series of peace treaties that end the War of Spanish Succession. The Bourbon Duke of Anjou is declared king of Spain, but the two kingdoms of France and Spain can never unite


Events concerning the country of Italy


1265 - 1321

Major Italian Poet. Wrote "Divine Comedy" which is the picture of Hell for modern day religious thinking. Codified the Italian language


1304 - 1374

Early Italian poet and scholar. Considered the "Father of Humanism". He also died a day before his birthday.


1313 - 1375

Renaissance poet. Humanist. Wrote Decameron.Influenced greatly by classic Greek and Roman culture

Italian Renaissance

1420 - 1600

Transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Created the art style of Mannerism and saw the creation of the humanism philosophy.

Italy's decline

1494 - 1527

Italian princes begin to way with each other. Ludovicio invites France in to stop the feuding, France won't leave...


1520 - 1580

Ideas of restrained naturalism. Associated with da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.

Machiavelli: The Prince

1532 - 1533

Published in 1532, "the ends justify the means" "it is better to be feared than loved"

Galileo Condemned


Thought to be violating church mandates and insulting the church. Put under house arrest

French Revolution

It's all in the name yo

March of the Fishwives


Lack of bread and high grain prices cause Parisian women to march to Versailles and demand food

Nobles Renounce their Feudal privileges


The Second Estate renounces their feudal and legal privileges. Everyone is now equal under the law

Estates General Called


1st Estate=Clergy. 2nd Estate=Nobles. 3rd Estate="The People" (mostly Bourgeoisie). Summoned by Louis XVI to solve the financial problems. No one can agree on anything

Tennis Coat Oath


National Assembly meets on a Tennis Court and swear not to disband until they write a constitution. First real "revolutionary" act

Storming of the Bastille


Mobs of Parisians march to the Bastille to free "political" prisoners. The public influencing the government. The beginning of the Revolution

Great Fear

7/17/1789 - 8/05/1789

Peasant rebellions and general unrest because they all thought that the king would send troops to stop the revolution

Rights of Man and Citizen


All citizens (except women) are free and equal under the law

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

12 July 1790

Forced clergy to swear an oath of allegiance to France. Creates constitutional and refractory clergy

Legislative Assembly Meets

1791 - 1792

Middle class representatives meet. After the National Constituent Assembly dissolves but before the National Convention

Cult of Reason


Atheistic belief system that was supposed to de-Christianize France during the Revolution

Convention Meets-Monarch Abolished

1792 - 1795

National convention meets and abolishes the monarchy

Tuilieries Stormed-King Captive


30,000 citizens storm the Tuileries palace, demand the king. Take him as a political prisoner in Paris

Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women


Criticized Rousseau's separate sphere theory. Claimed that women were being belittled and that by keeping them in the domestic sphere their education and opportunity was being limited

War with Austria

April 20 1792

Austria threatens war with France after they kill the king and queen, so France attacks Austria first

Louis XVI Executed


Tried for treason, convicted, sentenced to death. Begins the Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror

June 1 1793 - July 29 1794

When anyone who disagreed with the government (counter-revolutionaries) was executed

Levee on Masse

16 August 1793

Essentially a draft. French citizens are recruited to fight in the war

Danton Executed

5 April 1794

Danton was a pretty important bro but they thought he was a counter-revolutionary and had him executed. Starts the thermidorian reaction

Cult of the Supreme Being

05/07/1794 - 07/27/1794

Branch of Deism that was the religion of France for a brief time during Robespierre's reign

Fall of Robespierre

27 July 1794

Robespierre gets a little too cray with executing "counter-revolutionaries" so they have him executed before beginning The Directory

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Government established by the Constitutio of the Year III. White terror takes place, Jacobins being executed. Eventually overthrown by Napolean

Constitution of the Year III-The Directory is Established


Makes The Directory the official government of France, not a very good government if you know what I mean

Napoleon-Coup Brumaire

1799 - 1800

Napoleon creates the Consulate then overthrows that and creates and Empire and surprise has himself voted Emperor