AP Euro Timeline



1265 - 1321

Italian poet who wrote Divine Comedy. “Father of the Italian Language.”

Decline of Gothic Art


Developed in France before the Renaissance took over with new ideas that triumphed medieval thinking.


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

Time when the popes lived in Avignon, France. This gave France control of the papacy and took power away from Italy as the College of Cardinals always tried to elect a pope from their own region.


1313 - 1375

Author of Decameron, written about responses to the Black Death.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

John Wycliffe was an English philosopher and lay preacher. His followers were called Lollards He was one of the first opponents of papal authority and advocate for vernacular-translation of the Bible.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

War between England and France for control of the French throne. King Phillip VI of France tried to confiscate the English territories in the duchy of Aquitaine. In the end, the French expelled the English from the continent. The English created a new method of warfare using longbows. Joan of Arc led a relief force to help France gain the upperhand.

Black Death

1348 - 1350

Pandemic in Europe that killed between 75 million and 200 million people. The disease was carried by rats on trade ships along the Silk Road and resulted in a series of religious and economic uprisings.



A peasant revolt in late medieval Europe caused by frustration about poverty among the peasants.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

Huss was a religious reformer who predicted the Reformation. He lead the Protestant Reformation and questioned the Catholic Church, and was excommunicated for attacking the clergy. His followers were called Hussites.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Marked the transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe. There was new interest in classical ideas.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

When the Western Church was divided from the Catholic Church as three popes fought over superiority for years.

Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain

1394 - 1521

In order to find new trade route, Spanish and Portugese explorers were sponsored by governments to take trips in order to find those routes to make trading quicker and more efficient.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Protestants blamed witches for siding with the demon and performing cannibalism. The witches were seen as scapegoats.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The council organized by the Roman Catholic Church that ended the Great Schism.

Printing Press - Guttenburg


Johann Guttenberg of Germany invented movable type using the Printing Press, making it possible to spread ideas farther at a faster and more efficient rate

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1500

The cultural and artistic movement of northern Europe featuring greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.


1466 - 1536

Proponent of religious toleration. “Prince of the Humanists.” Advocated for reform within the Catholic Church. Known for Prais of Folly

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)

1469 - 1504

Brought stability to Spain and established the Golden Age. Sponsored Christopher Columbus in 1492. Elevated Spain to dominant world power. Introduced the Spanish Inquisition to convert all Spaniards to Catholicism.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to calculate a reasonable heliocentric model. On The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543) was his book demonstrated how the universe and rotations of planets worked in a heliocentric model and began modern astronomy (Copernican Revolution).

Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation. The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.

Colombian Exchange

1492 - 1600

Exchange of animals, plants, culture, slaves, disease, and ideas between hemispheres following Christopher Columbus’ voyage.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire


Christopher Columbus discovered America and allowed Spain to expand its territories and ideas, and import new resources.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism in Europe. Results were the discovery of spices, silks, and exotic commodities, a desire for trade, and searches for new trade routes.

Italy's Decline by Invasions


Caused by Charles VIII’s march through Italy, Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia family, Pope Julius II, and Machiavelli.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

The Fearsome Pope. The Warrior Pope. Papacy marked by foreign policy, building projects, and patronism in the arts.

Henry VIII (Eng)

1509 - 1547

King of England known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church by separating the Anglican church from papal authority. This was a result of his attempt to create a male heir by divorcing his first wife, which is prohibited in the Catholic Church. He had six different wives in his time as king.

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

A French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation who established a form of Protestantism called Calvinism. He is known for his belief in predestination.


1517 - 1648

The Reformation was the 16th century conflict within Western Christianity that started with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Reformers protested the rituals of the Roman Catholic Church and created a new Protestant Church. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which ended European religious wars.


1520 - 1580

A period of art in Europe that emerged late from the Italian Renaissance and dissipated before the Baroque period. (Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo). The art from this period is marked by perspective, elongation, strained poses, and intense color.

Specific Religious Wars

1524 - 1697

The Schmalkadic Wars- (1546-1547) Between Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkadic League (group of Lutheran princes with Protestant Churches that banded together to protect each other from Imperial action).
The Thirty Years’ War- (1618-1648) Involved most major European powers and fought mostly on German territory. Began as a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the HRE. Famine and disease took over populations. Germany’s population was reduced by 30%.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants were heavily taxed, were forbidden to hunt, fish, or chop wood freely, and could not marry without permission from the lord and paying a tax first. German peasants protested in economic and religious revolts seeking freedom and influence. The revolt failed when HRE Charles V and Ferdinand restored old order.

English Reformation

1529 - 1547

16th-century movement against abuses of the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Protestant Church.

The Prince: Machiavelli


Machiavelli’s book written in the vernacular (Italian) dedicated to Lorenzo de’Medici that explained the ideal Machiavellian ruler (absolutist).

William Of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish that began the Eighty Years’ War. Originally served the Hapsburgs, but joined the Dutch uprisings and betrayed his former masters.

Act Of Supremacy


English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”

Golden Bull


Placed election of German ruler in hands of seven electors.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola


Extreme religious order of the Roman Catholic Church founded by Ignatius.

Council Of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was an assembly of the Roman Catholic Church to issue condemnations on Protestant heresies and defined Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, and the Eucharist.

Catholic/Counter Reformations

1545 - 1563

Began with the Council of Trent and ended with the Thirty Years’ War. Four major elements were ecclesiastical reform, religious orders, spiritual movements, and political dimensions.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Danish nobleman recognized for his accurate map of the planets/stars that Kepler used to refine planetary motion theories.

Age of Merchantilism

1550 - 1750

The economic idea that trade generates wealth and grows by the accumulation of profitable balances, protected by government.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary. Only surviving child of Henry VIII. Restored Roman Catholicism and burned over 280 religious dissenters at the stake during her reign. Conversion of religion was reversed by Elizabeth I after her death.

Peace Of Augsburg


A treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. Ended conflict between the two groups and made the division in Christianity permanent in the HRE. Cuius regio, eius regio allowed state princes to decide if their individual state would be Lutheran or Catholic.

Bacon: Novum Organum

1561 - 1626

English philosopher and scientist who established the scientific method (established empirical evidence and reason). Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Bacon written in Latin (1620) that stated the Baconion method using reduction and inductive reasoning.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) over the aristocratic houses of France after the rise of Calvinism and factions. The wars ended with the edict of Nantes.

Thirty Nine Articles


Statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Catholic Church. Argued against Anabaptist ideas and intended to incorporate theology and doctrine.


1564 - 1616

English poet and playwright of mostly Romantic pieces.

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

Led by William of Orange, 17 provinces of the Duchy of Burgundy revolted against Phillip II of Spain. The Dutch Republic experienced economic, scientific, and cultural growth. Causes were taxation, Protestantism, and centralization of government.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1571 - 1630

Kepler was a German astronomer known for the laws of planetary motion (assistant to Tycho Brahe). The New Astronomy (1609) contained the results of Kepler’s ten-year-long observations on the motion of Mars, proving the heliocentric model of Copernicus. It was the first time that elliptical paths of planets were discussed.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


King Charles IX of France orders the assassination of Huguenots leaders in Paris. This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France.

Pacification Of Ghent


An alliance of the Hapsburg Netherlands to remove Spanish mercenary troops from the country and to promote peace between Holland and Zeeland.

Union of Utrect


Unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands.

Mary Stuart Executed


Arrested for being involved in a plot, put to trial for treason, and was convicted in 1587.

Spanish Armada


Spanish attack of Protestant England led by Elizabeth I. Resulted in an economic disaster for Spain, but made Sir Francis Drake in England a hero. The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism.

Elizabeth I of England

1588 - 1603

Last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Mother is Anne Boleyn, was imprisoned by half-sister Mary. Established the English Protestant church.

Hobbes: Leviathan

1588 - 1679

Hobbes was an English philosopher and believed that men in the state of nature would turn to war and chaos. He believed the social contract required citizens giving up all rights to the government. Leviathan (1651) discusses the structure of society and legitimate government, establishing the social contract theory. It encourages rule by an absolute sovereign and a strong central government to avoid “a war of all against all.”

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

First monarch of Bourbon France. He was a Huguenot and led Protestant forces against the French Royal Army. Known as a poitique with great religious tolerance. Enacted the Edict of Nantes to give Protestants freedoms.

Edict Of Nantes


Issued by Henry IV of France. Gave Calvinist Protestants (Huguenots) rights in a mostly-Catholic nation. Aimed to promote civil unity (separated from rel. unity).

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)


Encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church so that the arts would communicate religion (established at Council of Trent). Exaggerated motion and detail to draw attention to drama, tension, and grandeur sculptures/paintings/architecture.

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1700

Dutch trade, science, military, and art were highly acclaimed in the world.

James I of England

1603 - 1625

The first time England and Scotland agreed to have the same monarch. Fought with Parliament, caused the English Civil War.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


A novel written by Miguel de Cervantes and was a satirical account of chivalric beliefs and conduct.

Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated


14 May 1610: Henry IV is assassinated in Paris by an extreme Catholic while his coach was stopped on the street.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Began as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the HRE, then became largely fought over the Bourbon-Hapsburg conflict for European dominance. Consequences were devastation of many regions, famine and disease, and bankruptcy.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Stated the “leap of faith.” Said that it was better to believe in God than not, just in case because there is no consequence for having faith.

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1624 - 1642

In charge when Louis XIV was supposed to take control. Brought France into the 30 yrs war against Austria to destroy Hapsburgs. Patron of the arts.

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Struggle for power with Parliament, levied taxes without consent. Was mistrusted because he didn’t support Protestants during 30 yrs war and married a Catholic. Executed for high treason

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st & 2nd)

1632 - 1704

Locke was an English Enlightenment philosopher who followed the traditions of Francis Bacon and is known for establishing the idea of the social contract. The First Treatise on Government states that the divine right of kings will be the downfall of all countries. The Second Treatise discusses the state of nature as men are naturally equal to one another.

Galileo Condemned


Galileo’s support of the heliocentric model caused the Catholic Church to condemn him for challenging the Bible.

Descartes: Discourse on Method


A French philosopher who advocated a rational theory and is best known for “Cogito ergo sum” or, “I think, therefore I am,” found in the Discourse on Method.

Long Parliament/Short Parliament

1640 - 1648

Long Parliament: passed financial bills, could only be dissolved with agreement of its members. Short Parliament: Charles I needed money because of military struggles.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

A series of conflicts between the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Loyalists (Cavaliers). The war ended with a Roundhead victory at the Battle of Worcester.
Stuarts; James I of England: believed in the absolute power of the Monarchy, rocky relationship with parliament. Charles I of England: fought with Parliament about levying taxes, dissolved Parliament in 1629. Cromwell: An English military and political leader who led the Glorious Revolution. Sided with the Roundheads. Puritan Revolution: Also known as the English Civil War. Restoration: Charles II restored the English, Scottish, and Irish monarchies. Glorious Revolution: The revolution against James II in Scotland and Ireland. English Bill of Rights: an act of the English Parliament that limited the power of the monarch.

Treaty of Westphalia


A series of peace treaties that ended the Thirty Years’ War. Initiated a new system of political order based on sovereign states, symbolized defeat of the monarchical emperor.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

A civil war in France as a rebellious movement against Cardinal Mazarin (first led by Parliament, then by Princes).

End of Witch Hunts

1663 - 1665

3 major reasons: scientific revolution and empirical evidence, enlightenment and reason, and the brutality of witch trials.

James II of England

1685 - 1688

Roman Catholic. Wanted to become an absolute monarch. Replaced by William of Orange

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Withdrawn by Louis XIV. Protestants fled France, leaving them without many skilled workers, and damaged Louis XIV’s reputation abroad.

Netwon: Principia Mathematica


A book in which Newton defined his three laws of motion:
First law- the law of intertia (an object at rest will stay at rest…). Second law- acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. Third Law- for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

Emergence of Rococo


A style of art that originated in France marked by elaborate ornamentation, foliage, and animals.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

War led by Russia to challenge Swedish power. Initital leaders were Peter the great, Frederick IV, and Augustus II. Ended with peace treaty and little effect on Russia’s power

Academies of Science

1700 - 1800

Societies functioned to create knowledge in the sciences. Royal Society of London, Paris, Berlin, St. Petersburg,


1700 - 1800

Art that drew inspiration from classical art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Caused by the Bourbon family’s succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French.

Act of Settlement


An act of the British Parliament to settle the succession to English and Irish crowns to Sophia of Hanover (Protestant) since William and Mary failed.

Charles VI of Austria

1711 - 1740

Hapsburg sovereign. Daughter is Maria Theresa.

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract

1712 - 1778

Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher who believed that man was good by nature, but corrupted by society. His book, Emile, is about the education of the whole person for citizenship and inspired a new system of national education. In The Social Contract, Rousseau theorized the best way to set up a political community. His famous quote is, “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.”

Steam Engine


Invented by Thomas Newcomen. Allowed factories to be moved to the country side rather than just by water and used to run trains.

Treaty Of Utrecht


Agreement between Great Britain and France that ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Territory in Acadia (Nova Scotia) was given to Great Britain. Lands north of the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick) remained in dispute.

Pragmatic Sanction


Edict issued to ensure hereditary possessions of the Hapsburgs could go to a daughter. (Charles had only had daughters so far).

Frederick Wilhelm of Prussia

1713 - 1740

King of Prussia known for fondness and military skills. “Soldier King.” Helped Prussia’s already great army.

War of Jenkin's Ear


Awoke public opinion

Death of Louis XIV


Louis XIV died at the Palace of Versailles and was succeeded by his grandson, Louis XV.

Mississippi Bubble


Economic scheme planned by John Law to create a bank with authority to issue notes. The bank issued too many notes, so the amount that the money was worth decreased.

Emergence/Dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

First Prime Minister of Great Britain. Consolidated power through royal patronage.

Maria Theresa of Austria

1740 - 1780

Ruler of Hapsburg empire. Created economic and educational reforms, promoted commerce and agricultural development, reorganized Austria’s military. Known as an Enlightened Absolutist. Did not allow religious toleration

Fredrick II The Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Brilliant in military and warfare. Attacked Austria and claimed Silesia, conquered Polish territories. Enlightened absolutist.

Agricultural Revolution

1750 - 1900

A period of major reforms in European agricultural practices before the Industrial Revolution that began large-scale farming and improvement of methods. Low countries: area of Europe including the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Enclosure: a method used in the agricultural revolution that fenced off areas for private farming and took away public peasant lands. Innovations: plow, seed drill, harvesting machines

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The rapid development of industry in Britain brought on by the introduction of machinery.

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

Overlapping interests of colonial land trade empires between Great Britain and the Bourbons. (Caribbean). Ended France’s major power in the Americas.

Diplomatic Revolution


Reversal of longstanding alliances up until the War of the Austrian Succession. Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia turned into France and Austria vs. Britain and Prussia.

Voltaire: Candide


Voltaire’s Candide is a satire attacking the French nobility and advocating no religious persecution.

Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 - 1796

Englightened absolutist. Governed while Russia was expanding rapidly. Reformed cities and towns, modernized Russia, increased reliance on serfs (led to Pugachev’s Rebellion).

Spinning Jenny


Invented by James Hargreaves. Spun cotton into thread, requiring less labor.

Joseph II of Austria

1764 - 1790

An Enlightened Absolutist or despot. Son of Maria Theresa. Was always trying to modernize and reform.

Water Frame


Invented by Richard Arkwright. Used water power from running rivers to driving spinning frames, reducing the labor needed

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The revolution of the American colonies against the British throne that lead to separation from Great Britain.

Smith: Wealth of Nations


Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations to discuss what build nations’ wealth and is today’s model for classical economics. It reflects on the economy during the Industrial Revolution and covers the division of labor, productivity, and free markets.

Decline of Netherlands

1780 - 1810

France allied with England, Holland was overrun. 1795- France set up Batavian Rep.

Estates General Called/Meets


France was in a massive financial crisis because of their involvement in the American revolution, lavish spending, huge debt. Colonne, master of Finances, needed help.

Nobles Renounce Feudal Priv.


Took away rights of first and second estates general. (legal and military customs).

March Of The Fishwives


Women from marketplaces in Paris marched into Versailles because bread prices were too high (rising flour prices). They were famined and demanded to have reassured supply of bread.

Storming of Bastille


Represented royal authority in Paris. Third Estate stormed the bastille and released prisoners, forcing King Louis XVI to recognize them and symbolized beginning of the French Revolution.

Reign of Terror


Anyone who disagreed with the government was executed.

Tennis Court Oath


First truly "revolutionary" act of the revolution, the national assembly agreed not to disband until a constitution was written.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy


A law passed that subordinated the Roman Catholic church in France to the French government.

Legislative Assembly Meets

1791 - 1792

745 members. mostly middle class. lacked nat’l political experience. met after National Constituent Assembly dissolved and before National Convention

Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rights of Women


Mary Wollstonecraft, a feminist, wrote the Vindication to counter Rousseau’s system and belief in the domestic sphere. She believed that women were belittled by men and that they should be educated. She stated that by placing women in a domestic sphere, their abilities were being limited.

Tuileries Stormed- King Captive


30,000 French citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace to capture King Louis XVI. King fled. Forced him to move to France.

Convention Meets- Monarch Abolished

1792 - 1795

Nat’l Convention gained all power,. King Louis XVI was imprisoned.

Cult of Reason


An atheist belief system in France intended to replace Christianity during the French Revolution.

Louis XVI Executed


In Paris, tried for high treason in the Nat’l Convention. Began the reign of terror.

Cult Of The Supreme Being


A form of deism established by Robespierre intended to become the new religion of the French Republic. Reason was only means to an end. Principles were a belief in the existence of God and immortality of the soul.

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established


new government of 5 presidents, 2 houses, and was France's first republic.

Malthus- Principle of Population


Suggested that growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages. Malthus feared that continued population growth would lead to poverty.
The book began the debate about the size of the population in Britain.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


The Iron Law of Wages is a proposed law of economics that states that real wages always tend toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of a worker. Ricardo believed that wages depended on “habits and customs.”