AP Euro Semester 1 timeline


Decline in Gothic Art

1200 - 1400

Medieval art make way for incoming art movements, such as the Renaissance.


1265 - 1321

Dante Aligheri. First author of Italian Renaissance. Known for writing and Epic poem, Divine Comedy.


1304 - 1374

Famous for love lyrics. Developed the Italian sonnet, a poem of fourteen lines, divided into group of eight and a group of six.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

(Babylonian Captivity) when seven popes resided in Avignon


1313 - 1375

Giovanni Boccaccio, wrote Decameron: ten young men fleeing Florence during Black Death

The Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

Conflicts that occurred between England and France for control of the French throne. Most likely caused my King Edward III who claimed control.

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

Disease passed on from fleas on rats, that killed millions of people.

The Golden Bull




Rebellion of peasants against nobility.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Cultural change. Medieval to modern time. Humanism

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

2 Popes, one in Rome the other in Avignon. Both claimed to be Christ on Earth.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1382 - 1430

Followers of John Wycliffe who preached vernacular

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Hussites: John Huss

1410 - 1436

Extreme followers of John Huss who were Pro-Wycliffe

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Ended 3 popes conflict.

Printing Press:Guttenberg


Johann Guttenberg invented the printing press which produced books rapidly with the moveable type.

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1700

Cause the expansion of European economy and the creation of colonies, it also began the ideas of mercantilism.


1466 - 1536

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres. Heliocentric theory

Blaise Pascal

1473 - 1543

French mathematician, wrote Pensee. Christian and Jesuit teachings.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)


Converted people to Catholicism and gave money to Columbus to explore.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1800

Exchange of new plants, animals, etc. when Columbus explored the new world.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

October 12, 1492

English Reformation

1496 - 1688

New religions, new monarchy, and new ideas.

Northern Renaissance

1500 - 1615

Northern-humanist, religious and educational reforms.

Pope Julius II r.

1503 - 1513

Raised papacy to greatest military greatness.

Henry VIII r.

1509 - 1547

While reigning Henry VIII had 6 marriages. He took the role of separation of the Church of England.

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

During the protestant reformation he was an influential theologian. Caused political reformation in Geneva that lead to religious change.

The Prince: Machiavelli


A guide about how rulers should behave and tips that guarantee success as a ruler.

Martin Luther's 95 Thesis


Luther's 95 complaints against Christian ways. (indulgences)


1520 - 1580

(until the Baroque) Italian High Renaissance art.

Diet of Worms


Appeared before the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire at its meeting in Worms. He did not recant, "Here I stand. i cannot do otherwise."

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Tens of thousands of German peasants revolting against their landlords about opposition of secular laws.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

Dutch ruler, who accepted the crown and invaded Southwestern England.

Act of Supremacy

1534 - 1559

Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, that made Henry VIII and his successors the heads of Anglican Church.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Under the popes control the Council of Trent met to reform things like, internal church discipline and strengthening authority of local bishops.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

archbishops, bishops, and other church leaders defined Roman Catholic doctrine and initiated a program to eliminate abuses in the church.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Built Europe's most modern astronomical laboratory. Observed the idea of the sun geocentric model.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1547 - 1616

Influenced development of novels by writing a play called Don Quixote

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

Nickname- Bloody Mary
Attempted to restore Roman Catholicism in England. hundreds of people were burned at stake during her reign, giving her the nickname Bloody Mary.

Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated

1553 - 1610

Assassinated but laid down foundation, and created the Edict of Nantes, granting tolerance to French protestants

Peace of Augsburg


Ended the struggles between Lutherans and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire and established the principle that each ruler should determine the form of worship in his lands.

Spanish Armada

1556 - 1588

Plan to Overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and end involvement with Netherlands

Elizabeth I (England) r.

1558 - 1603

Sought religious settlement, Act of Supremacy put her/the monarch head of the Anglican Church.

French Religous War

1562 - 1598

Between French Catholics and Protestants fought about the disputes of the aristocracy of France.

Thirty Nine Articles


Made Protestantism religion of Church of England.


1564 - 1616

Wrote lyric poetry, but is best known for his dramas, both comedy and tragedies.

James I

1567 - 1603

Dutch Revolt (against Spain)

1568 - 1648

Pacification of Ghent
Union of Utrecht

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Brahe's assistant, Laws of Planetary Motion- The New Astronomy.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 22, 1572

Coligny and 3,000 fellow Huguenots butchered in Paris. Estimated 20,000 killed in France.

Pacification of Ghent


Alliance with the Hapsburg Netherlands.

Union of Utrecht


Southern Netherlands makes peace with Spain.

Henry IV (France) (r.)

1589 - 1610

Reestablishment of the power of the French Monarchy and curer of wounds caused by the Wars of Religion

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Discourse on Method: rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on mathematical model.

Edict of Nantes


Granted limited religious toleration.Protestants, reinstatement of their civil rights


April 1599 - September 1658

Protector of the Commonwealth of England. Military dictator. He reorganized the parliamentary army, which was a factor of their victory against the Cavaliers.

Baroque Art

1600 - 1750

(catholic nations) exaggerated detail and had contrast between dark and light

Louis XIII r.

1610 - 1643

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Last war of religion between, Catholics and Protestants.

Bacon: Novum Organum


Father of Empiricism, attack belief of truth.

Charles I (Eng) r.

1625 - 1649

Locke:Treatise on Government

1632 - 1704

Most influential philosopher
1st Treatise of Gov’t: cleared philosophical decks of long-standing tradition.
2nd Treatise of Gov’t: Argument for a government that was responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed

Galileo condemned


Guilty of violating mandate by Council of Trent.

Short Parliament

April 1640

Long Parliament

November 3, 1640

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Parliamentarians (round heads) and Royalist (cavaliers) fought because Charles I invaded parliament territory. The Parliament achieved success because of their alliance with Scotland.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Treaty of Westphalia


Ended the Thirty Years War. Ended hostilities in Holy Roman Empire. Ruler of land determines religion

Charles II (Eng) r.

1649 - 1685


1660 - 1800

Classic art. Inspiration from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Peter the Great r.

1682 - 1725

Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

The overthrow of King James II after many opposed of his Declaration of Indulgences that sups pended all religious test and permitting free worship.

James II (Eng) r.

1685 - 1701

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Planets and other physical objects are attracted and move around with mutual attraction/gravity.

English BIll of Rights


Solved issues between the King and Parliament, it restricted power of both sides.

End of Witch Hunts

1690 - 1730

People started using science and method of reason that led to the end

Voltaire: Candide

1694 - 1778

Religious Tolerance
attacked war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism in Candide.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

New crops, new methods, new productions.

Emergence of Rococo

1700 - 1800

Art of the Aristocracy, embraced lavish, lighthearted decoration, pastel colors and light play.

Act of Settlement


Succession to the throne of Great Britain.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740


1712 - 1778

French Philosophe, against rights for woman, advocate for Social Contract.

Treaty of Utrecht


Ended war of Spanish Sucession

Louis XIV

September 1, 1715

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

Increase in paper money. John Law-mississippi company, manage of French National Debt

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Important work of Enlightenment. Advocate of Laissez-Faire.
Wealth of Nations:government attempts to regulate economy, as the mercantilist had been doing, interfered with natural law.

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1748

War of Austrian Sucession

1740 - 1748

Frederick II(The Great)(Prussia)r.

1740 - 1786

Invaded Silesia starting the War of Austrian Succession.

Maria Theresa (Aus) r.

1740 - 1780

Defended her right to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains. extended control over her domains

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Development of technology for faster production.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756 - 1757

Following the War of Austrian Succession, Great Britain allied with Prussia, and Austria allied with France so win back Silesia, and lead eventually to the Seven Year’s War.

Spinning Jenny


Reduced amount of labor. Easier method to make wool and or thread.

Joseph II (Austria) r.

1765 - 1790


1766 - 1834

Essay on the Principle of Population, announcing that someday out population would outstrip the food supply, and the was little hope of avoiding this disaster.

Steam Engine


used to run textile industries.

Water Frame


Water-powered device designed to help the production of a purely cotton fabric.


1772 - 1823

nothing could improve the condition of the working class. Iron law of wage means, if wages were raised, parents would have more children, and those children would enter the labor force.