Italian poet who wrote Divine Comedy. “Father of the Italian Language.”
Developed in France before the Renaissance took over with new ideas that triumphed medieval thinking.
Father of Humanism.
Time when the popes lived in Avignon, France. This gave France control of the papacy and took power away from Italy as the College of Cardinals always tried to elect a pope from their own region.
Author of Decameron, written about responses to the Black Death.
John Wycliffe was an English philosopher and lay preacher. His followers were called Lollards He was one of the first opponents of papal authority and advocate for vernacular-translation of the Bible.
War between England and France for control of the French throne. King Phillip VI of France tried to confiscate the English territories in the duchy of Aquitaine. In the end, the French expelled the English from the continent. The English created a new method of warfare using longbows. Joan of Arc led a relief force to help France gain the upperhand.
Pandemic in Europe that killed between 75 million and 200 million people. The disease was carried by rats on trade ships along the Silk Road and resulted in a series of religious and economic uprisings.
A peasant revolt in late medieval Europe caused by frustration about poverty among the peasants.
Huss was a religious reformer who predicted the Reformation. He lead the Protestant Reformation and questioned the Catholic Church, and was excommunicated for attacking the clergy. His followers were called Hussites.
Marked the transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe. There was new interest in classical ideas.
When the Western Church was divided from the Catholic Church as three popes fought over superiority for years.
In order to find new trade route, Spanish and Portugese explorers were sponsored by governments to take trips in order to find those routes to make trading quicker and more efficient.
Protestants blamed witches for siding with the demon and performing cannibalism. The witches were seen as scapegoats.
The council organized by the Roman Catholic Church that ended the Great Schism.
Johann Guttenberg of Germany invented movable type using the Printing Press, making it possible to spread ideas farther at a faster and more efficient rate
The cultural and artistic movement of northern Europe featuring greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.
Proponent of religious toleration. “Prince of the Humanists.” Advocated for reform within the Catholic Church. Known for Prais of Folly
Brought stability to Spain and established the Golden Age. Sponsored Christopher Columbus in 1492. Elevated Spain to dominant world power. Introduced the Spanish Inquisition to convert all Spaniards to Catholicism.
Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to calculate a reasonable heliocentric model. On The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543) was his book demonstrated how the universe and rotations of planets worked in a heliocentric model and began modern astronomy (Copernican Revolution).
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation. The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.
Exchange of animals, plants, culture, slaves, disease, and ideas between hemispheres following Christopher Columbus’ voyage.
Christopher Columbus discovered America and allowed Spain to expand its territories and ideas, and import new resources.
A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism in Europe. Results were the discovery of spices, silks, and exotic commodities, a desire for trade, and searches for new trade routes.
Caused by Charles VIII’s march through Italy, Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia family, Pope Julius II, and Machiavelli.
The Fearsome Pope. The Warrior Pope. Papacy marked by foreign policy, building projects, and patronism in the arts.
King of England known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church by separating the Anglican church from papal authority. This was a result of his attempt to create a male heir by divorcing his first wife, which is prohibited in the Catholic Church. He had six different wives in his time as king.
A French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation who established a form of Protestantism called Calvinism. He is known for his belief in predestination.
The Reformation was the 16th century conflict within Western Christianity that started with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Reformers protested the rituals of the Roman Catholic Church and created a new Protestant Church. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which ended European religious wars.
A period of art in Europe that emerged late from the Italian Renaissance and dissipated before the Baroque period. (Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo). The art from this period is marked by perspective, elongation, strained poses, and intense color.
The Schmalkadic Wars- (1546-1547) Between Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkadic League (group of Lutheran princes with Protestant Churches that banded together to protect each other from Imperial action).
The Thirty Years’ War- (1618-1648) Involved most major European powers and fought mostly on German territory. Began as a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the HRE. Famine and disease took over populations. Germany’s population was reduced by 30%.
Peasants were heavily taxed, were forbidden to hunt, fish, or chop wood freely, and could not marry without permission from the lord and paying a tax first. German peasants protested in economic and religious revolts seeking freedom and influence. The revolt failed when HRE Charles V and Ferdinand restored old order.
16th-century movement against abuses of the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Protestant Church.
Machiavelli’s book written in the vernacular (Italian) dedicated to Lorenzo de’Medici that explained the ideal Machiavellian ruler (absolutist).
Main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish that began the Eighty Years’ War. Originally served the Hapsburgs, but joined the Dutch uprisings and betrayed his former masters.
English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”
Placed election of German ruler in hands of seven electors.
Extreme religious order of the Roman Catholic Church founded by Ignatius.
The Council of Trent was an assembly of the Roman Catholic Church to issue condemnations on Protestant heresies and defined Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, and the Eucharist.
Began with the Council of Trent and ended with the Thirty Years’ War. Four major elements were ecclesiastical reform, religious orders, spiritual movements, and political dimensions.
Danish nobleman recognized for his accurate map of the planets/stars that Kepler used to refine planetary motion theories.
The economic idea that trade generates wealth and grows by the accumulation of profitable balances, protected by government.
Bloody Mary. Only surviving child of Henry VIII. Restored Roman Catholicism and burned over 280 religious dissenters at the stake during her reign. Conversion of religion was reversed by Elizabeth I after her death.
A treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. Ended conflict between the two groups and made the division in Christianity permanent in the HRE. Cuius regio, eius regio allowed state princes to decide if their individual state would be Lutheran or Catholic.
English philosopher and scientist who established the scientific method (established empirical evidence and reason). Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Bacon written in Latin (1620) that stated the Baconion method using reduction and inductive reasoning.
Fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) over the aristocratic houses of France after the rise of Calvinism and factions. The wars ended with the edict of Nantes.
Statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Catholic Church. Argued against Anabaptist ideas and intended to incorporate theology and doctrine.
English poet and playwright of mostly Romantic pieces.
Led by William of Orange, 17 provinces of the Duchy of Burgundy revolted against Phillip II of Spain. The Dutch Republic experienced economic, scientific, and cultural growth. Causes were taxation, Protestantism, and centralization of government.
Kepler was a German astronomer known for the laws of planetary motion (assistant to Tycho Brahe). The New Astronomy (1609) contained the results of Kepler’s ten-year-long observations on the motion of Mars, proving the heliocentric model of Copernicus. It was the first time that elliptical paths of planets were discussed.
King Charles IX of France orders the assassination of Huguenots leaders in Paris. This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France.
An alliance of the Hapsburg Netherlands to remove Spanish mercenary troops from the country and to promote peace between Holland and Zeeland.
Unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands.
Arrested for being involved in a plot, put to trial for treason, and was convicted in 1587.
Spanish attack of Protestant England led by Elizabeth I. Resulted in an economic disaster for Spain, but made Sir Francis Drake in England a hero. The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism.
Last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Mother is Anne Boleyn, was imprisoned by half-sister Mary. Established the English Protestant church.
Hobbes was an English philosopher and believed that men in the state of nature would turn to war and chaos. He believed the social contract required citizens giving up all rights to the government. Leviathan (1651) discusses the structure of society and legitimate government, establishing the social contract theory. It encourages rule by an absolute sovereign and a strong central government to avoid “a war of all against all.”
First monarch of Bourbon France. He was a Huguenot and led Protestant forces against the French Royal Army. Known as a poitique with great religious tolerance. Enacted the Edict of Nantes to give Protestants freedoms.
Issued by Henry IV of France. Gave Calvinist Protestants (Huguenots) rights in a mostly-Catholic nation. Aimed to promote civil unity (separated from rel. unity).
Encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church so that the arts would communicate religion (established at Council of Trent). Exaggerated motion and detail to draw attention to drama, tension, and grandeur sculptures/paintings/architecture.
Dutch trade, science, military, and art were highly acclaimed in the world.
The first time England and Scotland agreed to have the same monarch. Fought with Parliament, caused the English Civil War.
A novel written by Miguel de Cervantes and was a satirical account of chivalric beliefs and conduct.
14 May 1610: Henry IV is assassinated in Paris by an extreme Catholic while his coach was stopped on the street.
Began as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the HRE, then became largely fought over the Bourbon-Hapsburg conflict for European dominance. Consequences were devastation of many regions, famine and disease, and bankruptcy.
Stated the “leap of faith.” Said that it was better to believe in God than not, just in case because there is no consequence for having faith.
In charge when Louis XIV was supposed to take control. Brought France into the 30 yrs war against Austria to destroy Hapsburgs. Patron of the arts.
Struggle for power with Parliament, levied taxes without consent. Was mistrusted because he didn’t support Protestants during 30 yrs war and married a Catholic. Executed for high treason
Locke was an English Enlightenment philosopher who followed the traditions of Francis Bacon and is known for establishing the idea of the social contract. The First Treatise on Government states that the divine right of kings will be the downfall of all countries. The Second Treatise discusses the state of nature as men are naturally equal to one another.
Galileo’s support of the heliocentric model caused the Catholic Church to condemn him for challenging the Bible.
A French philosopher who advocated a rational theory and is best known for “Cogito ergo sum” or, “I think, therefore I am,” found in the Discourse on Method.
Long Parliament: passed financial bills, could only be dissolved with agreement of its members. Short Parliament: Charles I needed money because of military struggles.
A series of conflicts between the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Loyalists (Cavaliers). The war ended with a Roundhead victory at the Battle of Worcester.
Stuarts; James I of England: believed in the absolute power of the Monarchy, rocky relationship with parliament. Charles I of England: fought with Parliament about levying taxes, dissolved Parliament in 1629. Cromwell: An English military and political leader who led the Glorious Revolution. Sided with the Roundheads. Puritan Revolution: Also known as the English Civil War. Restoration: Charles II restored the English, Scottish, and Irish monarchies. Glorious Revolution: The revolution against James II in Scotland and Ireland. English Bill of Rights: an act of the English Parliament that limited the power of the monarch.
A series of peace treaties that ended the Thirty Years’ War. Initiated a new system of political order based on sovereign states, symbolized defeat of the monarchical emperor.
A civil war in France as a rebellious movement against Cardinal Mazarin (first led by Parliament, then by Princes).
3 major reasons: scientific revolution and empirical evidence, enlightenment and reason, and the brutality of witch trials.
Roman Catholic. Wanted to become an absolute monarch. Replaced by William of Orange
Withdrawn by Louis XIV. Protestants fled France, leaving them without many skilled workers, and damaged Louis XIV’s reputation abroad.
A book in which Newton defined his three laws of motion:
First law- the law of intertia (an object at rest will stay at rest…). Second law- acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. Third Law- for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
A style of art that originated in France marked by elaborate ornamentation, foliage, and animals.
War led by Russia to challenge Swedish power. Initital leaders were Peter the great, Frederick IV, and Augustus II. Ended with peace treaty and little effect on Russia’s power
Societies functioned to create knowledge in the sciences. Royal Society of London, Paris, Berlin, St. Petersburg,
Art that drew inspiration from classical art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.
Caused by the Bourbon family’s succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French.
An act of the British Parliament to settle the succession to English and Irish crowns to Sophia of Hanover (Protestant) since William and Mary failed.
Hapsburg sovereign. Daughter is Maria Theresa.
Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher who believed that man was good by nature, but corrupted by society. His book, Emile, is about the education of the whole person for citizenship and inspired a new system of national education. In The Social Contract, Rousseau theorized the best way to set up a political community. His famous quote is, “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.”
Invented by Thomas Newcomen. Allowed factories to be moved to the country side rather than just by water and used to run trains.
Agreement between Great Britain and France that ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Territory in Acadia (Nova Scotia) was given to Great Britain. Lands north of the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick) remained in dispute.
Edict issued to ensure hereditary possessions of the Hapsburgs could go to a daughter. (Charles had only had daughters so far).
King of Prussia known for fondness and military skills. “Soldier King.” Helped Prussia’s already great army.
Awoke public opinion
Louis XIV died at the Palace of Versailles and was succeeded by his grandson, Louis XV.
Economic scheme planned by John Law to create a bank with authority to issue notes. The bank issued too many notes, so the amount that the money was worth decreased.
First Prime Minister of Great Britain. Consolidated power through royal patronage.
Ruler of Hapsburg empire. Created economic and educational reforms, promoted commerce and agricultural development, reorganized Austria’s military. Known as an Enlightened Absolutist. Did not allow religious toleration
Brilliant in military and warfare. Attacked Austria and claimed Silesia, conquered Polish territories. Enlightened absolutist.
A period of major reforms in European agricultural practices before the Industrial Revolution that began large-scale farming and improvement of methods. Low countries: area of Europe including the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Enclosure: a method used in the agricultural revolution that fenced off areas for private farming and took away public peasant lands. Innovations: plow, seed drill, harvesting machines
The rapid development of industry in Britain brought on by the introduction of machinery.
Overlapping interests of colonial land trade empires between Great Britain and the Bourbons. (Caribbean). Ended France’s major power in the Americas.
Reversal of longstanding alliances up until the War of the Austrian Succession. Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia turned into France and Austria vs. Britain and Prussia.
Voltaire’s Candide is a satire attacking the French nobility and advocating no religious persecution.
Englightened absolutist. Governed while Russia was expanding rapidly. Reformed cities and towns, modernized Russia, increased reliance on serfs (led to Pugachev’s Rebellion).
Invented by James Hargreaves. Spun cotton into thread, requiring less labor.
An Enlightened Absolutist or despot. Son of Maria Theresa. Was always trying to modernize and reform.
Invented by Richard Arkwright. Used water power from running rivers to driving spinning frames, reducing the labor needed
The revolution of the American colonies against the British throne that lead to separation from Great Britain.
Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations to discuss what build nations’ wealth and is today’s model for classical economics. It reflects on the economy during the Industrial Revolution and covers the division of labor, productivity, and free markets.
France allied with England, Holland was overrun. 1795- France set up Batavian Rep.
France was in a massive financial crisis because of their involvement in the American revolution, lavish spending, huge debt. Colonne, master of Finances, needed help.
Took away rights of first and second estates general. (legal and military customs).
Women from marketplaces in Paris marched into Versailles because bread prices were too high (rising flour prices). They were famined and demanded to have reassured supply of bread.
Represented royal authority in Paris. Third Estate stormed the bastille and released prisoners, forcing King Louis XVI to recognize them and symbolized beginning of the French Revolution.
Anyone who disagreed with the government was executed.
First truly "revolutionary" act of the revolution, the national assembly agreed not to disband until a constitution was written.
A law passed that subordinated the Roman Catholic church in France to the French government.
745 members. mostly middle class. lacked nat’l political experience. met after National Constituent Assembly dissolved and before National Convention
Mary Wollstonecraft, a feminist, wrote the Vindication to counter Rousseau’s system and belief in the domestic sphere. She believed that women were belittled by men and that they should be educated. She stated that by placing women in a domestic sphere, their abilities were being limited.
30,000 French citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace to capture King Louis XVI. King fled. Forced him to move to France.
Nat’l Convention gained all power,. King Louis XVI was imprisoned.
An atheist belief system in France intended to replace Christianity during the French Revolution.
In Paris, tried for high treason in the Nat’l Convention. Began the reign of terror.
A form of deism established by Robespierre intended to become the new religion of the French Republic. Reason was only means to an end. Principles were a belief in the existence of God and immortality of the soul.
new government of 5 presidents, 2 houses, and was France's first republic.
Suggested that growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages. Malthus feared that continued population growth would lead to poverty.
The book began the debate about the size of the population in Britain.
The Iron Law of Wages is a proposed law of economics that states that real wages always tend toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of a worker. Ricardo believed that wages depended on “habits and customs.”