A very important treaty in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
Austria is given Lombardy-Venetia, a region in Italy. The King of Sardinia was restored in Piedmont. The Papal States gained much land lost during the Napoleonic Wars.
Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia creates a constitution, and makes the Kingdom a constitutional Monarchy.
Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia abdicated in favour of Victor Emmanuel II in March 1849.
Camillo de Cavour, also Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, was appointed the Minister of the Piedmontese Kingdom in November 1852.
He then retired from office in July 1859.
Camillo de Cavour returned to office in January 1860 to be the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy.
He died on June 6, 1861.
In March 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned the King of Italy. He reigned until his death in January 1878.
The Lateran Treaty was an agreement between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See that the Holy See would recognise the Italian Kingdom and the Italian Kingdom recognise the Vatican State.
An Italian patriot throws a bomb at Napoleon III, but Napoleon III survives. The blast killed eight bystanders. Napoleon III then demands a stop of all revolutionary activities in Piedmont.
Napoleon III and Camillo de Cavour meets, and they agree on a plan regarding Austria: If it looks like that Austria attacks Piedmont, France will supply 200 000 soldiers to Piedmont, which they can use to unify Italy.
Napoleon III's cousin and Victor Emmanuel II's daughter marry in order to conclude the deal made between Napoleon III and Camillo de Cavour.
Piedmont declares war against Russia, and joins the Crimean War. This enhances the Piedmontese reputation in the region.
A successful expedition against Austria in the Alps by Garibaldi.
Austria attacked Piedmont in April 1859.
An armistice was signed on July 11 1859 in Villafranca.
Napoleon III captured by the Germans in the Battle of Sedan (Franco-Prussian War)
Plebiscites are held in Tuscany, Parma, Madona, Romagna, Papal States and the two Sicilies. They all vote in favour of an union with the Kingdom of Piedmont.
Venetia freed from Austria after Prussia won the Austro-Prussian War.
The Treaty of Prague.
French troops withdraw from Rome due to the Franco-Prussian War, and Rome therefore becomes Italian.