England vs France. First major war of the millenia. First war to use professional armies. Began to centralize power with the kings.
(Can't Touch this)
1347 - 1352
Decimated the population of Europe. (appx. 1/3 of the population) Lead to the fall of feudalism. Caused western Europe to modernize sooner than eastern Europe.
The congregation of electors who would elect the holly roman emperor.
popular revolt by pesents in nothern france
1466 - 1750
40-50 thousand "witches" killed in this time period.
Ferdinand and Isabella marry
Unified Spain and consolidated them as a world power.
1488 - 1700
A time of economic change. Trade dominates this era, with Mercantilism being the dominant economic idea of the time.
Henry VIII ruled england
1491 - 1547
Henry the VIII rules England and creates the act of supremacy declaring the ruler of England the head of the English church
1492 - 1648
the transfer of food, people and disease to and from america and Europe. changed the diets and lifestyles of many people in Europe.
Columbus/ Spanish empire
Columbus discovers the Americas allowing Spain to become the dominating force in the new world.
Decline of Italy
1494 - 1527
Due to french invasions Italy's power declines.
1517 - 1648
Widespread change of Christianity from Catholicism to protestantism. Mostly in northern Europe where it began.
German Pesent Revolts
1524 - 1526
Rule of William I of orange (silent)
1533 - 1584
Resisted Spanish rule over the netherlands.
council of trent
1545 - 1563
Roman catholic church issued reforms due to the reformation but did not concede any doctrinal changes but they did eliminate some of the corruption.
Rule of Heny IV France
1553 - 1610
Ended the french religious wars and brought peace to France.
Mary I ruled England
July 1553 - November 1558
Nicknamed bloody marry for killing protestants in England during her reign.
Rule of Elizabeth I England
1558 - 1603
As a politique, Queen Elizabeth (last Tudor monarch) was hugely popular with the people of England consoling the battle between the Catholics and protestants of England.
French wars of religion
1562 - 1598
Battles between the French Huguenots and the French Catholics. subjected French Protestants to the Inquisition
James I england
1567 - 1625
Was king of England. Was too friendly with the Catholics. eventually lead to the English civil war.
1568 - 1648
The attempt by the Netherlands to end the Spanish rule of the Netherlands.
Thirty nine articles
doctrinal statement of the church of England.
1580 - 1820
The time where there was a jump in the amount and availability of commercial goods for the average person.
Mary Stuart executed
The spanish armada is destroyed by the brittish. stoppes Spains invasion.
Dutch Golden Age
1600 - 1700
time period when the netherlands were the dominating economic, political and colonial force in Europe.
1610 - 1643
Fought against the hapsberg empire in spain.
Henry IV assasinated
May 14, 1610
ended his reign.
Thirty years war
1618 - 1648
Last religious war. Battle in the holy roman empire. Many other countries got involved with troops and economic support.
Charles I england
1625 - 1649
Ruled England during the English civil war. Was catholic and tried to give more rights to the Catholics in England causing civil war.
1640 - 1648
Was called to raise taxes for Charels I.
english civil war
1642 - 1651
Time when England was transitioning from an absalute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.
1648 - 1653
was a civil war in France around the Royal palace in Paris, causing Louis XIV to build the palace in versillies.
1649 - 1660
Run by Oliver Cromwell, this "republic" eventally failed due to to poor leadership when parlement restored Charles II as Monarch.
Age of Mercantilism
1650 - 1750
The economic system based on the idea that the world has a limited amount of resources. Colonies dominate this time perriod.
Act of settlement
1652 - 1662
Parliament provides the Cromwell invasions of Ireland.
Charles II rules england
1660 - 1685
After England's parliament restores the monarchy, Charles takes over and is as bad as his predecessors
Restoration of the monarchy
1660 - 1685
England restores the monarchy ruled by Charles II
Royal society of London created
november 1 1660
First scientific society. leads to the creation of countless others
Louis XIV personal reign
1661 - 1715
The Monarch credited with centralizing the french government and advocating absolute monarchy.
Peter the great rules Russia.
7 May 1682 - 8 February 1725
Peter modernizes Russia and expands their territory to the black sea.
James II rules england
6 February 1685 - 1688
Kicked out by William III of orange in the glorious revolution. Last Catholic Ruler of England.
1688 - 1689
Parliament invites William III of orange to invade and become the king of England and kick out James II who tries to repeal the test act.
English bill of rights
Limited rights of the monarchs after the glorious revolution.
Decline of the netherlands
The dutch faced massive economic and political issues leading to their downfall
Great northern war
1700 - 1721
War between Russia and Sweden. Peter the Great takes territory along the black sea for sea trade.
war of Spanish succession
1701 - 1714
The war was fought to prevent the king of France who had a legitimate claim to the throne from taking over Spain.
Charels VI Austria ruled
1711 - 1740
Passed the pragmatic sanction to try to ensure that his daughter would inherit the Hapsberg lands.
used to power many machines of the day and would one day power trains.
treaty of utrecht
Ends the war of Spanish succession.
Death of Louis XIV
He died leaving behind new traditions of Absalutism.
Mississippi Bubble popped
1719 - 1720
The Mississippi company sold notes with an exaggerated value estimate for the Louisiana territory and when investors found out the value dropped significantly, crushing the French economy.
1721 - 1742
First Prime Minister of England. Served under Kings George I and George II
Catherine the Great rules Russia
1729 - 1796
An enlightened despot. Catherine expanded territory for Russia and put down some peasant revolts and stuff. You know stuff like that. She wasn't a very good despot but she needed the nobles to help her with the peasants so ya....
War of Jenkins' ear
1739 - 1748
The Spanish cut of Captain Jenkins' ear causing the public of England to cry out for war.
Fredrick the great rules prussia
1740 - 1786
An enlightened despot of Prussia. Made advancement in society by military merit. Also ended all religious intolorance.
1740 - 1748
Sparked the start of the seven years war. Tried to consolidate Hapsberg lands.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
The war fought by Maria Theresa to assend to the Austrian throne. As a woman many people were unsure wether or not she was eligable to enherit the Habsberg lands from her father.(She won By the way)
Maria Theresa rules austria
1745 - 1765
An enlightened Despot Maria set the stage for her son Joseph to take over as an enlightened despot as well.
1750 - 1900
not a true "revolution" but a new outpouring of ideas. Allowed the population of EU to grow exponentially.
When Great Britten switched sides in the seven years war allying with Prussia, forcing France to ally with the habsburgs in Austria.
seven years war
1756 - 1763
the first major war on two continents. Began as a war between Prussia and Austria when France joined hoping to stop the Hapsburgs. To check France Great Britten comes to Austria's aid. Checked the power of France.
Joseph II Austria
1764 - 1790
An Enlightened Despot, Joseph used enlightenment ideals such as religious tolerance and codifying of laws to govern Austria.
made the spinning of wool much faster.
industrialized the textile industry.
1775 - 1783
When the American colonies seperated from the british.
1789 - 1799
This time period saw radical changes in the social and political structure of France as they tried to modernize and use enlightenment ideals to create a new government.
Estates General called
The three estates are called by Louis the XVI to make a solution for financial crisis of the time.
National Assembly Created
The third estate creates their own independent body that lead to the eventual downfall of the monarchy.
Tennis Court Oath
After the king shuts down the meeting hall of the estates general, the National Assembly meets in a tennis court instead and pleges to write a constitution. First "Revolutionary" act.
Storming of the Bastille
July 14 1789
The revolutionaries assault this symbol of absolutism to obtain weapons for fighting resistance from the king and to free "political prisoners" being held their.
The Great Fear
17 July 1789 - 5 August 1789
Rural unrest and riots as peasents feared that the king would send his troops into the countryside to squash the Revolution.
Declaration of rights of man and citizen
Made all male citizens of France free and equal under the law. (much like the US Constitution)
March of the Fish wives
oct 5 1789 - oct 6 1789
A march on the palace of Versailles by a mob of angry wives of fishermen. They marched with intention of killing Marie Antoinette but didn't.
Legislative Assembly meets
1791 - 1792
This congressional body of the new constitutional monarchy fails due to the radicalizing of the revolution.
France Declares War with Austria
april 20 1792
To prevent Austria from invading France when the people killed the king and queen, France attacks first.
10 August 1792
The king is captured and held as a political prisoner in Paris.
20 September 1792
The national convention meets and ends the monarchy.
Louis XVI executed
17 January 1793
The Convention voted to execute Louis met and decided that he was conspiring against the revolution.
Reign of terror
June 1 1793 - july 29 1794
A time period where anyone who spoke out against the government or the republic was considered a "counterrevolutionary" and was killed.
Levee en Masse
16 August 1793
Conscription of many able bodied men for the draft in the french army.
Danton is Executed
5 April 1794
The first president of the comity of public safety is executed as a counterrevolutionary. Sparks the beginning of the thermidorian reaction.
Fall of Robespierre
27 July 1794
He is arrested and executed at the beginning of the directory for leading the jacobians
1795 - 1799
This government had a new constitution, and eventually was overthrown by Napoleon. During their control, the white terror took place where Jacobins were killed in the street.
constitution of the year III
22 August 1795
Established the Directory as the governing body of France. Eventually would turn on itself and fail.
1799 - 1800
Napoleon overthrows the consulate.
Entrenched enlightenment ideals where Napoleon conquered.
Napoleon crowns himself emperor
Battle of Austerlitz
One of Napoleons Greatest victories, crushing the Austro-Russian forces.
Battle of Trafalgar
A major naval battle between England and Napoleon. Entrenched England's naval dominance for the next century.
1805 - June 18 1815
The time of wars fought during Napoleon's reign.
Contenental system established
The system where Napoleon tried to isolate Great Britten from the Contentant hurting both British and French economies
Napoleon's invasion of Russia
1812 - Oct. 1812
Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia he lost most of his Grande armee.
"Two things you never do: Start a land-war in Russia in the middle of winter and never go head to head in a battle of wits with a Sicilian when death is on the line!"
Battle of nations: Napoleon Defeated
Napoleon was defeated effectively ending his reign...for now.
Congress of Vienna : AKA concert of Europe
Began the Conservative reign over Europe. Metternich(Austria) leader of conservatism. Was convened to decide how to address the aftermath of the french revolution and Napoleonic wars. Redrew the map of Eu pushing France back to the Rhine. Also restored the Legitimate monarchs of Eu such as the Bourbons of France.
Napoleon returns for 100 days trying to retake power however he fails.
june 18 1815
Napoleon's final defeat
Protocol of Troppau
From the concert of EU. Allowed stable countries to invade those undergoing revolutions to assist in putting down the insurrections.
The revolution of Greeks against the ottoman empire. The protocol of Troppau was not enforced. (Something about Greece being the birthplace of western civilization, or something made the conservative order sorry for those poor Greeks)
France helps put down Spanish revolt
France enforces the protocol of Troppau and Invades Spain, puts down the rebellion and leaves.
1852 - 1883
Huge explotion of new tecnology that made life easier. Modernized EU.
1309 - 1377
The pope moved the papacy to his mansion in Avignon angering the people of rome
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
There were two popes claiming the papacy causing the people to loose faith in the legitimacy of the pope in general.
Followers of John Wycliffe, this anticatholic group in England had anti-trinitarian beliefs and pushed for the bible to be translated into the vernacular.
council of trent
1414 - 1418
Ended the three popes controversy. restored order to the catholic church
Followers of John Huss. Against the catholic church
Pope Julius II
5 December 1443 - 21 February 1513
Known as the Worrier pope. He also Annulled the previous marriage of Catherine of argon so that she could marry Henry VIII
Martin Luther publishes his 95 thesis
Sparks the beginning of the reformation of the catholic church.
1520 - 1553
The english revociton of the catholic curch
Diet of worms
Luther is excommunicated from the church and asked to recant his beliefs. he refuses.
act of supremecy
birth of calvinism
A catholic group also known as the society of Jesus. considered themselves as soldiers of god.
Council of trent
1545 - 1564
The Catholic churches counter reformation efforts. eliminated some of the corruption but did not make any doctrinal concessions to the Protestants.
Peace of Augsburg
Ends the devisions between the prodastants and the catholics withing the holy roman empire
Saint Bartholomew's day massacre
two thousand huguenots across France are killed in response to the assassinations of Huguenot leaders by king Charles XI mother, Catherine de Midichi.
edict of Nantes
13 April 1598
Ended the French religious wars. Henry IV gave protections to the french huguenots.
The catholic church condems this famous scientist for his thoughts against the church.
Revocation of the Edict of nantes
AKA the edict of fontainebleau. Ended the Hugonouts fortified cities and religious fighting. Centralized power with Louis XIV.
Civil Const. Of Clergy
12 July 1790
Bound the clergy of France to the state and forced their loyalty to France.
Cult of the supreme being
May 7, 1794 - 27 July 1794
Was the "religion" of France for a short time during Robespierre's reign.
Concordat With The Catholic church
Where Napoleon made peace with the church after the french revolution. However this did not give back clergy land taken during the revolution.
Catholic emancipation act
Granted Catholics in Great Britain some previously withheld rights.
Italian renaissance art
1350 - 1545
A rebirth in the art and philosophies of the greeks and romans. shown by a realistic feel and often using elements of humanism.
Decline of Gothic art
The end of the medivil age and the begining of the renisance caused gothic art to fall in popularity
Northern Resistance art
1500 - 1615
Focused on the details. less classical influence.
1520 - 1580
the major art form before baroque
1571 - 1680
Art form based on restraint and portraits.
1670 - 1730
The art style that focuses on ornate and pastel colors less grandeur.
1700 - 1800
Art form of the enlightenment. Brings back styles of the Greek and Romans.
1820 - 1918
The art movement that focused on nature and self discovery. In direct opposition to urbanization.
thinkers/ authers/ books/ ideas
1265 - 1321
Wrote the divine comedy, satirizing the catholic church.
20 July 1304 - 19 July 1374
one of the earliest humanists
1313 - 1375
Italian poet and scholar. He was a Renaissance humanist.
Created a whole new way to transfer information. Caused the reformation to explode throughout Europe.
1466 - 1536
The prince of the humanists. emphasized a middle path.
Machiavelli's the prince
used as a handbook for rulers for many years. Intended to unify Itally and push out the french
Copernicus: on the revolution of heavenly spheres
Copernicus turned the scientific world of the day on it's head by suggesting that the earth revolved around the sun.
1546 - 1601
Mapped out the night sky from his observatory. believed in a geocentric universe.
1564 - 1616
First Play write. Basically codified the English language
The first novel, written by Cervantes.
Kepler: the new astronomy
Kepler takes his mentor's, Tycho Brahe, data on the positions of heavenly bodies and uses it to prove heliocentrism.
Bacon: Novum Oragum
Bacon publishes his ideas of empiricism which is to become the major scientific method even to this day.
1623 - 1662
A mathematician and inventor. defended the scientific method
Descartes: Discourse on method
Shared Descartes beliefs in Deductive reasoning and Cartesian dualism.
Hobbs publishes his ideas on humanity. He believed that people were inherently selfish and that any government, even tyranny is better than anarchy.
Newton: Principa Mathmatica
He published his laws of motion and his laws of mathematics.
Locke: Treatises on Gov't
Locke publishes his writings on the social contract and natural rights. He believed that people began as a blank slate and were effected by their environment.
Voltaire publishes his famous book attacking and satirizing organized religion and optimism.
Rousseau: Emile social contract
Rousseau published these works and became one of the founding thinkers in the enlightenment. His ideas about government paved the way for democracies throughout the future.
Smith: Wealth of nations
Begining of capitalism which would one day become the most prominant economic policy of the twentith century. based on the idea that the world has unlimited resources. Yay capitalism!
Wollstonecraft: Vindication of rights of women
Wollstonecraft's beliefs on the equality of women and the advocation of their rights.
Malthus: Principal of population
Malthus was afraid that overpopulation would cause us to outstrip our resources and turn into cannibals. However he did not expect us to advance so that agriculture produces way more food than is consumed. Then again, there are cannibals out there....
Hegel: Pheneomenology of the mind
Ideas develop through conflict:
Thesis --> Antithesis --> Synthesis
Synthesis becomes the new Thesis.
ricardo: Iron Law of Wages
Created many of the wonderful economic policies used today such as theories on wages and rent. Everyone likes wages but no one wants to pay rent.