-1st semester final
The first inhabitants of Crete probably came from western Asia Minor. In time, as the islanders mastered the sea, Crete became a thriving maritime power. Trade with the older civilizations of Egypt and Asia introduced new ideas and new skills. These, combined with the creative energy of the Cretans, produced a distinctive civilization.
Began when Sanakhte took the throne as king. During this period, pyramid-building slowly shifted from step pyramids to "true" pyramids, with smooth surfaces.
He unified Mesopotamia under the rule of his Akkadian Empire and set the standard for future forms of government in Mesopotamia and created the first multi-national empire in the world.
A group of warrior nomads, the Aryans, began to migrate into the Indus Valley region around the time that the Harappan Civilization began to decline.
The Code of Hammurabi is significant because its creation allowed men, women, slaves, and all others to read and understand the laws that governed their lives in Babylon. It is unique in that laws of other civilizations were not written down, and thus could be manipulated to suite the rulers that dictated them.
Ended in internal breakdown and external conquest. External factors played a major role in this breakdown with Asiatic Palestinian or Hyksos invaders coming from the northeast and Nubians invading from the south.
changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning "the Servant of Aten" early in his reign
Established a united kingdom over all Israel, with Jerusalem as its capital. In Jewish tradition he became the ideal king, the founder of an enduring dynasty
According to Roman legend, Romulus, brother of Remus, created Rome. Romulus killed Remus in a bout over the city, and Romulus named it Rome after himself.
Was the greatest and 2nd king of the Chaldean dynasty of Babylonia. He began his military career as an administrator and ascended the throne on his father's death. He devoted time and energy to restoring Babylon, by paving roads, rebuilding temples, and digging canals. At least in folk tradition, he is credited with building the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Cyrus is the king of the Persians who allowed the Hebrews who had been driven from their homeland, in Judaea, by Nebuchadnezzar, to leave Babylon and end the exile.
Chinese teacher and philosopher Confucius was the founder of the school of philosophy known as the Ju or Confucianism, which is still very influential in China.
Buddha died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar. His body was cremated and his ashes were divided into eight parts.
Philosopher Socrates stood before a jury of 500 of his fellow Athenians accused of "refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state" and of "corrupting the youth." He was found guilty and asked what he thought his punishment should be and which he sarcastically answered he be rewarded for his actions or pay a sum but they decided on the death penalty(poision)
Power struggle among the government officials. This caused Ancient Egypt to break into smaller states, making it weak. Invaders gladly took advantage of their weakness.
became the king at age 20, when his father
Philip I was assassinated by his own guard
Romans were afraid of the Carthaginians, so, they set an army to Sicily. The Carthaginians saw this as an act of war, because they considered Sicily part of their empire, so the war began.
He renounced his consulship and declared that he was surrendering all powers to the Senate and other bodies, including control of the army. It was a risky but beneficial withdrawal from power and as Octavian expected, the Senate, packed with his supporters, responded by returning much of his power, claiming that it was doing so for the sake of unity and relief from factionalism and civil strife. Also giving him the name "Augustus".
Diocletian realized that the Roman Empire grew too big for him to govern alone, so his solutions was to split it in half taking the eastern half due to its greater wealth in trade.
many factors lead towards the end of the west. Some factors being inflation, power struggles, barbarings/vandals, religion, and economy
War was ordered by the Persian king Darius I primarily in order to punish the city-states of Athens and Eretria. These cities had supported the cities of Ionia during their revolt against Persian rule, thus incurring the wrath of Darius. Darius also saw the opportunity to extend his empire into Europe, and to secure its western frontier.
Experienced his first vision at age 40, while mediating in a dark cave in Mt. Hira near Mecca for a message from the true god.
Pope Leo III (750-816) crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans. In this role, he encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance, a cultural and intellectual revival in Europe.
Viking ships are the earliest vessels known to have crossed the Atlantic. Eric the Red sailed from Iceland in 982 A.D. and discovered Greenland and later on exploring with Liefr Eiriksson.
Reasons for the East/West schism are complicated and developed over a period of many centuries.There were cultural, linguistic, and liturgical differences from rather early and they probably contributed to mutual misunderstandings including the two biggest issues that were the addition of the word filioque (and the Son) to the Western text of the Creed, and the growth of papal power.
The Seljuk Turks established an enlightened, tolerant government in Central Anatolia that fostered a great culture.
Henry lV violated the pope's orders by wanting the imperial right to appoint or invest churchmen with their offices. Angry at Gregory's opposition to his appointing an archbishop of Milan, in 1076, Henry hastily summoned a council of German bishops who declared Pope Gregory deposed causing his punishment by the church.
Alexios I came to a conclusion that Byzantium was not strong enough by itself to retake its lost territories in Anatolia and he appealed to the Christian states of Western Europe for assistance. This call went from one Christian state to other states of Europe and the Catholic Church starting the Crusades.
A Mongol conqueror who founded the largest land empire in history. Was also considered a political and military genius who united Mongol and other nomadic tribes into an effective, disciplined fighting force. He showed great generosity to his followers. he promoted literacy among his people. He also established the first Mongol code of laws. The order he created throughout his vast empire promoted the growth of trade between China and Europe.
The purpose of the Magna Carta was to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
The Yuan army led by the general Zhang Hongfan had crushed the last Song resistance in Battle of Yamen, which marked the end of the Southern Song and the onset of all of China under the Yuan.
Edward III, king of England, asserted that he in fact had a superior claimed to the throne because his mother was Philip the Fair's daughter. This was one of the primary causes of the war, another cause was clearly economic conflict.
the overwhelming pandemic of the 1340s and -50s that is known as The Black Death.The pestilence moved so quickly from ship to city to village and countryside, a whisper of its proximity could spark panic
This method of printing can be credited not only for a revolution in the production of books, but also for fostering rapid development in the sciences, arts and religion through the transmission of texts.
The city of Constantine, Constantinople, fell to the hands of the Ottoman Turks on Tuesday, 29 of May, 1453. The remaining Christian settlements in the Aegean were thrown into a state of terror.
led the envoy out into the Atlantic Ocean on July 8th, 1497. Only two of the boats and less than half the crew would return from the voyage east
The book offers practical advice on how to rule a city like sixteenth-century Florence. Its over-all theme is that the successful prince must exhibit strength in both favorable and adverse circumstances. This crucial quality of leadership is not what was ethical to philosophers, since Machiavelli held that public success and private morality are entirely separate. The question is not what makes a good human being, but what makes a good prince.
In his theses, Luther condemned the excesses and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church, especially the papal practice of asking payment otherwise known as "indulgences" for the forgiveness of sins
She ruled alone for nearly half a century, lending her name to a glorious epoch in world history. Her sense of duty was admirable, though it came at great personal cost. She was committed above all else to preserving English peace and stability.
was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era whose greatest feat was his circumnavigation of the earth, the first after Magellan's.