Plague brought from Asia that traveled West to Europe via the Silk Road. Kills 30-60% of Europe's population
Jan Hus and his supporters, forerunners of the Protestant Revolution. Questioned the eucharist and religious domination
Split in the Catholic church. Two people claim to be the true pope, one in Avignon, France and another in Rome, Italy. Settled by the Council of Constance and the election of a new pope and disposition of the other two
Agricultural innovations that increased the production of food and therefore a rise of population. Innovations include draining water in the lower countries such as the Netherlands and the Enclosure Method which made farming more efficient
Ended the Avignon Papacy by disposing or authorizing the resignation of the current three popes and appointing the new pope, Martin V
Medieval art, replace by the Renaissance art and Mannerism
Guttenberg invents the Printing Press, allowing more materials to be printed and spread throughout the populace, educating more people
Geared towards religious, political, and social reforms. Art and paintings were less religious and contained more secular content.
Women accused of being witches are burned or hung or otherwise executed. Misogyny. Women targeted mostly those who the society feared they would have to take care of. Caused by the Reformation's removal of Catholic ceremony and protection, therefore citizens felt a lack of safety
Extremely dedicated Catholics. Completely loyal to the pope. Advocate education
Exchange of agriculture, livestock, culture, religion, and disease between European Nations and the New World Colonies
Period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism. Economy and trade heavily regulated by the government. Colonies exist to serve the mother country
Stopped the Borgias. The Warrior Pope. Let Henry VIII of England marry Katharine of Aragorn
Begins with Martin Luther's posting of his 95 Theses, creates the subdivisions withing Christianity of Lutheranism and Calvinism in addition to Roman Catholicism
I feel like this one is pretty self explanatory? The Witch Hunts ended though because of people started thinking more scientifically and logically so logically witches weren't exactly as pressing as a problem as they previously thought
Gaudy, grand, exuberant, ornate, over the top art. Representative of the pageantry of the Catholic Faith.
More goods available for consumption, more consumption
Initially a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the HRE (Calvinist still seek legal recognition) and ends as a Hapsburg-France power struggle
Ends Thirty Years' War. Brandenburg Prussia and Austria emerge as powerful German states. Calvinism is legally recognized
Government regulated trade. Founded on the idea that resources are limited.Colonies exist to serve the mother country
Published in 1687. Laws of motion, classical mechanics, laws of gravity. Mechanistic view of the world.
Art style of the Enlightenment. Ancient Greek and Roman influences
Changes in agriculture, mining, and producing create a different economy and social structure. Increase in production, consumption, standard of living, and population. Sustained economical growth
Balance of power war. Trying to stop the expansion of France
Ends Seven Years' War. Starts GB's reign as a prominent global power
American colonies declare independence from Britain
Events concerning the country of France
Due to conflict with the French Crown, Pope Clement V moves to France and becomes under heavy influence of the French Crown. Seven Popes serve in Avignon under increasing French influence, Pope Gregory XI moves back to Rome. Starts the Great Schism
King Edward of England claims a right to the French throne, ends with the French House of Valois keeping the throne
French peasant revolts during the 100 years war. Centralized in Paris
Civil fighting between French Catholics and French Protestants (Huguenots). Also disputes between the Houses of France, Guises (Catholic) and Bourbons (Huguenot). Fighting concludes with the Edict of Nantes
Catholics kill a bunch of Huguenots outside of a church. Turning point of the war, Huguenot side is crippled
Politique. Changed religion to Catholicism to gain public favor. "Paris is well worth a mass"
Henry IV declares forced toleration of the Huguenots in order to stop civil conflict between the religions of France.
Laid down the foundations of absolutism. Took rights and power away from the nobles.
Henry IV, king of France, is assassinated in Paris by a catholic fanatic. His widow, Marie de' Medici rules as regent for her son Louis XIII after his death
French mathematician. Wrote Pensees. Worked in natural sciences and supported the scientific method. Identified as a Jansenist which is a branch of Catholicism
Start by doubting everything. Then use rational deduction to prove things
Tried to tax nobles and they got angry and started rioting.
Civil war in Paris, influences the court moving to Versailles
Makes the salt tax (taille) and the land tax (gabelle). Moves the royal court to Versailles
Edict of Fountainbleau. Takes rights away from Huguenots. Centralizes Louis XIV's power by making everyone the same religion as him (Catholic)
Very elaborate and ornate Art style, emphasis on pastel colors
Over printing of paper bank notes. More paper money than gold to back it up
French Satire. Criticizes government, religion, and the philosophy of optimism
General will. Citizens must give up their independent rights for the greater good of the state
On the nature of education and man. Men and women live in separate spheres
Events concerning Great Britain
Early church reformer. Believed that the church shouldn't interfere with secular power, and advocated religious documents be printed in the vernacular.His followers, the Lollards, advocated anticlerical and biblically-centered reforms
King Edward of England claims a right to the French throne, ends with the French House of Valois keeping the throne
The Church of England breaks away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church
Married a bunch of girls and had to divorce somebody to get a male heir so he broke away from the Catholic Church and made himself the controller of the Church of England not the Pope. Big deal cause he just said he was in charge, and not the Pope, so checking the authority of the church on his country
Declares Henry VIII the supreme head over the Church of England. Not the Pope.
Catholic. Tried to turn the nation Catholic after her brother made it Protestant. People were not cool with that. Nicknamed "Bloody Mary". Succeeded by Elizabeth I
Politique. Religiously tolerant, never married. England fluorished under her reign. Conflict with Spain (Spanish Armada). Supported Henry of Navarre. Executed Mary Queen of Scots.
Declares the position of the English Church, meeting halfway between Catholics and Protestants. Creates the Anglican Church
Great English Writer. Codified the English Language
Stuart king. Wanted absolute power like in the French Monarchy. Collected taxes without Parliament's consent. Started the English Civil War
Elizabeth I sees Mary Queen of Scots as a rival to her throne and discover's Mary's plot against her so Elizabeth has Mary executed
Treatise on logic and the empirical method/gathering of empirical evidence
Tried to pull the divine right thing and collect taxes without Parliaments consent. They executed him
Dethroned in the Glorious Revolution. Replaced by William of Orange. Last Catholic ruler of GB
King cannot dissolve Parliament without their consent
Series of conflicts between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers) for who would dominant the English government. Ends with Parliamentary victory
Argues for a social contract, absolute rule (whether parliamentary or monarchical), and a very strong central government
After the removal of the Monarchy and end of the House of Stuarts reign aas monarchs, Oliver Cromwell instated the Puritan Republic as the government of England, though it was more like a dictatorship.
First monarch after the Puritan Republic
With the emergence of scientific thought, natural philosophers came together in societies to discuss their ideas and collaborate
In 1660, the English Monarchy was restored and the first monarch to rule was Charles I. In 1688, King James II was overthrown by Parliament and William III of Orange and his wife Mary II of England were given the thrown. Their throne comes with the knowledge that Parliament has more power than them
First treatise criticizes the patriarchal system while the second treatise sets a foundation for a society based off of natural rights
Puts William III and Mary II on the throne. Puts limits on the power of the crown, gives Parliament the right to free speech, other such rights, and concessions to Protestants
Decides that the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland will go to the Hanover's and their protestant heirs
Brings an end to the House of Orange
First Prime Minister of Great Britain. A Whig. Heavy influence in the parliamentary cabinet
First war brought on by public opinion, makes public opinion something governments can no longer ignore
Revolutionizes mining and pumping, fuels various machinery to aid in production of products. Credited to James Watt
Uses water power to fuel machines rather than people. Takes production out of the home
Reduces amount of work needed to create yarn
Most important economical text. The idea of commercialism, an economy with no government interference
Afraid of overpopulation depleting resources, did not expect production to overcome consumption
Events concerning the Holy Roman Empire
Declares that the Holy Roman Emperor would be elected by electorate state
"Prince of Humanists". Advocated religious toleration. Piety. Used humanist ideas on the existing doctrines and sacraments
Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492. Went to the Americas/West Indies and started colonizing the region
Luther's complaints about the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church practices, esp. the selling of indulgences
The Roman Catholic Church meets and declares Luther a heretic and bans his writing, and I think this is when they fix some corruption in their system like the selling of church office? Anyway, Luther runs away and is hidden by German nobles
German Peasants think Luther's ideas are cool and try to revolt in order to gain freedom and influence. Because Luther is being protected by the nobles that these guys are rebelling against he does not approve and deems the revolts unchristian
Passed reforms onto the church and preached frequently. Created Calvinism and the idea of predestination, that those who are going to heaven have already been decided (The Elect) and there's no way to change that. Act like you're already in
An alternative heliocentric model of the universe as opposed to Ptolemy's geocentric model. Still highly inaccurate, but closer
Politique. Leader of the Netherlands revolt against Spain.
Pope and church officials say Protestants are heretics and that the writing of the church fathers and church doctrine are official and that all seven of the holy sacraments are right
Danish scientist who observed the stars. Believed in geocentricism. Kepler's Mentor
Cuius regio, eius religio.
The ruler of the region, picks the religion.
Choice between either Lutheranism or Catholicism. NOT CALVINISM. Leads to Thirty Years' War later on
Revolt of Protestant provinces, lead by William of Orange, against Catholic imperial forces of Spain lead by Philip II
Dutch banking system gets really good. Trade increases with the tulip crop. The era has it's own art style characterized by still life's and portraits of common people
Signed on November 8th, 1576, the Pacification of Ghent allied the Habsburg provinces of the Netherlands to fight Spanish mercenaries.
Unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands against imperial Spain (Habsburgs)
Kepler uses Brahe's data on Mars to prove heliocentric-ism and retrograde motion
Inflation and other political problems cause the Netherlands to fall as a power
Created economical ideas like minimum wage and rent
Events concerning the country of Prussia
Soldier King. Makes Prussia a great military power
Enlightened despot. Extensive religious toleration, centralizes the bureaucracy.
Events concerning the country of Austria
Assured that his empire would pass to his daughter, Maria Theresa, after his death. Eventually leads to the war of Austrian Succession
After Charles' death, Prussia and France try to take over Austria and keep Maria Theresa from gaining the throne. Great Britain allies with Austria
Gets throne after the War of Austrian Succession. Catholic. Not religiously tolerant
War of Austrian Succession starts out with France and Prussia against GB and Austria. GB allies with Prussia, forcing France and Austria to ally. Weird cause Hapsburgs and France hadn't gotten along prior to this
Enlightened despot. Religiously tolerant, made church a tool of the state. Centralized power of the Emperor
Events concerning the country of Russia
Westernized Russia, centralized power, took rights away from nobles, beard tax
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia gains territory on the Black Sea
Enlightened despot. Forced to stop reforms because of peasant rebellions. Gains Russia a warm water port.
Events concerning the country of Spain
Prince Henry gives Columbus a path to sail, ends up in North America. Thinks the Bahamas are Asia. They're not.
Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragorn have a politcal marriage to conjoin their kingdoms. Militant Catholics. Create the Inquisition. Sponsor Christopher Columbus
Spanish fleet that sails to England, attempting to overthrow Elizabeth I and to stop her helping the Netherlands in their revolt against Spain and the pirateering of Spanish traders by English pirates. Spain lost.
Published in 1606, considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age
The last Hapsburg king of Spain dies, leaving the throne open. The French Bourbon Monarchy claims to have a right to the throne. War erupts in Europe to keep the kingdoms of Spain and France from uniting
A series of peace treaties that end the War of Spanish Succession. The Bourbon Duke of Anjou is declared king of Spain, but the two kingdoms of France and Spain can never unite
Events concerning the country of Italy
Major Italian Poet. Wrote "Divine Comedy" which is the picture of Hell for modern day religious thinking. Codified the Italian language
Early Italian poet and scholar. Considered the "Father of Humanism". He also died a day before his birthday.
Renaissance poet. Humanist. Wrote Decameron.Influenced greatly by classic Greek and Roman culture
Transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Created the art style of Mannerism and saw the creation of the humanism philosophy.
Italian princes begin to way with each other. Ludovicio invites France in to stop the feuding, France won't leave...
Ideas of restrained naturalism. Associated with da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.
Published in 1532, "the ends justify the means" "it is better to be feared than loved"
Thought to be violating church mandates and insulting the church. Put under house arrest
It's all in the name yo
Lack of bread and high grain prices cause Parisian women to march to Versailles and demand food
The Second Estate renounces their feudal and legal privileges. Everyone is now equal under the law
1st Estate=Clergy. 2nd Estate=Nobles. 3rd Estate="The People" (mostly Bourgeoisie). Summoned by Louis XVI to solve the financial problems. No one can agree on anything
National Assembly meets on a Tennis Court and swear not to disband until they write a constitution. First real "revolutionary" act
Mobs of Parisians march to the Bastille to free "political" prisoners. The public influencing the government. The beginning of the Revolution
Peasant rebellions and general unrest because they all thought that the king would send troops to stop the revolution
All citizens (except women) are free and equal under the law
Forced clergy to swear an oath of allegiance to France. Creates constitutional and refractory clergy
Middle class representatives meet. After the National Constituent Assembly dissolves but before the National Convention
Atheistic belief system that was supposed to de-Christianize France during the Revolution
National convention meets and abolishes the monarchy
30,000 citizens storm the Tuileries palace, demand the king. Take him as a political prisoner in Paris
Criticized Rousseau's separate sphere theory. Claimed that women were being belittled and that by keeping them in the domestic sphere their education and opportunity was being limited
Austria threatens war with France after they kill the king and queen, so France attacks Austria first
Tried for treason, convicted, sentenced to death. Begins the Reign of Terror
When anyone who disagreed with the government (counter-revolutionaries) was executed
Essentially a draft. French citizens are recruited to fight in the war
Danton was a pretty important bro but they thought he was a counter-revolutionary and had him executed. Starts the thermidorian reaction
Branch of Deism that was the religion of France for a brief time during Robespierre's reign
Robespierre gets a little too cray with executing "counter-revolutionaries" so they have him executed before beginning The Directory
Government established by the Constitutio of the Year III. White terror takes place, Jacobins being executed. Eventually overthrown by Napolean
Makes The Directory the official government of France, not a very good government if you know what I mean
Napoleon creates the Consulate then overthrows that and creates and Empire and surprise has himself voted Emperor