Chloe Schwartz

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Wars

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

The French and Indian War was part of a much larger war going on at the same time, also know as the 7 Years War, and by other names in different countries. It first started because England was in America to settle while France was there to trade. Because of its growing population, England began to move into France's territory. This war led to the Proclaimation of 1763, which stated that the colonist could not go to the new territory, and left the king in debt. The French and Indian War was also the first time biological warfare was used. Native Americans were given blankets from smallpox victims, and because their immune system could not counteract the disease, it killed them.

American Revolution

1763 - 1783

For information, see all events and battles during this time period.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

After the American Revolution, King Louis was going broke because of all the money spent on it. Because of this, he began to do to his citizens as the King of Englad had. America's ideas spread to France, and in 1789, six years after we had won our independence, they revolted. By 1791, King Louis and the royal family had been almost wiped out. This revolution was very radical- they got rid of the calender, religion, classes, titles, and many other things that make up French culture. They acted more violently against the King because he was much closer to his people. Part of the reason the King got into so much trouble was that to make changes so he could get out of debt, he had to call a meeting of all classes, as was protocol. He kicked the merchant class representatives when they were making too many demands, and they swore (on the King's tennis courts) that they wouldn't stop until they changed the government.

By 1792, France had declared war with all of Europe, and had requested the help of the United States, leading to the XYZ affair. Surprisingly, France actually began to win with Napoleon as its leader, but in 1799 they were defeated, and a distant nephew of the old king, Louis Phillipe, was made king because he was the only relative left.

Battles

Fort Duquesne

1758

Fort Duquense was built at the mouth of a river, a good place for trade. A young George Washington, who was then a colonel, took over the city, driving out the current inhabitants and making it into land for farming and colonization. It was renamed after the governer, William Pitt, and is known today as Pittsburgh.

From New York City to Trenton and Princeton

1776

After Britain retreated to Boston, they captured New York City, which split the colonies in two. George Washington was barely able to withdraw his troops. Many of them were captured, and many deserted. Howe then settled in the city, but left troops at Trenton. These troops were Hessians, a form of mercenaries hired during the war. On Christmas night, 1776, Washington and his remaining troops crossed the Delaware River and ambushed them. 900 prisoners were taken and 30 Hessians were killed, while few, if any, Patriots died. Then, Washington marched to Princeton and drove out two British regiments. This raised American spirit, as well as recruitment numbers.

Saratoga

1777 - 1778

The war started up again in spring 1777. Generals Burgoyne and Howe came up with a new strategy: Burgoyne's men would come south from Canada and Howe's north from New York City. They though that this would draw Washington's army out by threatening New England, and it probably would have worked. However, Howe didn't understand the importance of his role and decided to attack Philadelphia, where the rebel congress was. Although America lost very badly to Howe, Burgoyne was unaware. He continued to march south, and recaptured Fort Ticonderoga. After that, they were hard pressed to advance because the Patriots began to burn bridges and chop down trees to slow them down. Every day, more and more soldiers gathered under the command of General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, and on September 19 and October 7, 1777 Gates cursed Burgoyne. With no supplies and no help coming, the British forces surrendered, marking a turning point in the war. Saratoga brought France's aid, and they recognized America as a country, as well as signing a treaty to ally themselves against Britain. This gave the Patriots more supplies and officers, as well as more forces on land and sea. Spain also sent supplies and money, and captured a British fort in Pensacola Florida.

Yorktown

1781 - 1782

In May 1781, General Cornwallis stationed his British troops at Yorktown, Virginia. They were waiting on a peninsula to receive supplies from out at sea. French General Lafayette and Patriot troops cut off the peninsula on land. In September 1781, Washington and Comte de Rothambeau tossed their plan to attack New York City and joined Lafayette at the peninsula. 16,000 French and Patriot troops prevented 7,000 British fighters from escaping. On the coast, France formed a blockade with their navy, cutting off supplies and escape routes. On October 9, when Washington's artillery began to fire, Cornwallis sent a message to his commander and got no response. A fortnight later, with no help in sight, he surrendered, and all official fighting stopped. British forces were still at New York City, Charleston, Savannah, and some frontier posts, but had lost the will to continue. In March 1792 the parliament voted to end the war, and two weeks later the Prime Minister, Lord North, resigned. The colonists didn't have a treaty, but they did have independence.

Events

Proclaimation of 1763 and the Treaty of Paris

1763

The Treaty of Paris stated that Britain got all the land east of the Mississippi. However, the Proclamation of 1763 forbade the colonists for settling in the new territory. The king did this because he didn't want to be put farther in debt than he already was from the war, but the colonists saw this as an infringement upon their rights. The Proclamation was one of the events that led to revolution.

Boston Massacre

1770

In 1770, tensions between the Patriots and Redcoats were high. Some patriots began to taunt British forces in Boston, shouting and tossing ice balls (not snow balls) at them. In retaliation, the British forces began to shoot at the crowd that had gathered, killing five people. The event was highly publicized, and brought in many supporter for the revolution, even though technically, it can't be defined as a massacre.

Treaty of Paris (American Revolution)

1782

At the end of the American revolution, the Treaty of Paris was signed (it's always Paris...). The colonists gained all of the land east of the Mississippi River, while France kept what is know as the Louisiana Purchase, which is Utah-ish and East.

XYZ Affair

1792

By 1792, France was at war with all of Europe. They requested America's help, thinking that we would repay them since they had helped us win our revolution. However, America didn't want to get involved because losing could mean becoming part of Britain again. This was the position taken by the Federalists, including George Washington and John Adams. Thomas Jefferson and the Anti-Federalists wanted to help France (see political cartoon in PowerPoint). When John Adams was president, France, who had begun to win the war, began attacking American ships to get supplies. Adams, wanting to avoid war, sent ambassadors/secret agents to negotiate peace. They were call Agents X,Y, and Z. However, France refused to talk to the agents without a bribe, and the agents, infuriated and offended, left without negotiating. The story was released to the press, and sparked outrage, making Adams jump to the conclusion that we would go to war. To prepare for this, he passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which limited the rights of citizens. No war occured, and three years later, France sold us the Louisiana Purchase- cheap. In the outrage over the Alien and Sedition Acts, Adams came in third when he ran again, while Jefferson was elected as president. This also put into perspective how vice presidents would be chosen.

Alien and Sedition Acts

1798

The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by John Adams when it seemed the United States would go to war with France. They (especially the Sedition Act) are view as an infringement upon the 1st amendment rights.

Alien Act- keeps immigrants out of the country
Sedition Act- illegal to criticize the government (could be fined or go to jail

Matthew Lyon, a member of the House of Representitives for Vermont, spoke out againt them, accusing Adams of being a "king". He was put in jail. He then ran for re-election while in jail and won.

Thomas Jefferson, then Vice President, criticized the Acts anonymously through a series of letters written to the Virginia and Kentucky state legislatures, called the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.

Louisiana Purchase

1803

In 1803, France sold the Louisiana Purchase (Utah-ish and east) to the United States for a very low price. It had lost its value after the Haitians revolted. They did so because France couldn't control them while they were having a revolution too, and they became a democracy in 1801.

Haiti was originally valuable because it was a plantation colony that had sugar can which was making France rich. Louisiana was only valuable because it was the best place to trade the sugarcane. When Haiti revolted, the land lost its value, leading to France selling it to us.