Austrian politician and diplomat who helped form the alliance of Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia that ultimately defeated Napoleon I. (Conservative)
Congress of Vienna
September 1814 - June 1815
Establishes conservative system in post Napoleon Europe.
1815 - 1870
The transition to new manufacturing systems in Europe due to an abundance of natural resources and increased technology.
1820 - 1850
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
Irish Potato Famine
A famine in Ireland in the nineteenth century caused by the failure of successive potato crops in the 1840's. Many in Ireland starved, and many emigrated. More than a million Irish came to the United States during the famine.
Marx publishes "The Communist Manifesto"
The Communist Manifesto is a brief publication that declares the arguments and platform of the Communist party.
Alexander II emancipates the serfs
Proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the domestic (household) serfs.
1870 - 1914
Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850's, after the 1848 Revolution. Realists rejected Romanticism, which had dominated French literature and art since the late 18th century.
Germany unifies under Realpolitik
Otto Von Bismarck pushed German unification through "blood and iron" and skillful understanding of realpolitik.
1884 - 1885
Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.