1st Semester AP Euro Timeline

Main

Dante

1295 - 1321

Set cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature along with Petrarch.

Reformation

November 18, 1302 - November 20, 1815

Reform in religion, agriculture, economics, government, etc. End of general reform when the Quadruple Alliance is formed.

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1377

Conflict between pope and France. Beginning of the sale of indulgences. Pope trying to gain more power.

The Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

Important war between England and France. France became a centralized state, England established clothing industry, burden of war fell to peasants through taxes.

The Black Death

1346 - 1353

Immensely decreased Europe's population. Loss of faith in church, rise of skilled artisans in cities. Immunity to plague naturally grew.

Petrarch

1347 - 1374

"Father of Humanism".

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1350 - 1378

Wycliffe created and lead lollards: created a belief that preaching should be in the vernacular. Against papacy, precursor to the Great Schism.

Golden Bull

1356

Established electoral college of bishops. New administrative body that elected emperor of Holy Roman Empire.

Jacquerie

1358

Series of peasant revolts in France. Showed opposition to high tax increases during the Hundred Years War.

Boccaccio

1375 - 1400

Author of Decameron. One of the sparks of the Italian renaissance.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Gave rise to new art and culture. Origin of humanism, growth of thought and politics in Italy.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Gave rise to two popes that fought for control. Lead to Conciliar movement.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Superstition and panic lead to mass conviction of witches. Rise of sciences, stronger judicial systems, and witches beginning to accuses those in power lead to end of the hunts.

Hussites: John Huss

1403 - 1414

Leader of Wycliffe faction in Bohemia. Most famous religious reformer in Bohemia.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Second council of conciliar movement. Brought back having only one pope, fixed error of Council of Pisa.

Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain

1415 - 1492

Exploration by Prince Henry. Led to new routes to Africa and Asia.

Printing Press- Guttenburg

1450 - 1550

Provided cheap method to produce press. Spread of ideas of northern humanism, easy to make political propaganda.

Northern Renaissance

1454 - 1535

First sightings of the power of printing press (Gutenburg), origin of Northern humanists, expansion of art and thought.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)

1469 - 1516

Unified Spain, created new power. Established heavy control over Church in Spain.

Erasmus

1484 - 1536

Most influential northern humanist. Taught Latin, combined classicism with Christian ideals.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1800

Exchange of animals, crops, and diseases with new world. Resulted in many Native American deaths and European deaths as well.

Columbus/Start of Spanish Empire

October 12, 1492

Discovery of America lead to new wealth for Spain. Established European settlements in the Americas, destroyed South American civilizations.

Italy's Decline by Invasions

1494 - 1527

Decline of Italy due to invasions from France. Ended Italian renaissance, ended Treaty of Lodi.

Pope Julius II reign

1503 - 1513

Known as "Warrior pope". Drove Venetians out of Romagna, ridded Italy of the French invasion.

Henry VIII Reign

1509 - 1547

Established England's religion as separate from the papacy, declared head of the Church of England through Act of Supremacy.

The Prince: Machiavelli

1513 - 1527

Important political theorist for Italy. His book The Prince advised rulers on how to achieve stability.

Martin Luther's 95 Thesis

October 31, 1517

Posted on Wittenberg church to ask for discussion on indulgences and other religious practices. Spark of protestant reformation.

Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

October 31, 1517 - May 25, 1521

Origins of protestant religious practice. 95 Thesis began the protestant reformation, Luther challenged religion during diet of worms. Exiled at end of diet.

Diet of Worms

April 1521 - May 26, 1521

Luther attacked scriptture. Diet resulted in Luther's exile.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Shows German peasantry's reaction to Luther's teachings. Luther no longer seen as a patron of the laity, urged for crushing the revolts.

Copernicus- On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

1530 - 1543

Scientist in time of scientific revolution. Challenged Ptolemaic model with a heliocentric model.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1530 - 1540

New religious reform group made by Ignatius of Loyola, recognized by pope in 1540. Taught complete submission to higher church authority.

Act of Supremacy

1534

Established Heny VIII as the supreme head of the Church of England. Changed England to protestantism and completely reformed religious structure.

John Calvin- Geneva

1534 - 1555

Created new dominant protestant reform after Luther. Geneva became home to many exiled protestants.

Spanish Armada

1545 - 1588

Largest army in late sixteenth century. Key role in Spain's domination of Mediterranean and used for trying to conquer the Netherlands.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Council involved in major Catholic counter reform. Selling of church offices curtailed, strengthened local bishop authority.

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

Reverted England to Catholicism. Many protestants burned at the stake during her reign.

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

Brought peace in Lutheran conflict. Forcibly seized lands returned. Phrase cuius regio, eius religio- ruler chooses religion.

Elizabeth I Reign

1558 - 1603

Pursued a middle ground between Catholic and Protestant extremists. Fought with Mary, Queen of Scots.

Dutch Revolt Against Spain

1559 - 1596

Established Netherlands as independent. Crushed Spain's last hope for a world empire.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Conflict between Huguenots and France. Resulted in religious freedoms for Protestants.

Thirty Nine Articles

1563

Made moderate protestantism official religion of Church of England.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1567 - 1584

Major leader in Netherlands revolt against Spain. Helped Netherlands win.

Tycho Brahe

1570 - 1601

Important scientist of the time. Spent his life advocating an earth centered solar system, made new instruments to observe the stars.

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

Rise of economic stability and profit in the Netherlands. Gave rise to Dutch East India Company.

Saint Batholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

Massive murder of Huguenots in Paris. Showed radical views of Catholics inside and outside of France.

Pacification of Ghent

1576 - 1578

Unification of Netherlands during revolt against Spain. Forced Spain to face a unified nation, Spain experienced greater difficulty.

Union of Utrecht

1579 - 1609

Further unified northern provinces of Netherlands. Established a base that the Netherlands could use to defeat Spain.

Mannerism

1580 - 1600

New style of art by Michelangelo. Allowed freer range in to the strange and abnormal.

Shakespeare

1585 - 1616

Major English playwright. Wrote political and comical pieces that matched the age.

Mary Stuart Executed

February 18, 1587

Executed under orders of Elizabeth I. All hope lost for bloodless reconversion of protestant England.

Henry IV (France) Reign

1589 - 1610

Leader of protestant attack in France. Assumed throne after death of Henry III. Protestant fight and counter fight strengthened his crown.

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598 - October 1685

Made good on promises for religious freedoms to Huguenots in France. Minority religions recognized. Ended by Louis XIV

Baroque Art

1600 - 1630

Successor to mannerism. Grandiose display of life.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1601 - 1630

Continued work of Brahe after his death. Further solved issues of planetary motion, did not get to why the motion was orderly.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1603 - 1605

First modern novel, satire of Spain. Cervantes believed in a necessary combination of idealism and realism.

James I (England)

1603 - 1625

Inherited royal debt and religious division of England. Tried to quell issues with other countries and Puritans.

Bacon: Novum Organum

1605 - 1626

Father of empiricism. Novum Organum challenged belief that most truth was already discovered.

Louis XIII Reign

1610 - 1643

Henry IV (Fr.) Assassinated

May 1610

Eventually led to revoking of Edict of Nantes.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Result of high religious diversity and tension. Resulted in Treaty of Westphalia- Ruler determines religion.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Combination of reason and faith, allied with Jansenists. Made belief: "believe in God just in case."

Charles I (England) Reign

1625 - 1649

Ruler of England during time of conflict with Spain. Made monetary decisions without consent of Parliament, showed issue with personal rule.

Galileo Condemned

1633

Galileo condemned by pope for heresy. Most famous conflict between religion and science.

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637 - 1650

Important philosopher in response to scientific revolution. Philosophy of only believing what you could have clear and distinct ideas about.

English Civil War

1640 - January 30, 1649

War between parliament (Puritans) and English king. Established England as a Puritan Republic. Cromwell lead parliament to victory.

Long/Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

Parliament called while under reign of Charles I. Arguments with king led to English Civil War.

Louis XIV Reign

1643 - 1715

Versailles built under his reign. Personal rule, rise of absolute monarchy in France.

Fronde

1649 - 1652

Series of rebellions among French nobles. Result of centralization of policies.

Restoration of the English Monarchy

1650 - 1660

England was ready to return to monarchy. Established Charles II as king in 1660. Return of Anglican Church.

Hobbes: Leviathan

1651 - 1679

Important philosopher from response to scientific revolution. Believed that men were naturally brutal, and believed in absolute government once established.

The Academy of Experiments (Florence)

1657

New institution of sharing. First in existence.

Royal Society of London

1660

New science academy. Most famous institution of sharing.

Charles II (England) Reign

1660 - 1685

Ruler of England. Monarchy returned to England, status quo of 1642

French Academy of Science

1666

New institution of sharing.

Peter the Great (Russia) Reign

1682 - 1725

Ruler of Russia. Through war brought Russia in to the European political arena.

Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

Forced James II out of England, established William III and Mary II the new monarchs of England. Impact of James II's efforts for religious toleration to Catholics.

James II (England) Reign

1685 - 1688

Ruler of England during time of Glorious Revolution. Repealed Test Act and issued Declaration of Indulgence.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes

October 1685

Done by Louis XIV. Louis considered religious fanatic after revocation.

Newton- Principia Mathematica

1687 - 1727

Important scientist, first to work out law of gravity. Believed everything could be explained through mathematical principles.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Limited powers of monarchy, gave religious rights to all except Roman Catholics, also excluded Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.

Locke- Treatises on Gov't

1690 - 1704

Influential thinker for enlightenment. Believed in tabula rasa- blank slate, environment determines nature.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

New innovations in farming that improved quantity and quality of food in Europe. Response to rise in bread price as population increased.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

War over Baltic between Russia and Sweden. Resulted in Russia's gain of ice free ports and access into European affairs.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Result of France gaining power, Spain having Charles II die without an heir. Philip V remained king of Spain in the end.

Act of Settlement (GB)

1701

Ended century of strife, English crown sent to Protestant House of Hanover.

Decline of Netherlands

1702

Economic decline that resulted from loss of unified political leadership. Netherlands did not completely lose economic hold thanks to banks.

Charles VI (Austria): Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

Ruler of Austria. Pragmatic Sanction provided a legal basis for a single line of inheritance through Maria Theresa.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Ended war of Spanish Successsion. France made peace with England and Holland. Philip V remained king of Spain.

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

Age where government strictly controlled economy and trade. Was a new economic system that hadn't widely existed before.

Frederick Wilhelm Reign

1713 - 1740

Ruler of Prussia. Prussian militarism.

Emergence of Rococo

1715

New lavish art style in France after Louis XIV's death. Made hotels.

Mississipi Bubble

1719 - 1720

Mississipi Company took over French debt. Resulted in economic lapse due to improper use of making more paper money.

Voltaire- Candide

1720 - 1778

First philosophe of enlightenment. Candide provided a satirical piece against war, religious persecution, and exaggerated optimism.

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

Rose to power through royal and government support. Became first Prime Minister of England.

War of Jenkin's Ear

1731 - 1815

War that resulted from a Spanish boarding of an English ship. Led to series of wars fought across the world.

Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia) Reign

1740 - 1786

Ruler of Prussia. One of the major rulers with principals from the enlightenment. Called himself "first servant of the state."

Maria Theresa (Austria) Reign

1740 - 1780

Ruler of Austria. Preserved Habsburg Empire during war of Austrian Succession.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Result of Frederick II invading Silesia. France drawn in to war, resulted in Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia kept Silesia.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

Improvements in production, industrialization of society. Precursor to commercial society and resulted in high gain of wealth.

Enclosure Method

1750

New system of farming, fenced off spaces opposed to open field. Improved profits, resulted in several peasant revolts.

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract

1750 - 1778

Radical philosophe that criticized society. Developed idea of separate spheres for men and women, developed social contract- sacrifice for general will.

Consumer Revolution

1750 - 1800

Revolutionary change in level of consumption. People persuaded of their need to buy product, led to modern commercialism.

Neoclassicism

1755 - 1800

New, darker art style from France. Criticized French aristocracy and rococo before beginning of French revolution.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

Changing in alliances. Resulted in Britain and Prussia forming an alliance.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

War between France and England over territory in colonies. Resulted in France losing several colonies to the British. Ended by treaty of Paris.

Catherine II (The Great) (Russia) Reign

1762 - 1796

Ruler of Russia. Did not implement many reforms from enlightenment, but set groundwork for future reform.

Spinning Jenny

1765

New invention by James Hargreaves. Allowed faster spinning of thread.

Joseph II (Austria) Reign

1765 - 1790

Ruler of Austria. Implemented reforms from enlightenment, centralized authority and agrarian reform.

Water Frame

1769

New invention by Richard Arkwright. Took textile production out of the home and in to factories.

Steam Engine

1776

New invention from James Watt. Aided in powering factories and revolutionized transportation.

Smith- Wealth of Nations

1776 - 1790

Philosophe against mercantilism. Published Wealth of Nations which provided four stage theory, father of Laissez-Faire.

American Revolution

July 4, 1776 - 1783

American revolt against England. Resulted in America's independence and recognition as a nation.

Estates General called/meets

July 1788 - June 17, 1789

Estates General called due to French financial crisis. Resulted in creation of National Assembly.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Third Estate locked out of proceedings, moved next door and took an oath to create a constitution. Revolution starts now.

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

Parisians stormed Bastille to acquire ammunition. Retaliation to Louis XVI sending royal troops to towns.

Great Fear

July 14, 1789 - August 4, 1789

Fear of royal troops that intensified peasant disturbances. Led to equality under the law.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27, 1789

Declaration of rights issued before creation of a constitution. Demanded equality and natural rights, women excluded from declaration.

March of the Fishwives

October 5, 1789

Parisian women marched on Versailles. Louis XVI forced to return to Paris.

Legislative Assembly Meets

October 6, 1789 - September 1791

Met to reconstruct and reorganize France. Constitutional monarchy established.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 1790

Made Roman Catholic church secular part of state, church lands could be sold. Spark of counterrevolutionary Roman Catholics.

Olympe de Gouge's Declaration of the Rights of Women

1791

Response to women ignored in new government. Attacked Rousseau's belief on separate spheres.

War with Austria

April 20, 1792

France declares war on Austria. Sparked conflict across Europe with France.

Tuileries stormed- king captive

August 10, 1792

King in refuge with legislative assembly. King now forced out of French politics.

Convention meets- monarch abolished

September 21, 1792

Convention declared France a republic. Monarchy no longer existed in France.

Reign of Terror

November 1792 - July 28, 1794

Most radical and chaotic stage of French revolution. Mass execution of French population, radical laws such as Law 22 passed.

Louis XVI Executed

January 21, 1793

Louis XVI sentenced to death and executed. Regicide has now been committed, precursor to reign of terror.

Levee en Masse

August 23, 1793

Military requisition. Now anyone in France could be conscripted in to army.

Cult of Reason

November 10, 1793 - May 7, 1794

New religious creed proclaimed. Led to France's revolutionary calendar.

Danton executed

April 1794

Major republican in the Convention that had formerly provided great leadership executed. Killed out of the possible threat to Robespierre's position.

Cult of the Supreme Being

May 7, 1794

Change of the Cult of Reason by Robespierre. Created more deistic cult that hoped to invoke morality.

Fall of Robespierre

July 28, 1794

Robespierre executed for threatening entire Convention that they were conspiring. Led to end of reign of terror.

Constitution of the Year III

August 22, 1795

New constitution that replaced the democratic constitution of 1793. Established the Directory.

The Directory

August 22, 1795 - November 9, 1799

New government system. Established two houses, the Council of Elders and of Five Hundred.

Napoleon- coup Brumaire

November 9, 1799

Napoleon takes over France. Precursor to Napoleon era, where Napoleon begins to conquer Europe.