Medieval art make way for incoming art movements, such as the Renaissance.
Dante Aligheri. First author of Italian Renaissance. Known for writing and Epic poem, Divine Comedy.
Famous for love lyrics. Developed the Italian sonnet, a poem of fourteen lines, divided into group of eight and a group of six.
(Babylonian Captivity) when seven popes resided in Avignon
Giovanni Boccaccio, wrote Decameron: ten young men fleeing Florence during Black Death
Conflicts that occurred between England and France for control of the French throne. Most likely caused my King Edward III who claimed control.
Disease passed on from fleas on rats, that killed millions of people.
Rebellion of peasants against nobility.
Cultural change. Medieval to modern time. Humanism
2 Popes, one in Rome the other in Avignon. Both claimed to be Christ on Earth.
Followers of John Wycliffe who preached vernacular
Extreme followers of John Huss who were Pro-Wycliffe
Ended 3 popes conflict.
Johann Guttenberg invented the printing press which produced books rapidly with the moveable type.
Cause the expansion of European economy and the creation of colonies, it also began the ideas of mercantilism.
On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres. Heliocentric theory
French mathematician, wrote Pensee. Christian and Jesuit teachings.
Converted people to Catholicism and gave money to Columbus to explore.
Exchange of new plants, animals, etc. when Columbus explored the new world.
New religions, new monarchy, and new ideas.
Northern-humanist, religious and educational reforms.
Raised papacy to greatest military greatness.
While reigning Henry VIII had 6 marriages. He took the role of separation of the Church of England.
During the protestant reformation he was an influential theologian. Caused political reformation in Geneva that lead to religious change.
A guide about how rulers should behave and tips that guarantee success as a ruler.
Luther's 95 complaints against Christian ways. (indulgences)
(until the Baroque) Italian High Renaissance art.
Appeared before the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire at its meeting in Worms. He did not recant, "Here I stand. i cannot do otherwise."
Tens of thousands of German peasants revolting against their landlords about opposition of secular laws.
Dutch ruler, who accepted the crown and invaded Southwestern England.
Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, that made Henry VIII and his successors the heads of Anglican Church.
Under the popes control the Council of Trent met to reform things like, internal church discipline and strengthening authority of local bishops.
archbishops, bishops, and other church leaders defined Roman Catholic doctrine and initiated a program to eliminate abuses in the church.
Built Europe's most modern astronomical laboratory. Observed the idea of the sun geocentric model.
Influenced development of novels by writing a play called Don Quixote
Nickname- Bloody Mary
Attempted to restore Roman Catholicism in England. hundreds of people were burned at stake during her reign, giving her the nickname Bloody Mary.
Assassinated but laid down foundation, and created the Edict of Nantes, granting tolerance to French protestants
Ended the struggles between Lutherans and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire and established the principle that each ruler should determine the form of worship in his lands.
Plan to Overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and end involvement with Netherlands
Sought religious settlement, Act of Supremacy put her/the monarch head of the Anglican Church.
Between French Catholics and Protestants fought about the disputes of the aristocracy of France.
Made Protestantism religion of Church of England.
Wrote lyric poetry, but is best known for his dramas, both comedy and tragedies.
Pacification of Ghent
Union of Utrecht
Brahe's assistant, Laws of Planetary Motion- The New Astronomy.
Coligny and 3,000 fellow Huguenots butchered in Paris. Estimated 20,000 killed in France.
Alliance with the Hapsburg Netherlands.
Southern Netherlands makes peace with Spain.
Reestablishment of the power of the French Monarchy and curer of wounds caused by the Wars of Religion
Discourse on Method: rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on mathematical model.
Granted limited religious toleration.Protestants, reinstatement of their civil rights
Protector of the Commonwealth of England. Military dictator. He reorganized the parliamentary army, which was a factor of their victory against the Cavaliers.
(catholic nations) exaggerated detail and had contrast between dark and light
Last war of religion between, Catholics and Protestants.
Father of Empiricism, attack belief of truth.
Most influential philosopher
1st Treatise of Gov’t: cleared philosophical decks of long-standing tradition.
2nd Treatise of Gov’t: Argument for a government that was responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed
Guilty of violating mandate by Council of Trent.
Parliamentarians (round heads) and Royalist (cavaliers) fought because Charles I invaded parliament territory. The Parliament achieved success because of their alliance with Scotland.
Ended the Thirty Years War. Ended hostilities in Holy Roman Empire. Ruler of land determines religion
Classic art. Inspiration from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
The overthrow of King James II after many opposed of his Declaration of Indulgences that sups pended all religious test and permitting free worship.
Planets and other physical objects are attracted and move around with mutual attraction/gravity.
Solved issues between the King and Parliament, it restricted power of both sides.
People started using science and method of reason that led to the end
attacked war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism in Candide.
New crops, new methods, new productions.
Art of the Aristocracy, embraced lavish, lighthearted decoration, pastel colors and light play.
Succession to the throne of Great Britain.
French Philosophe, against rights for woman, advocate for Social Contract.
Ended war of Spanish Sucession
Increase in paper money. John Law-mississippi company, manage of French National Debt
Important work of Enlightenment. Advocate of Laissez-Faire.
Wealth of Nations:government attempts to regulate economy, as the mercantilist had been doing, interfered with natural law.
Invaded Silesia starting the War of Austrian Succession.
Defended her right to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains. extended control over her domains
Development of technology for faster production.
Following the War of Austrian Succession, Great Britain allied with Prussia, and Austria allied with France so win back Silesia, and lead eventually to the Seven Year’s War.
Reduced amount of labor. Easier method to make wool and or thread.
Essay on the Principle of Population, announcing that someday out population would outstrip the food supply, and the was little hope of avoiding this disaster.
used to run textile industries.
Water-powered device designed to help the production of a purely cotton fabric.
nothing could improve the condition of the working class. Iron law of wage means, if wages were raised, parents would have more children, and those children would enter the labor force.