Medieval art make way for incoming art movements, such as the Renaissance.
1265 - 1321
Dante Aligheri. First author of Italian Renaissance. Known for writing and Epic poem, Divine Comedy.
1304 - 1374
Famous for love lyrics. Developed the Italian sonnet, a poem of fourteen lines, divided into group of eight and a group of six.
1309 - 1377
(Babylonian Captivity) when seven popes resided in Avignon
1313 - 1375
Giovanni Boccaccio, wrote Decameron: ten young men fleeing Florence during Black Death
The Hundred Years War
May 1337 - October 1453
Conflicts that occurred between England and France for control of the French throne. Most likely caused my King Edward III who claimed control.
The Black Death
1348 - 1350
Disease passed on from fleas on rats, that killed millions of people.
The Golden Bull
Rebellion of peasants against nobility.
Renaissance in Italy
1375 - 1527
Cultural change. Medieval to modern time. Humanism
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
2 Popes, one in Rome the other in Avignon. Both claimed to be Christ on Earth.
Lollards: John Wycliffe
1382 - 1430
Followers of John Wycliffe who preached vernacular
1400 - 1700
Hussites: John Huss
1410 - 1436
Extreme followers of John Huss who were Pro-Wycliffe
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
Ended 3 popes conflict.
Johann Guttenberg invented the printing press which produced books rapidly with the moveable type.
1450 - 1700
Cause the expansion of European economy and the creation of colonies, it also began the ideas of mercantilism.
1466 - 1536
1473 - 1543
French mathematician, wrote Pensee. Christian and Jesuit teachings.
1473 - 1543
On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres. Heliocentric theory
Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)
Converted people to Catholicism and gave money to Columbus to explore.
1492 - 1800
Exchange of new plants, animals, etc. when Columbus explored the new world.
Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire
October 12, 1492
1496 - 1688
New religions, new monarchy, and new ideas.
1500 - 1615
Northern-humanist, religious and educational reforms.
Pope Julius II r.
1503 - 1513
Raised papacy to greatest military greatness.
Henry VIII r.
1509 - 1547
While reigning Henry VIII had 6 marriages. He took the role of separation of the Church of England.
John Calvin- Geneva
1509 - 1564
During the protestant reformation he was an influential theologian. Caused political reformation in Geneva that lead to religious change.
The Prince: Machiavelli
A guide about how rulers should behave and tips that guarantee success as a ruler.
Martin Luther's 95 Thesis
Luther's 95 complaints against Christian ways. (indulgences)
1520 - 1580
(until the Baroque) Italian High Renaissance art.
Diet of Worms
Appeared before the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire at its meeting in Worms. He did not recant, "Here I stand. i cannot do otherwise."
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Tens of thousands of German peasants revolting against their landlords about opposition of secular laws.
William of Orange (The Silent)
1533 - 1584
Dutch ruler, who accepted the crown and invaded Southwestern England.
Act of Supremacy
1534 - 1559
Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, that made Henry VIII and his successors the heads of Anglican Church.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
archbishops, bishops, and other church leaders defined Roman Catholic doctrine and initiated a program to eliminate abuses in the church.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Under the popes control the Council of Trent met to reform things like, internal church discipline and strengthening authority of local bishops.
1546 - 1601
Built Europe's most modern astronomical laboratory. Observed the idea of the sun geocentric model.
Cervantes: Don Quixote
1547 - 1616
Influenced development of novels by writing a play called Don Quixote
Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated
1553 - 1610
Assassinated but laid down foundation, and created the Edict of Nantes, granting tolerance to French protestants
Mary I (England)
1553 - 1558
Nickname- Bloody Mary
Attempted to restore Roman Catholicism in England. hundreds of people were burned at stake during her reign, giving her the nickname Bloody Mary.
Peace of Augsburg
Ended the struggles between Lutherans and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire and established the principle that each ruler should determine the form of worship in his lands.
1556 - 1588
Plan to Overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and end involvement with Netherlands
Elizabeth I (England) r.
1558 - 1603
Sought religious settlement, Act of Supremacy put her/the monarch head of the Anglican Church.
French Religous War
1562 - 1598
Between French Catholics and Protestants fought about the disputes of the aristocracy of France.
Thirty Nine Articles
Made Protestantism religion of Church of England.
1564 - 1616
Wrote lyric poetry, but is best known for his dramas, both comedy and tragedies.
1567 - 1603
Dutch Revolt (against Spain)
1568 - 1648
Pacification of Ghent
Union of Utrecht
1571 - 1630
Brahe's assistant, Laws of Planetary Motion- The New Astronomy.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
August 22, 1572
Coligny and 3,000 fellow Huguenots butchered in Paris. Estimated 20,000 killed in France.
Pacification of Ghent
Alliance with the Hapsburg Netherlands.
Union of Utrecht
Southern Netherlands makes peace with Spain.
Henry IV (France) (r.)
1589 - 1610
Reestablishment of the power of the French Monarchy and curer of wounds caused by the Wars of Religion
1596 - 1650
Discourse on Method: rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on mathematical model.
Edict of Nantes
Granted limited religious toleration.Protestants, reinstatement of their civil rights
April 1599 - September 1658
Protector of the Commonwealth of England. Military dictator. He reorganized the parliamentary army, which was a factor of their victory against the Cavaliers.
1600 - 1750
(catholic nations) exaggerated detail and had contrast between dark and light
Louis XIII r.
1610 - 1643
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Last war of religion between, Catholics and Protestants.
Bacon: Novum Organum
Father of Empiricism, attack belief of truth.
Charles I (Eng) r.
1625 - 1649
Locke:Treatise on Government
1632 - 1704
Most influential philosopher
1st Treatise of Gov’t: cleared philosophical decks of long-standing tradition.
2nd Treatise of Gov’t: Argument for a government that was responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed
Guilty of violating mandate by Council of Trent.
November 3, 1640
English Civil War
1642 - 1651
Parliamentarians (round heads) and Royalist (cavaliers) fought because Charles I invaded parliament territory. The Parliament achieved success because of their alliance with Scotland.
1643 - 1715
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years War. Ended hostilities in Holy Roman Empire. Ruler of land determines religion
Charles II (Eng) r.
1649 - 1685
1660 - 1800
Classic art. Inspiration from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
Peter the Great r.
1682 - 1725
1685 - 1689
The overthrow of King James II after many opposed of his Declaration of Indulgences that sups pended all religious test and permitting free worship.
James II (Eng) r.
1685 - 1701
Newton: Principia Mathematica
Planets and other physical objects are attracted and move around with mutual attraction/gravity.
English BIll of Rights
Solved issues between the King and Parliament, it restricted power of both sides.
End of Witch Hunts
1690 - 1730
People started using science and method of reason that led to the end
1694 - 1778
attacked war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism in Candide.
1700 - 1800
New crops, new methods, new productions.
Emergence of Rococo
1700 - 1800
Art of the Aristocracy, embraced lavish, lighthearted decoration, pastel colors and light play.
Act of Settlement
Succession to the throne of Great Britain.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction
1711 - 1740
1712 - 1778
French Philosophe, against rights for woman, advocate for Social Contract.
Treaty of Utrecht
Ended war of Spanish Sucession
September 1, 1715
1719 - 1720
Increase in paper money. John Law-mississippi company, manage of French National Debt
1723 - 1790
Important work of Enlightenment. Advocate of Laissez-Faire.
Wealth of Nations:government attempts to regulate economy, as the mercantilist had been doing, interfered with natural law.
War of Jenkins Ear
1739 - 1748
Frederick II(The Great)(Prussia)r.
1740 - 1786
Invaded Silesia starting the War of Austrian Succession.
Maria Theresa (Aus) r.
1740 - 1780
Defended her right to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains. extended control over her domains
War of Austrian Sucession
1740 - 1748
1750 - 1850
Development of technology for faster production.
1756 - 1757
Following the War of Austrian Succession, Great Britain allied with Prussia, and Austria allied with France so win back Silesia, and lead eventually to the Seven Year’s War.
Joseph II (Austria) r.
1765 - 1790
Reduced amount of labor. Easier method to make wool and or thread.
1766 - 1834
Essay on the Principle of Population, announcing that someday out population would outstrip the food supply, and the was little hope of avoiding this disaster.
used to run textile industries.
Water-powered device designed to help the production of a purely cotton fabric.
1772 - 1823
nothing could improve the condition of the working class. Iron law of wage means, if wages were raised, parents would have more children, and those children would enter the labor force.