Unification of Italy

General Events

Treaty of Vienna


A very important treaty in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
Austria is given Lombardy-Venetia, a region in Italy. The King of Sardinia was restored in Piedmont. The Papal States gained much land lost during the Napoleonic Wars.

Mazzini - "Young Italy

07/1831 - 1853

Charles Albert creates a constitution


Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia creates a constitution, and makes the Kingdom a constitutional Monarchy.

Victor Emmanuel II King of Piedmont

03/23/1849 - 03/17/1861

Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia abdicated in favour of Victor Emmanuel II in March 1849.

Cavour Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont

11/1852 - 7/1859

Camillo de Cavour, also Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, was appointed the Minister of the Piedmontese Kingdom in November 1852.
He then retired from office in July 1859.

Cavour Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy

1/1860 - 6/6/1861

Camillo de Cavour returned to office in January 1860 to be the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy.
He died on June 6, 1861.

Meeting between the King and Garibaldi


Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy

3/17/1861 - 1/9/1878

In March 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned the King of Italy. He reigned until his death in January 1878.

Pope recognises the Italian State


The Lateran Treaty was an agreement between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See that the Holy See would recognise the Italian Kingdom and the Italian Kingdom recognise the Vatican State.

Piedmont and France

Italian patriot throws bomb at Napoleon III


An Italian patriot throws a bomb at Napoleon III, but Napoleon III survives. The blast killed eight bystanders. Napoleon III then demands a stop of all revolutionary activities in Piedmont.

Napoleon III and Cavour meets


Napoleon III and Camillo de Cavour meets, and they agree on a plan regarding Austria: If it looks like that Austria attacks Piedmont, France will supply 200 000 soldiers to Piedmont, which they can use to unify Italy.

Marriage between Napoleon III's cousin and Victor Emmanuel II's daughter


Napoleon III's cousin and Victor Emmanuel II's daughter marry in order to conclude the deal made between Napoleon III and Camillo de Cavour.

Napoleon III recognises the larger Piedmont



Napoleon invades Italy

3/1796 - 11/1796

Nice to Austria


Piedmont in war against Russia

10/1853 - 2/1856

Piedmont declares war against Russia, and joins the Crimean War. This enhances the Piedmontese reputation in the region.

Treaty of Paris


Successful expedition against Austria by Garibaldi


A successful expedition against Austria in the Alps by Garibaldi.

Austria at war with Piedmont

4/1859 - 7/11/1859

Austria attacked Piedmont in April 1859.
An armistice was signed on July 11 1859 in Villafranca.

France gets Nice and Savoy


Garibaldi conquered Sicily


Garibaldi is welcomed in Naples

7 September 1860

Napoleon III captured


Napoleon III captured by the Germans in the Battle of Sedan (Franco-Prussian War)

Kingdom of Italy

Lombardy freed


Plebiscites in numerous states


Plebiscites are held in Tuscany, Parma, Madona, Romagna, Papal States and the two Sicilies. They all vote in favour of an union with the Kingdom of Piedmont.

Garibaldi gives everything to Piedmont


Official Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy


Venetia becomes Italian


Venetia freed from Austria after Prussia won the Austro-Prussian War.
The Treaty of Prague.

Rome becomes Italian


French troops withdraw from Rome due to the Franco-Prussian War, and Rome therefore becomes Italian.

Rome becomes the capital