McAvoy p 1 (this is Jacks timeline)
England vs France. First major war of the millenia. First war to use professional armies. Began to centralize power with the kings.
(Can't Touch this)
Decimated the population of Europe. (appx. 1/3 of the population) Lead to the fall of feudalism. Caused western Europe to modernize sooner than eastern Europe.
The congregation of electors who would elect the holly roman emperor.
popular revolt by pesents in nothern france
40-50 thousand "witches" killed in this time period.
Unified Spain and consolidated them as a world power.
A time of economic change. Trade dominates this era, with Mercantilism being the dominant economic idea of the time.
Henry the VIII rules England and creates the act of supremacy declaring the ruler of England the head of the English church
the transfer of food, people and disease to and from america and Europe. changed the diets and lifestyles of many people in Europe.
Columbus discovers the Americas allowing Spain to become the dominating force in the new world.
Due to french invasions Italy's power declines.
Widespread change of Christianity from Catholicism to protestantism. Mostly in northern Europe where it began.
Resisted Spanish rule over the netherlands.
Roman catholic church issued reforms due to the reformation but did not concede any doctrinal changes but they did eliminate some of the corruption.
Ended the french religious wars and brought peace to France.
Nicknamed bloody marry for killing protestants in England during her reign.
As a politique, Queen Elizabeth (last Tudor monarch) was hugely popular with the people of England consoling the battle between the Catholics and protestants of England.
Battles between the French Huguenots and the French Catholics. subjected French Protestants to the Inquisition
Was king of England. Was too friendly with the Catholics. eventually lead to the English civil war.
The attempt by the Netherlands to end the Spanish rule of the Netherlands.
doctrinal statement of the church of England.
The time where there was a jump in the amount and availability of commercial goods for the average person.
The spanish armada is destroyed by the brittish. stoppes Spains invasion.
time period when the netherlands were the dominating economic, political and colonial force in Europe.
Fought against the hapsberg empire in spain.
ended his reign.
Last religious war. Battle in the holy roman empire. Many other countries got involved with troops and economic support.
Ruled England during the English civil war. Was catholic and tried to give more rights to the Catholics in England causing civil war.
Was called to raise taxes for Charels I.
Time when England was transitioning from an absalute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.
was a civil war in France around the Royal palace in Paris, causing Louis XIV to build the palace in versillies.
Run by Oliver Cromwell, this "republic" eventally failed due to to poor leadership when parlement restored Charles II as Monarch.
The economic system based on the idea that the world has a limited amount of resources. Colonies dominate this time perriod.
Parliament provides the Cromwell invasions of Ireland.
England restores the monarchy ruled by Charles II
After England's parliament restores the monarchy, Charles takes over and is as bad as his predecessors
First scientific society. leads to the creation of countless others
The Monarch credited with centralizing the french government and advocating absolute monarchy.
Peter modernizes Russia and expands their territory to the black sea.
Kicked out by William III of orange in the glorious revolution. Last Catholic Ruler of England.
Parliament invites William III of orange to invade and become the king of England and kick out James II who tries to repeal the test act.
Limited rights of the monarchs after the glorious revolution.
War between Russia and Sweden. Peter the Great takes territory along the black sea for sea trade.
The dutch faced massive economic and political issues leading to their downfall
The war was fought to prevent the king of France who had a legitimate claim to the throne from taking over Spain.
Passed the pragmatic sanction to try to ensure that his daughter would inherit the Hapsberg lands.
used to power many machines of the day and would one day power trains.
Ends the war of Spanish succession.
He died leaving behind new traditions of Absalutism.
The Mississippi company sold notes with an exaggerated value estimate for the Louisiana territory and when investors found out the value dropped significantly, crushing the French economy.
First Prime Minister of England. Served under Kings George I and George II
An enlightened despot. Catherine expanded territory for Russia and put down some peasant revolts and stuff. You know stuff like that. She wasn't a very good despot but she needed the nobles to help her with the peasants so ya....
The Spanish cut of Captain Jenkins' ear causing the public of England to cry out for war.
Sparked the start of the seven years war. Tried to consolidate Hapsberg lands.
An enlightened despot of Prussia. Made advancement in society by military merit. Also ended all religious intolorance.
The war fought by Maria Theresa to assend to the Austrian throne. As a woman many people were unsure wether or not she was eligable to enherit the Habsberg lands from her father.(She won By the way)
An enlightened Despot Maria set the stage for her son Joseph to take over as an enlightened despot as well.
not a true "revolution" but a new outpouring of ideas. Allowed the population of EU to grow exponentially.
the first major war on two continents. Began as a war between Prussia and Austria when France joined hoping to stop the Hapsburgs. To check France Great Britten comes to Austria's aid. Checked the power of France.
When Great Britten switched sides in the seven years war allying with Prussia, forcing France to ally with the habsburgs in Austria.
made the spinning of wool much faster.
An Enlightened Despot, Joseph used enlightenment ideals such as religious tolerance and codifying of laws to govern Austria.
industrialized the textile industry.
When the American colonies seperated from the british.
This time period saw radical changes in the social and political structure of France as they tried to modernize and use enlightenment ideals to create a new government.
The three estates are called by Louis the XVI to make a solution for financial crisis of the time.
The third estate creates their own independent body that lead to the eventual downfall of the monarchy.
After the king shuts down the meeting hall of the estates general, the National Assembly meets in a tennis court instead and pleges to write a constitution. First "Revolutionary" act.
The revolutionaries assault this symbol of absolutism to obtain weapons for fighting resistance from the king and to free "political prisoners" being held their.
Rural unrest and riots as peasents feared that the king would send his troops into the countryside to squash the Revolution.
Made all male citizens of France free and equal under the law. (much like the US Constitution)
A march on the palace of Versailles by a mob of angry wives of fishermen. They marched with intention of killing Marie Antoinette but didn't.
This congressional body of the new constitutional monarchy fails due to the radicalizing of the revolution.
To prevent Austria from invading France when the people killed the king and queen, France attacks first.
The king is captured and held as a political prisoner in Paris.
The national convention meets and ends the monarchy.
The Convention voted to execute Louis met and decided that he was conspiring against the revolution.
A time period where anyone who spoke out against the government or the republic was considered a "counterrevolutionary" and was killed.
Conscription of many able bodied men for the draft in the french army.
The first president of the comity of public safety is executed as a counterrevolutionary. Sparks the beginning of the thermidorian reaction.
He is arrested and executed at the beginning of the directory for leading the jacobians
This government had a new constitution, and eventually was overthrown by Napoleon. During their control, the white terror took place where Jacobins were killed in the street.
Established the Directory as the governing body of France. Eventually would turn on itself and fail.
Napoleon overthrows the consulate.
Entrenched enlightenment ideals where Napoleon conquered.
The time of wars fought during Napoleon's reign.
A major naval battle between England and Napoleon. Entrenched England's naval dominance for the next century.
One of Napoleons Greatest victories, crushing the Austro-Russian forces.
The system where Napoleon tried to isolate Great Britten from the Contentant hurting both British and French economies
Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia he lost most of his Grande armee.
"Two things you never do: Start a land-war in Russia in the middle of winter and never go head to head in a battle of wits with a Sicilian when death is on the line!"
Napoleon was defeated effectively ending his reign...for now.
Began the Conservative reign over Europe. Metternich(Austria) leader of conservatism. Was convened to decide how to address the aftermath of the french revolution and Napoleonic wars. Redrew the map of Eu pushing France back to the Rhine. Also restored the Legitimate monarchs of Eu such as the Bourbons of France.
Napoleon returns for 100 days trying to retake power however he fails.
Napoleon's final defeat
From the concert of EU. Allowed stable countries to invade those undergoing revolutions to assist in putting down the insurrections.
The revolution of Greeks against the ottoman empire. The protocol of Troppau was not enforced. (Something about Greece being the birthplace of western civilization, or something made the conservative order sorry for those poor Greeks)
France enforces the protocol of Troppau and Invades Spain, puts down the rebellion and leaves.
Huge explotion of new tecnology that made life easier. Modernized EU.
The pope moved the papacy to his mansion in Avignon angering the people of rome
There were two popes claiming the papacy causing the people to loose faith in the legitimacy of the pope in general.
Followers of John Wycliffe, this anticatholic group in England had anti-trinitarian beliefs and pushed for the bible to be translated into the vernacular.
Ended the three popes controversy. restored order to the catholic church
Followers of John Huss. Against the catholic church
Known as the Worrier pope. He also Annulled the previous marriage of Catherine of argon so that she could marry Henry VIII
Sparks the beginning of the reformation of the catholic church.
The english revociton of the catholic curch
Luther is excommunicated from the church and asked to recant his beliefs. he refuses.
birth of calvinism
A catholic group also known as the society of Jesus. considered themselves as soldiers of god.
The Catholic churches counter reformation efforts. eliminated some of the corruption but did not make any doctrinal concessions to the Protestants.
Ends the devisions between the prodastants and the catholics withing the holy roman empire
two thousand huguenots across France are killed in response to the assassinations of Huguenot leaders by king Charles XI mother, Catherine de Midichi.
Ended the French religious wars. Henry IV gave protections to the french huguenots.
The catholic church condems this famous scientist for his thoughts against the church.
AKA the edict of fontainebleau. Ended the Hugonouts fortified cities and religious fighting. Centralized power with Louis XIV.
Bound the clergy of France to the state and forced their loyalty to France.
Was the "religion" of France for a short time during Robespierre's reign.
Where Napoleon made peace with the church after the french revolution. However this did not give back clergy land taken during the revolution.
Granted Catholics in Great Britain some previously withheld rights.
A rebirth in the art and philosophies of the greeks and romans. shown by a realistic feel and often using elements of humanism.
The end of the medivil age and the begining of the renisance caused gothic art to fall in popularity
Focused on the details. less classical influence.
the major art form before baroque
Art form based on restraint and portraits.
The art style that focuses on ornate and pastel colors less grandeur.
Art form of the enlightenment. Brings back styles of the Greek and Romans.
The art movement that focused on nature and self discovery. In direct opposition to urbanization.
Wrote the divine comedy, satirizing the catholic church.
one of the earliest humanists
Italian poet and scholar. He was a Renaissance humanist.
Created a whole new way to transfer information. Caused the reformation to explode throughout Europe.
The prince of the humanists. emphasized a middle path.
used as a handbook for rulers for many years. Intended to unify Itally and push out the french
Copernicus turned the scientific world of the day on it's head by suggesting that the earth revolved around the sun.
Mapped out the night sky from his observatory. believed in a geocentric universe.
First Play write. Basically codified the English language
The first novel, written by Cervantes.
Kepler takes his mentor's, Tycho Brahe, data on the positions of heavenly bodies and uses it to prove heliocentrism.
Bacon publishes his ideas of empiricism which is to become the major scientific method even to this day.
A mathematician and inventor. defended the scientific method
Shared Descartes beliefs in Deductive reasoning and Cartesian dualism.
Hobbs publishes his ideas on humanity. He believed that people were inherently selfish and that any government, even tyranny is better than anarchy.
He published his laws of motion and his laws of mathematics.
Locke publishes his writings on the social contract and natural rights. He believed that people began as a blank slate and were effected by their environment.
Voltaire publishes his famous book attacking and satirizing organized religion and optimism.
Rousseau published these works and became one of the founding thinkers in the enlightenment. His ideas about government paved the way for democracies throughout the future.
Begining of capitalism which would one day become the most prominant economic policy of the twentith century. based on the idea that the world has unlimited resources. Yay capitalism!
Wollstonecraft's beliefs on the equality of women and the advocation of their rights.
Malthus was afraid that overpopulation would cause us to outstrip our resources and turn into cannibals. However he did not expect us to advance so that agriculture produces way more food than is consumed. Then again, there are cannibals out there....
Ideas develop through conflict:
Thesis --> Antithesis --> Synthesis
Synthesis becomes the new Thesis.
Created many of the wonderful economic policies used today such as theories on wages and rent. Everyone likes wages but no one wants to pay rent.