Wrote Tao de Ching (Taoism)
Classical Greek Athenian philosopher “I only know that I know nothing.”
Philosopher; founder of the Academy in Athens; Tutor of Alexander the Great (3 yrs) and Aristotle; Socrates floats the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection, and not of learning, observation, or study. Art was not rational but inspired by muses. Fathers should raise own sons rather than pay for tutors.
Particulars; points downward in Raphael’s School of Athens. Definition of a slave- a living tool. Idea used (sinfully) by church to justify slavery.
Text Tao de Ching
unknown death date
Female figures made of limestone. Purpose?
Cave paintings, Lascauix France and some in Spain.
First atoms on Earth formed, when universe cooled somewhat, when protons could capture electrons…Hydrogen, helium clouds with faint light from huge amounts of energy pouring through.
single cell organisms, photosynthesis = produce O2
Single cell Eukaryotic cells- use O2
PRECAMBRIAN Fossil record of Multicellular organisms made of Eukaryotic cells, e.g., sponges, corals, anemones, mullusks, wormlike groups…etc.
EARLY CAMBRIAN period- rapid appearance and diversification of fossil phyla when main branches of animal tree becomes established in <= 20 million yr bursts, e.g. small, soft-bodied, with skeletons- spines, plates, nerve cord gill pouches, support rod…. (but no vertebrates yet)
Die-off debated...meteor with climate change?
Left Africa. Last H. erectus group believed to have died out in Asia due to volcanoes and competition from homo sapiens.
Died out as a group during the Ice Age, although DNA indicates that 2.5 % shared genes between Neanderthal and H. sapiens (or a common ancestor). Aftricans have NO Neanderthal; the highest percentages are found in peoples of Asian and South American ancestry. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/10/121012-neanderthals-science-paabo-dna-sex-breeding-humans/
Kibesh formation, Ethiopia
homo sapiens evidence- in caves with Neanderthals (Israel, Syria);
In Australia (short sea barrier) (and Americas????)
First significant migration out of Africa- est. 60-1220 individuals, found in India, SE Asia, China- needed water craft (most groups stayed in Africa = greater genetic variation than the group who emigrated out of Africa)
“Upper Paleolithic revolution…suddenly we see wall paintings, sculpted figures, fishing, sophisticated tools “Great Leap Forward (Jared Diamond)
H. sapiens start backtracking into Europe, esp Russia, Ukraine. Needed fur clothes, evidence of bone needles, pit houses. Europeans known as Cro-Magnon
Bering strait into North America (and Virginia!)