From Ohio, Clement Vallandigham was the leader of the Copperheads. He served two terms in the House of Representatives, one term being pre-war, and one term during the war. Most of his actions in politics in his House of Reps term during the wae were advocating the peace between the Confederates and the Union.
John Brown's Harper's Ferry Raid
October 16, 1859
John Brown leads 18 others in a suicidal attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry.
Emancipation, the freeing of all slaves, was supported by many people of the Union.
1861 - 1864
Meade served as a general to the Army of the Potomac, and is best known for defeating Lee in the Battle of Gettysburg.
Although Scott was a wonderful General and man in war, by the Civil War he was too old of a man and was having too many health problems to lead an army in war, so he suggested Robert E. Lee as the new general (When Virginia seceded, Lee went with it). Scott also created the Anaconda Plan, which was a plan to blockade the south which worked pretty well. Most of Scott's help in the Civil War was in 1861.
The First Confiscation Act of 1861 authorized the confiscation of any Confederate property by Union forces meaning that all slaves that fought or worked for the Confederate military were freed whenever they were "confiscated" by Union troops. Lincoln opposed these acts because he thought they would push border states to lean toward the confederate side, yet he still signed them.
Ex part Merryman
Ex parte Merryman was a U.S. federal court case that was a test of the authority of the President to suspend "the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus" under the Constitution's Suspension Clause. Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled that the authority to suspend habeas corpus lay with Congress, not the president. President Lincoln ignored the ruling, as did the Army under Lincoln's orders.
1861 - 1865
These were members of Union that wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. They were given the name the Peace-Democrats. They also blamed the abolitionists for the war and opposed draft laws.
Ulysses S Grant
1861 - 1865
Grant was an aggressive general that lead many battles, including the Battle of Shiloh. He also seized Vicksburg. This victory gave the Union control of the Mississippi River, split off the western Confederacy, and opened the way for more Union triumphs. After another win at the Battle of Chattanooga in 1863, Lincoln made him lieutenant general and commander of all of the Union Armies. He also became President after Andrew Johnson.
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1861
Addressed primarily to the people of the south, Lincoln's first inaugural address touched on the topics of slavery, saying that he had "...no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.", the legal status of the South, the use of force, secession,
protection of slavery, slavery in the territories, and the postal service.
Proposed by Winfield Scott, the plan was going to blockade the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two.
May 2, 1861 - April 15, 1865
Burnside is known as one of the most incompetent generals of the war. Although he conducted successful campaigns in North Carolina and Tennessee, he was defeated in the Battle of Fredericksburg and Battle of the Crater. The term sideburns come from his distinct facial hair.
United States Sanitary Commission
June 18, 1861
The United States Sanitary Commission was a private relief agency created by federal legislation to support sick and wounded soldiers of the U.S. Army.
August 1861 - June 1863
Joseph Hooker achieved the position of major general in the Civil War. He is best know for being defeated by Lee in the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. Because of this defeat, Lincoln relieved him of being a general before the Battle of Gettysburg.
November 1861 - March 1862
George McClellan was a major general during the American Civil War and the Democratic Party candidate for President in 1864. He organized the Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the general-in-chief of the Union Army.
Union Pacific/Central Pacific RR
These railroads (at first separate but later joined together) were a part of the union and were passed when the south seceded because the south didn't want it in the north.
Morrill Land-Grant Acts
This act allowed for the passage of land-grant colleges were just regular colleges that taught science, language arts, and math, but also military tactics, agriculture, and mechanical arts.
In 1863 Congress passed the Enrollment Act, the first national conscription law, which set up under the Union Army an system for enrolling and drafting men between twenty and forty-five years old.
National Bank Acts
1863 - 1864
These acts were two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks, and created the United States National Banking System.
National Draft Law
In March 1863 Abraham Lincoln passed a strict Draft Law. All male citizens between twenty and thirty-five and all unmarried men between thirty-five and forty-five years of age were subject to military duty.
54th Massachusetts Regiment
March 13, 1863 - August 4, 1865
The regiment was one of the first official African American units in the United States during the Civil War. It was on the Union side and had very extensive service.
National Women's Loyal League
May 14, 1863
This group was the first United States national women's political organization. The group was formed in 1863 in New York City by women's rights activists such as Susan B. Anthony. One objective of theirs was to help abolish slavery. They gathered 400,000 signatures to petition the United States Congress, which helped in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.
New York City Riots
July 13, 1863 - July 16, 1863
The federal government entered all eligible men into a lottery, and the reaction to the draftees of the lottery in July 1863 was very extreme. There were many riots in New York City, and the riots were some of the largest civil insurrections in American history.
Clara Barton was a pioneer American teacher, patent clerk, nurse, and humanitarian and also founded the American Red Cross. She was one of very few women to work outside of the home in her time. In 1864 she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. She is known as the "Angel of the Battlefield." She founded the American Red Cross on August 22, 1882.
This was a temporary name used by the Republican party that helped attract War Democrats that would not vote for Republicans. This helped Abraham Lincoln win his 1864 election.
Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1865
Lincoln's second inaugural address was given when the war was coming to an end. The Union had pretty much beat the Confederates and slavery was almost abolished. He touched on Divine providence a lot, questioning God's will in the war and using many biblical references.
Kansas-Missouri border violence
1854 - 1861
Bleeding Kansas, or the Border War, was a series of violent political fights between anti-slavery "Free-Staters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" , that was in the Kansas Territory and towns of Missouri between 1854 and 1861. It was a dispute whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision
March 6, 1857
When the master of Dred Scott, a former slave, dies, Scott is legally free, but the Missouri surpreme court overules this and says that he is still a slave. Roger Taney, the chief justice, believes that blacks were not citizens, slaves were property and Congress coulnt deprive citizens of their property, and says that the Compromise of 1850 is unconstitutional.
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas debate. Lincoln opposes slavery but wouldnt force the states that already have slavery to give up their rights. He believes that slavery will die gradually. Although Douglas supports slavery, he denounces the Dred Scott decision under a question trap.
Buchanan's Lame-Duck Term
November 6, 1860 - March 4, 1861
In the election 1860 Lincoln was elected president and in the time after he was elected and before he was inaugurated was Buchanan's (the man already president) lame duck period.
December 18, 1860
Proposed by Kentucky senator John Crittenden, this compromise was not passed. It addressed the south's grievances and tried to keep them from not succeeding by proposing that slavery could be legal in all territories, the slave trade and slavery could not be prohibited anywhere, and the fugitive slave laws would be enforced more strictly. Congress did not pass this.
African American Roles
1861 - 1865
African Americans during the war were helpful in fighting for both sides, but mainly for the Union side because the Confederates feared that if they let their slaves fight they would turn on them. Some African Americans also helped promote emancipation.
1861 - 1865
The Confederates mainly used tariffs and taxes on imports and exports in the beginning of the war but later resorted to war taxes but they were very hard to collect so it set up the Confederates up for failure in the end. The Union used tactics such as the Revenue Act of 1862 to finance the war.
1861 - 1863
West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a result of the Civil War. In 1861, Union troops under General McClellan drove off Confederate troops under General Lee. This freed Unionists in northwestern Virginia to form their own government as a result of the Wheeling Convention. After Lee left, western Virginia continued to be attacked by the Confederates, even after it became a state in 1863.
The border states refer to the 8 slave states that did not declare their secession before 1861. Four of the slave states, (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri) never declared secession, and four of them (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) didn't declare their secession until after the Battle of Ft. Sumter.
Battle of Fort Sumter
April 12, 1861 - April 14, 1861
This was a siege that the Confederates laid on the Union at Fort Sumter. The Confederates fired a lucky shot on the Union's armory, which left the Union weaponless and forced to surrender.
Secession after Ft Sumter
April 17, 1861 - May 20, 1861
After the Battle of Ft Sumter, four more states seceded.
April 27, 1861
This is a writ that requires a person under an arrest to be brought in front of the judge or court. On April 27, 1861 President Abraham Lincoln suspended writ of Habeas Corpus. Later the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act was signed into law March 3, 1863. Jefferson Davis in the Confederacy also suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus.
July 21, 1861
The First Battle of Bull Run, or First Manassas as called by the Confederates, was the first major on land battle of the Civil War. Both the Union and Confederate Army were both very inexperienced, and although the Confederates were at a disadvantage, because of "Stonewall Jackson" the Confederates won and the Union retreated. After this bloody battle, both sides realized how long and bloody this war really was going to be.
October 12, 1861
Ironclads were a type of ship that was lessvulnerable than wooden ships because it was armored with steel on the outside. They were very successful in the Civil War, and it was the first clashing of the civil war. On October 12, 1861, the CSS Manassas was the first ironclad to enter combat, and it fought Union warships on the Mississippi during the Battle of the Head of Passes.
November 8, 1861
On November 8, 1861, the USS San Jacinto, intercepted the British mail packet RMS Trent and removed, as a contraband of war, two Confederate diplomats. The messengers were going to Great Britain and France to see if they could get the Confederate States of America recognized.
Homestead Act of 1862
This act was signed by Abraham Lincoln and was an act to give out land grants in order to promote westward movement. Many restrictions applied, but between 1862 and 1934, the federal government granted 1.6 million homesteads and distributed 270,000,000 acres of federal land for private ownership.
March 1862 - July 1862
The Peninsular Campaign was a major Union plan. The operation was commanded by Maj. Gen. McClellan and was against the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia, intended to capture Richmond. McClellan was successful at first against General Joseph E. Johnston, but when General Robert E. Lee took over, it turned the Seven Days Battles into a Union defeat.
April 6, 1862 - May 30, 1862
The Battle of Shiloh and the Seize of Corinth were two important Union victories. With Grant leading in the Battle of Shiloh, the battle became the bloodiest battle in the United State's history up to that time. After that Union victory, the Union army advanced towards Corinth, Mississippi, eventually laying siege on Corinth, another Union victory.
April 25, 1862 - May 1, 1862
The capture of New Orleans, the largest Confederate city, led by Farragut, was a major turning point in the war, and a huge success for the Union.
May 31,1862 - June 1, 1862
The Battle of Seven Pines took place in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign, and although it was technically inconclusive, it was for the most part a Confederate victory over the Union.
Second Bull Run/Manassas
August 28, 1862 - August 30, 1862
This battle, fought on the same grounds as the first Manassas, was much larger scale and was the Confederacy under Lee's army attacking the Union. It was a Confederate victory.
September 17, 1862
This battle was part of the Maryland Campaign, and was the first major battle in the War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 dead, wounded and missing on both sides combined. It was strategically a Union victory.
December 11, 1862 - December 15, 1862
A Confederate victory, this battle was led by Lee on the Confederate side and Burnside on the Union side.
January 1, 1863
This was a military order issued to the Army and Navy of the United States by President Lincoln. It was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces, not a law passed by Congress. It said that all slaves in Confederate territory were free.
Standard Gauge RR
March 3, 1863
A standard gauge railroad had a standard width of the tracks. This proved to be a problem because many of the gauges were different for the railroads and had to be reconstructed. The Pacific Railway Act of March 3, 1863 said that the railroads had to be standard gauge.
April 30, 1863 - May 6, 1863
This was against Hooker's Union army and Lee's Confederate army, and was a Confederate victory part of the Chancellorsville campaign.
May 18, 1863 - July 4, 1863
Maj. Gen. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, going into the city and trapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. Pemberton. Vicksburg surrendered after a long siege.
July 1, 1863 - July 3, 1863
This battle was the turning point in the war and was fought against Lee's army and Meade's Union army. It was a Union victory
Sherman's March to the Sea
November 15, 1864 - December 21, 1864
Savannah Campaign conducted through Georgia from by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, Georgia, and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah.
Grant's pursuit of Lee
April 3, 1865 - April 9, 1865
Grant was pursuing Lee in the final events of the war, and as Lee was out of supplies and looking to feed many of his soldiers, he became desperate and eventually surrendered to Grant.
April 9, 1865
This was the last battle before the Confederacy surrendered to the Union. Lee, having abandoned Richmond, Virginia, after the Siege of Petersburg, retreated west, hoping to join his army with the Confederate forces in North Carolina. Union forces pursued and cut off the Confederate retreat. Lee's final stand was at Appomattox Court House, where he launched an attack when he realized he was outnumbered he had no choice but to surrender. The signing of the surrender documents occurred in the parlor of the house.
December 6, 1865
This amendment outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude except for punishment. This solidified the outlawing ofslavery initiated be the Emancipation Proclomation.
Ex parte Milligan
Ex parte Milligan was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional.
1861 - 1865
Johnston was a Confederate general that was often accused of not being aggressive enough. He was the main general in the first Battle of Bull Run, but failed in being aggressive enough in the Vicksburg Campaign.
1861 - 1863
Jackson was one of the most well know Confederate generals after Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his being a commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Confederates accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville. His death was a huge setback for the Confederacy, both militarily and socially.
Montgomery/Richmond Confederate Capitals
1861 - 1865
The Confederate capital started out in Montgomery, Alabama, before Virginia was a part of the Confederacy, but after it became a part, it offered to have the capital there, and the Confederate Congress accepted the offer.
1861 - 1865
Jefferson Davis was the leader of the Confederacy and the President of the Confederate States of America for the 4 years of its existence. During his presidency, Davis was in charge of the Confederate war plans but was unable to find a strategy to stop the more powerful Union.He also paid little attention to the collapsing Confederate economy, printing more and more paper money to cover the war's expenses.
Confederate Foreign Relations with G.B and France
1861 - 1865
Britain and France were both neutral during the Civil War. In the beginning of the war, Britain bought cotton from the Confederates, but eventually they turned to Egypt for cotton, give pretty much no support to the Confederates. Both France and Britain considered recognizing the Confederate States of America, but it didn't end up happening for either.
Financing the Confederacy
1861 - 1865
In order to finance the Confederacy, the Confederates resorted to taxing, borrowing, and printing money. This resulted in hyper inflation. England and France also did not give aid to the Confederates. The Secretary of the Treasury of the Confederate States was Christopher Memminger.
Confederate States of America Creation
1861 - 1865
The Confederate States of America
Creation, or Confederacy, was made up of 13 states. These included South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Missouri and Kentucky.
Robert E. Lee
April 1861 - 1865
despite being asked by Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union army, when Virginia decided to secede, Lee followed his home state. Lee served as a military commander, tactician, and battlefield commander, and although he was strategic, many of Grant's campaigns beat him out. Lee ultimately surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
Lower South Secession
November 6, 1861
The lower south states seceded. These included Georgia, Alabama, Texas, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina.
March 28, 1862
This was a draft law passed by the Confederates in order to get more people fighting in the war. Many of the people fighting actually had a reason to fight, and also some African Americans fought in the war as well. Still, the Conscriptions Act did not work effectively.