Set cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature along with Petrarch.
Reform in religion, agriculture, economics, government, etc. End of general reform when the Quadruple Alliance is formed.
Conflict between pope and France. Beginning of the sale of indulgences. Pope trying to gain more power.
Important war between England and France. France became a centralized state, England established clothing industry, burden of war fell to peasants through taxes.
Immensely decreased Europe's population. Loss of faith in church, rise of skilled artisans in cities. Immunity to plague naturally grew.
"Father of Humanism".
Wycliffe created and lead lollards: created a belief that preaching should be in the vernacular. Against papacy, precursor to the Great Schism.
Established electoral college of bishops. New administrative body that elected emperor of Holy Roman Empire.
Series of peasant revolts in France. Showed opposition to high tax increases during the Hundred Years War.
Author of Decameron. One of the sparks of the Italian renaissance.
Gave rise to new art and culture. Origin of humanism, growth of thought and politics in Italy.
Gave rise to two popes that fought for control. Lead to Conciliar movement.
Superstition and panic lead to mass conviction of witches. Rise of sciences, stronger judicial systems, and witches beginning to accuses those in power lead to end of the hunts.
Leader of Wycliffe faction in Bohemia. Most famous religious reformer in Bohemia.
Second council of conciliar movement. Brought back having only one pope, fixed error of Council of Pisa.
Exploration by Prince Henry. Led to new routes to Africa and Asia.
Provided cheap method to produce press. Spread of ideas of northern humanism, easy to make political propaganda.
First sightings of the power of printing press (Gutenburg), origin of Northern humanists, expansion of art and thought.
Unified Spain, created new power. Established heavy control over Church in Spain.
Most influential northern humanist. Taught Latin, combined classicism with Christian ideals.
Exchange of animals, crops, and diseases with new world. Resulted in many Native American deaths and European deaths as well.
Discovery of America lead to new wealth for Spain. Established European settlements in the Americas, destroyed South American civilizations.
Decline of Italy due to invasions from France. Ended Italian renaissance, ended Treaty of Lodi.
Known as "Warrior pope". Drove Venetians out of Romagna, ridded Italy of the French invasion.
Established England's religion as separate from the papacy, declared head of the Church of England through Act of Supremacy.
Important political theorist for Italy. His book The Prince advised rulers on how to achieve stability.
Origins of protestant religious practice. 95 Thesis began the protestant reformation, Luther challenged religion during diet of worms. Exiled at end of diet.
Posted on Wittenberg church to ask for discussion on indulgences and other religious practices. Spark of protestant reformation.
Luther attacked scriptture. Diet resulted in Luther's exile.
Shows German peasantry's reaction to Luther's teachings. Luther no longer seen as a patron of the laity, urged for crushing the revolts.
Scientist in time of scientific revolution. Challenged Ptolemaic model with a heliocentric model.
New religious reform group made by Ignatius of Loyola, recognized by pope in 1540. Taught complete submission to higher church authority.
Established Heny VIII as the supreme head of the Church of England. Changed England to protestantism and completely reformed religious structure.
Created new dominant protestant reform after Luther. Geneva became home to many exiled protestants.
Council involved in major Catholic counter reform. Selling of church offices curtailed, strengthened local bishop authority.
Largest army in late sixteenth century. Key role in Spain's domination of Mediterranean and used for trying to conquer the Netherlands.
Reverted England to Catholicism. Many protestants burned at the stake during her reign.
Brought peace in Lutheran conflict. Forcibly seized lands returned. Phrase cuius regio, eius religio- ruler chooses religion.
Pursued a middle ground between Catholic and Protestant extremists. Fought with Mary, Queen of Scots.
Established Netherlands as independent. Crushed Spain's last hope for a world empire.
Conflict between Huguenots and France. Resulted in religious freedoms for Protestants.
Made moderate protestantism official religion of Church of England.
Major leader in Netherlands revolt against Spain. Helped Netherlands win.
Important scientist of the time. Spent his life advocating an earth centered solar system, made new instruments to observe the stars.
Rise of economic stability and profit in the Netherlands. Gave rise to Dutch East India Company.
Massive murder of Huguenots in Paris. Showed radical views of Catholics inside and outside of France.
Unification of Netherlands during revolt against Spain. Forced Spain to face a unified nation, Spain experienced greater difficulty.
Further unified northern provinces of Netherlands. Established a base that the Netherlands could use to defeat Spain.
New style of art by Michelangelo. Allowed freer range in to the strange and abnormal.
Major English playwright. Wrote political and comical pieces that matched the age.
Executed under orders of Elizabeth I. All hope lost for bloodless reconversion of protestant England.
Leader of protestant attack in France. Assumed throne after death of Henry III. Protestant fight and counter fight strengthened his crown.
Made good on promises for religious freedoms to Huguenots in France. Minority religions recognized. Ended by Louis XIV
Successor to mannerism. Grandiose display of life.
Continued work of Brahe after his death. Further solved issues of planetary motion, did not get to why the motion was orderly.
First modern novel, satire of Spain. Cervantes believed in a necessary combination of idealism and realism.
Inherited royal debt and religious division of England. Tried to quell issues with other countries and Puritans.
Father of empiricism. Novum Organum challenged belief that most truth was already discovered.
Eventually led to revoking of Edict of Nantes.
Result of high religious diversity and tension. Resulted in Treaty of Westphalia- Ruler determines religion.
Combination of reason and faith, allied with Jansenists. Made belief: "believe in God just in case."
Ruler of England during time of conflict with Spain. Made monetary decisions without consent of Parliament, showed issue with personal rule.
Galileo condemned by pope for heresy. Most famous conflict between religion and science.
Important philosopher in response to scientific revolution. Philosophy of only believing what you could have clear and distinct ideas about.
War between parliament (Puritans) and English king. Established England as a Puritan Republic. Cromwell lead parliament to victory.
Parliament called while under reign of Charles I. Arguments with king led to English Civil War.
Versailles built under his reign. Personal rule, rise of absolute monarchy in France.
Series of rebellions among French nobles. Result of centralization of policies.
England was ready to return to monarchy. Established Charles II as king in 1660. Return of Anglican Church.
Important philosopher from response to scientific revolution. Believed that men were naturally brutal, and believed in absolute government once established.
New institution of sharing. First in existence.
Ruler of England. Monarchy returned to England, status quo of 1642
New science academy. Most famous institution of sharing.
New institution of sharing.
Ruler of Russia. Through war brought Russia in to the European political arena.
Forced James II out of England, established William III and Mary II the new monarchs of England. Impact of James II's efforts for religious toleration to Catholics.
Ruler of England during time of Glorious Revolution. Repealed Test Act and issued Declaration of Indulgence.
Done by Louis XIV. Louis considered religious fanatic after revocation.
Important scientist, first to work out law of gravity. Believed everything could be explained through mathematical principles.
Limited powers of monarchy, gave religious rights to all except Roman Catholics, also excluded Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.
Influential thinker for enlightenment. Believed in tabula rasa- blank slate, environment determines nature.
New innovations in farming that improved quantity and quality of food in Europe. Response to rise in bread price as population increased.
War over Baltic between Russia and Sweden. Resulted in Russia's gain of ice free ports and access into European affairs.
Ended century of strife, English crown sent to Protestant House of Hanover.
Result of France gaining power, Spain having Charles II die without an heir. Philip V remained king of Spain in the end.
Economic decline that resulted from loss of unified political leadership. Netherlands did not completely lose economic hold thanks to banks.
Ruler of Austria. Pragmatic Sanction provided a legal basis for a single line of inheritance through Maria Theresa.
Age where government strictly controlled economy and trade. Was a new economic system that hadn't widely existed before.
Ruler of Prussia. Prussian militarism.
Ended war of Spanish Successsion. France made peace with England and Holland. Philip V remained king of Spain.
New lavish art style in France after Louis XIV's death. Made hotels.
Mississipi Company took over French debt. Resulted in economic lapse due to improper use of making more paper money.
First philosophe of enlightenment. Candide provided a satirical piece against war, religious persecution, and exaggerated optimism.
Rose to power through royal and government support. Became first Prime Minister of England.
War that resulted from a Spanish boarding of an English ship. Led to series of wars fought across the world.
Ruler of Prussia. One of the major rulers with principals from the enlightenment. Called himself "first servant of the state."
Ruler of Austria. Preserved Habsburg Empire during war of Austrian Succession.
Result of Frederick II invading Silesia. France drawn in to war, resulted in Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia kept Silesia.
Revolutionary change in level of consumption. People persuaded of their need to buy product, led to modern commercialism.
New system of farming, fenced off spaces opposed to open field. Improved profits, resulted in several peasant revolts.
Improvements in production, industrialization of society. Precursor to commercial society and resulted in high gain of wealth.
Radical philosophe that criticized society. Developed idea of separate spheres for men and women, developed social contract- sacrifice for general will.
New, darker art style from France. Criticized French aristocracy and rococo before beginning of French revolution.
Changing in alliances. Resulted in Britain and Prussia forming an alliance.
War between France and England over territory in colonies. Resulted in France losing several colonies to the British. Ended by treaty of Paris.
Ruler of Russia. Did not implement many reforms from enlightenment, but set groundwork for future reform.
Ruler of Austria. Implemented reforms from enlightenment, centralized authority and agrarian reform.
New invention by James Hargreaves. Allowed faster spinning of thread.
New invention by Richard Arkwright. Took textile production out of the home and in to factories.
Philosophe against mercantilism. Published Wealth of Nations which provided four stage theory, father of Laissez-Faire.
New invention from James Watt. Aided in powering factories and revolutionized transportation.
American revolt against England. Resulted in America's independence and recognition as a nation.
Estates General called due to French financial crisis. Resulted in creation of National Assembly.
Third Estate locked out of proceedings, moved next door and took an oath to create a constitution. Revolution starts now.
Fear of royal troops that intensified peasant disturbances. Led to equality under the law.
Parisians stormed Bastille to acquire ammunition. Retaliation to Louis XVI sending royal troops to towns.
Declaration of rights issued before creation of a constitution. Demanded equality and natural rights, women excluded from declaration.
Parisian women marched on Versailles. Louis XVI forced to return to Paris.
Met to reconstruct and reorganize France. Constitutional monarchy established.
Made Roman Catholic church secular part of state, church lands could be sold. Spark of counterrevolutionary Roman Catholics.
Response to women ignored in new government. Attacked Rousseau's belief on separate spheres.
France declares war on Austria. Sparked conflict across Europe with France.
King in refuge with legislative assembly. King now forced out of French politics.
Convention declared France a republic. Monarchy no longer existed in France.
Most radical and chaotic stage of French revolution. Mass execution of French population, radical laws such as Law 22 passed.
Louis XVI sentenced to death and executed. Regicide has now been committed, precursor to reign of terror.
Military requisition. Now anyone in France could be conscripted in to army.
New religious creed proclaimed. Led to France's revolutionary calendar.
Major republican in the Convention that had formerly provided great leadership executed. Killed out of the possible threat to Robespierre's position.
Change of the Cult of Reason by Robespierre. Created more deistic cult that hoped to invoke morality.
Robespierre executed for threatening entire Convention that they were conspiring. Led to end of reign of terror.
New constitution that replaced the democratic constitution of 1793. Established the Directory.
New government system. Established two houses, the Council of Elders and of Five Hundred.
Napoleon takes over France. Precursor to Napoleon era, where Napoleon begins to conquer Europe.