Ap euro 1st semester timeline

McAvoy p 1 (this is Jacks timeline)

General political history

hundred years war

1334 - 1453

England vs France. First major war of the millenia. First war to use professional armies. Began to centralize power with the kings.
(Can't Touch this)

Black death

1347 - 1352

Decimated the population of Europe. (appx. 1/3 of the population) Lead to the fall of feudalism. Caused western Europe to modernize sooner than eastern Europe.

golden bull


The congregation of electors who would elect the holly roman emperor.



popular revolt by pesents in nothern france

Witch hunts

1466 - 1750

40-50 thousand "witches" killed in this time period.

Ferdinand and Isabella marry


Unified Spain and consolidated them as a world power.

commercial revolution

1488 - 1700

A time of economic change. Trade dominates this era, with Mercantilism being the dominant economic idea of the time.

Henry VIII ruled england

1491 - 1547

Henry the VIII rules England and creates the act of supremacy declaring the ruler of England the head of the English church

Colombian Exchange

1492 - 1648

the transfer of food, people and disease to and from america and Europe. changed the diets and lifestyles of many people in Europe.

Columbus/ Spanish empire


Columbus discovers the Americas allowing Spain to become the dominating force in the new world.

Decline of Italy

1494 - 1527

Due to french invasions Italy's power declines.


1517 - 1648

Widespread change of Christianity from Catholicism to protestantism. Mostly in northern Europe where it began.

German Pesent Revolts

1524 - 1526

Rule of William I of orange (silent)

1533 - 1584

Resisted Spanish rule over the netherlands.

council of trent

1545 - 1563

Roman catholic church issued reforms due to the reformation but did not concede any doctrinal changes but they did eliminate some of the corruption.

Rule of Heny IV France

1553 - 1610

Ended the french religious wars and brought peace to France.

Mary I ruled England

July 1553 - November 1558

Nicknamed bloody marry for killing protestants in England during her reign.

Rule of Elizabeth I England

1558 - 1603

As a politique, Queen Elizabeth (last Tudor monarch) was hugely popular with the people of England consoling the battle between the Catholics and protestants of England.

French wars of religion

1562 - 1598

Battles between the French Huguenots and the French Catholics. subjected French Protestants to the Inquisition

James I england

1567 - 1625

Was king of England. Was too friendly with the Catholics. eventually lead to the English civil war.

Dutch revolt

1568 - 1648

The attempt by the Netherlands to end the Spanish rule of the Netherlands.

Thirty nine articles


doctrinal statement of the church of England.

consumer revolution

1580 - 1820

The time where there was a jump in the amount and availability of commercial goods for the average person.

Mary Stuart executed


she died.

spanish armada

May 1588

The spanish armada is destroyed by the brittish. stoppes Spains invasion.

Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1700

time period when the netherlands were the dominating economic, political and colonial force in Europe.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Fought against the hapsberg empire in spain.

Henry IV assasinated

May 14, 1610

ended his reign.

Thirty years war

1618 - 1648

Last religious war. Battle in the holy roman empire. Many other countries got involved with troops and economic support.

Charles I england

1625 - 1649

Ruled England during the English civil war. Was catholic and tried to give more rights to the Catholics in England causing civil war.

Long parlament

1640 - 1648

Was called to raise taxes for Charels I.

english civil war

1642 - 1651

Time when England was transitioning from an absalute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.

the Fronde

1648 - 1653

was a civil war in France around the Royal palace in Paris, causing Louis XIV to build the palace in versillies.

Puritan republic

1649 - 1660

Run by Oliver Cromwell, this "republic" eventally failed due to to poor leadership when parlement restored Charles II as Monarch.

Age of Mercantilism

1650 - 1750

The economic system based on the idea that the world has a limited amount of resources. Colonies dominate this time perriod.

Act of settlement

1652 - 1662

Parliament provides the Cromwell invasions of Ireland.

Restoration of the monarchy

1660 - 1685

England restores the monarchy ruled by Charles II

Charles II rules england

1660 - 1685

After England's parliament restores the monarchy, Charles takes over and is as bad as his predecessors

Royal society of London created

november 1 1660

First scientific society. leads to the creation of countless others

Louis XIV personal reign

1661 - 1715

The Monarch credited with centralizing the french government and advocating absolute monarchy.

Peter the great rules Russia.

7 May 1682 - 8 February 1725

Peter modernizes Russia and expands their territory to the black sea.

James II rules england

6 February 1685 - 1688

Kicked out by William III of orange in the glorious revolution. Last Catholic Ruler of England.

Glorious revelution

1688 - 1689

Parliament invites William III of orange to invade and become the king of England and kick out James II who tries to repeal the test act.

English bill of rights


Limited rights of the monarchs after the glorious revolution.

Great northern war

1700 - 1721

War between Russia and Sweden. Peter the Great takes territory along the black sea for sea trade.

Decline of the netherlands


The dutch faced massive economic and political issues leading to their downfall

war of Spanish succession

1701 - 1714

The war was fought to prevent the king of France who had a legitimate claim to the throne from taking over Spain.

Charels VI Austria ruled

1711 - 1740

Passed the pragmatic sanction to try to ensure that his daughter would inherit the Hapsberg lands.

steam engine


used to power many machines of the day and would one day power trains.

treaty of utrecht


Ends the war of Spanish succession.

Death of Louis XIV


He died leaving behind new traditions of Absalutism.

Mississippi Bubble popped

1719 - 1720

The Mississippi company sold notes with an exaggerated value estimate for the Louisiana territory and when investors found out the value dropped significantly, crushing the French economy.

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

First Prime Minister of England. Served under Kings George I and George II

Catherine the Great rules Russia

1729 - 1796

An enlightened despot. Catherine expanded territory for Russia and put down some peasant revolts and stuff. You know stuff like that. She wasn't a very good despot but she needed the nobles to help her with the peasants so ya....

War of Jenkins' ear

1739 - 1748

The Spanish cut of Captain Jenkins' ear causing the public of England to cry out for war.

Pragmatic sanction

1740 - 1748

Sparked the start of the seven years war. Tried to consolidate Hapsberg lands.

Fredrick the great rules prussia

1740 - 1786

An enlightened despot of Prussia. Made advancement in society by military merit. Also ended all religious intolorance.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

The war fought by Maria Theresa to assend to the Austrian throne. As a woman many people were unsure wether or not she was eligable to enherit the Habsberg lands from her father.(She won By the way)

Maria Theresa rules austria

1745 - 1765

An enlightened Despot Maria set the stage for her son Joseph to take over as an enlightened despot as well.

agricultural revolution

1750 - 1900

not a true "revolution" but a new outpouring of ideas. Allowed the population of EU to grow exponentially.

seven years war

1756 - 1763

the first major war on two continents. Began as a war between Prussia and Austria when France joined hoping to stop the Hapsburgs. To check France Great Britten comes to Austria's aid. Checked the power of France.

Diplomatic revolution


When Great Britten switched sides in the seven years war allying with Prussia, forcing France to ally with the habsburgs in Austria.

spinning jenny


made the spinning of wool much faster.

Joseph II Austria

1764 - 1790

An Enlightened Despot, Joseph used enlightenment ideals such as religious tolerance and codifying of laws to govern Austria.

water frame


industrialized the textile industry.

American revelution

1775 - 1783

When the American colonies seperated from the british.

French revolution

1789 - 1799

This time period saw radical changes in the social and political structure of France as they tried to modernize and use enlightenment ideals to create a new government.

Estates General called


The three estates are called by Louis the XVI to make a solution for financial crisis of the time.

National Assembly Created


The third estate creates their own independent body that lead to the eventual downfall of the monarchy.

Tennis Court Oath


After the king shuts down the meeting hall of the estates general, the National Assembly meets in a tennis court instead and pleges to write a constitution. First "Revolutionary" act.

Storming of the Bastille

July 14 1789

The revolutionaries assault this symbol of absolutism to obtain weapons for fighting resistance from the king and to free "political prisoners" being held their.

The Great Fear

17 July 1789 - 5 August 1789

Rural unrest and riots as peasents feared that the king would send his troops into the countryside to squash the Revolution.

Declaration of rights of man and citizen


Made all male citizens of France free and equal under the law. (much like the US Constitution)

March of the Fish wives

oct 5 1789 - oct 6 1789

A march on the palace of Versailles by a mob of angry wives of fishermen. They marched with intention of killing Marie Antoinette but didn't.

Legislative Assembly meets

1791 - 1792

This congressional body of the new constitutional monarchy fails due to the radicalizing of the revolution.

France Declares War with Austria

april 20 1792

To prevent Austria from invading France when the people killed the king and queen, France attacks first.

Tuileries Stormed

10 August 1792

The king is captured and held as a political prisoner in Paris.

Monarch abolished

20 September 1792

The national convention meets and ends the monarchy.

Louis XVI executed

17 January 1793

The Convention voted to execute Louis met and decided that he was conspiring against the revolution.

Reign of terror

June 1 1793 - july 29 1794

A time period where anyone who spoke out against the government or the republic was considered a "counterrevolutionary" and was killed.

Levee en Masse

16 August 1793

Conscription of many able bodied men for the draft in the french army.

Danton is Executed

5 April 1794

The first president of the comity of public safety is executed as a counterrevolutionary. Sparks the beginning of the thermidorian reaction.

Fall of Robespierre

27 July 1794

He is arrested and executed at the beginning of the directory for leading the jacobians


1795 - 1799

This government had a new constitution, and eventually was overthrown by Napoleon. During their control, the white terror took place where Jacobins were killed in the street.

constitution of the year III

22 August 1795

Established the Directory as the governing body of France. Eventually would turn on itself and fail.

Napoleon's Coup

1799 - 1800

Napoleon overthrows the consulate.

Napoleon crowns himself emperor


Code Napoleon


Entrenched enlightenment ideals where Napoleon conquered.

Napoleonic wars

1805 - June 18 1815

The time of wars fought during Napoleon's reign.

Battle of Trafalgar


A major naval battle between England and Napoleon. Entrenched England's naval dominance for the next century.

Battle of Austerlitz


One of Napoleons Greatest victories, crushing the Austro-Russian forces.

Contenental system established


The system where Napoleon tried to isolate Great Britten from the Contentant hurting both British and French economies

Napoleon's invasion of Russia

1812 - Oct. 1812

Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia he lost most of his Grande armee.

"Two things you never do: Start a land-war in Russia in the middle of winter and never go head to head in a battle of wits with a Sicilian when death is on the line!"

Battle of nations: Napoleon Defeated


Napoleon was defeated effectively ending his reign...for now.

Congress of Vienna : AKA concert of Europe

Sep. 1813

Began the Conservative reign over Europe. Metternich(Austria) leader of conservatism. Was convened to decide how to address the aftermath of the french revolution and Napoleonic wars. Redrew the map of Eu pushing France back to the Rhine. Also restored the Legitimate monarchs of Eu such as the Bourbons of France.

Bourbon's restored


Napoleon returnes

March 1815

Napoleon returns for 100 days trying to retake power however he fails.


june 18 1815

Napoleon's final defeat

Protocol of Troppau


From the concert of EU. Allowed stable countries to invade those undergoing revolutions to assist in putting down the insurrections.

Greek revolt


The revolution of Greeks against the ottoman empire. The protocol of Troppau was not enforced. (Something about Greece being the birthplace of western civilization, or something made the conservative order sorry for those poor Greeks)

France helps put down Spanish revolt


France enforces the protocol of Troppau and Invades Spain, puts down the rebellion and leaves.

Industrial Revolution

1852 - 1883

Huge explotion of new tecnology that made life easier. Modernized EU.


Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The pope moved the papacy to his mansion in Avignon angering the people of rome

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

There were two popes claiming the papacy causing the people to loose faith in the legitimacy of the pope in general.



Followers of John Wycliffe, this anticatholic group in England had anti-trinitarian beliefs and pushed for the bible to be translated into the vernacular.

council of trent

1414 - 1418

Ended the three popes controversy. restored order to the catholic church



Followers of John Huss. Against the catholic church

Pope Julius II

5 December 1443 - 21 February 1513

Known as the Worrier pope. He also Annulled the previous marriage of Catherine of argon so that she could marry Henry VIII

Martin Luther publishes his 95 thesis


Sparks the beginning of the reformation of the catholic church.

english refformation

1520 - 1553

The english revociton of the catholic curch

Diet of worms


Luther is excommunicated from the church and asked to recant his beliefs. he refuses.

act of supremecy


Calvin/ Geniva


birth of calvinism

Jesuits formed


A catholic group also known as the society of Jesus. considered themselves as soldiers of god.

Council of trent

1545 - 1564

The Catholic churches counter reformation efforts. eliminated some of the corruption but did not make any doctrinal concessions to the Protestants.

Peace of Augsburg


Ends the devisions between the prodastants and the catholics withing the holy roman empire

Saint Bartholomew's day massacre


two thousand huguenots across France are killed in response to the assassinations of Huguenot leaders by king Charles XI mother, Catherine de Midichi.

edict of Nantes

13 April 1598

Ended the French religious wars. Henry IV gave protections to the french huguenots.

Galileo Condemed


The catholic church condems this famous scientist for his thoughts against the church.

Revocation of the Edict of nantes


AKA the edict of fontainebleau. Ended the Hugonouts fortified cities and religious fighting. Centralized power with Louis XIV.

Civil Const. Of Clergy

12 July 1790

Bound the clergy of France to the state and forced their loyalty to France.

Cult of the supreme being

May 7, 1794 - 27 July 1794

Was the "religion" of France for a short time during Robespierre's reign.

Concordat With The Catholic church


Where Napoleon made peace with the church after the french revolution. However this did not give back clergy land taken during the revolution.

Catholic emancipation act


Granted Catholics in Great Britain some previously withheld rights.


Italian renaissance art

1350 - 1545

A rebirth in the art and philosophies of the greeks and romans. shown by a realistic feel and often using elements of humanism.

Decline of Gothic art


The end of the medivil age and the begining of the renisance caused gothic art to fall in popularity

Northern Resistance art

1500 - 1615

Focused on the details. less classical influence.


1520 - 1580

the major art form before baroque

Baroque art

1571 - 1680

Art form based on restraint and portraits.

Rococo emerges

1670 - 1730

The art style that focuses on ornate and pastel colors less grandeur.


1700 - 1800

Art form of the enlightenment. Brings back styles of the Greek and Romans.

Romantic movement

1820 - 1918

The art movement that focused on nature and self discovery. In direct opposition to urbanization.

thinkers/ authers/ books/ ideas


1265 - 1321

Wrote the divine comedy, satirizing the catholic church.


20 July 1304 - 19 July 1374

one of the earliest humanists


1313 - 1375

Italian poet and scholar. He was a Renaissance humanist.

printing press


Created a whole new way to transfer information. Caused the reformation to explode throughout Europe.


1466 - 1536

The prince of the humanists. emphasized a middle path.

Machiavelli's the prince


used as a handbook for rulers for many years. Intended to unify Itally and push out the french

Copernicus: on the revolution of heavenly spheres


Copernicus turned the scientific world of the day on it's head by suggesting that the earth revolved around the sun.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Mapped out the night sky from his observatory. believed in a geocentric universe.


1564 - 1616

First Play write. Basically codified the English language

Don Quixote


The first novel, written by Cervantes.

Kepler: the new astronomy


Kepler takes his mentor's, Tycho Brahe, data on the positions of heavenly bodies and uses it to prove heliocentrism.

Bacon: Novum Oragum


Bacon publishes his ideas of empiricism which is to become the major scientific method even to this day.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

A mathematician and inventor. defended the scientific method

Descartes: Discourse on method


Shared Descartes beliefs in Deductive reasoning and Cartesian dualism.

Hobbs: leviathan


Hobbs publishes his ideas on humanity. He believed that people were inherently selfish and that any government, even tyranny is better than anarchy.

Newton: Principa Mathmatica


He published his laws of motion and his laws of mathematics.

Locke: Treatises on Gov't


Locke publishes his writings on the social contract and natural rights. He believed that people began as a blank slate and were effected by their environment.

Voltaire: Candide


Voltaire publishes his famous book attacking and satirizing organized religion and optimism.

Rousseau: Emile social contract


Rousseau published these works and became one of the founding thinkers in the enlightenment. His ideas about government paved the way for democracies throughout the future.

Smith: Wealth of nations


Begining of capitalism which would one day become the most prominant economic policy of the twentith century. based on the idea that the world has unlimited resources. Yay capitalism!

Wollstonecraft: Vindication of rights of women


Wollstonecraft's beliefs on the equality of women and the advocation of their rights.

Malthus: Principal of population


Malthus was afraid that overpopulation would cause us to outstrip our resources and turn into cannibals. However he did not expect us to advance so that agriculture produces way more food than is consumed. Then again, there are cannibals out there....

Hegel: Pheneomenology of the mind


Ideas develop through conflict:

Thesis --> Antithesis --> Synthesis
Synthesis becomes the new Thesis.

Goethe: Faust



ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


Created many of the wonderful economic policies used today such as theories on wages and rent. Everyone likes wages but no one wants to pay rent.

Ricardo: Principals of a political economy


Comte: the positive philosophy

1830 - 1842

European Unification