Change & Continuities of South Asia during 661 CE- 1291 CE

Main

Ummayad Caliphate (Damascus)

661 CE - 750 CE

First Muslim Raids into India

711 CE - 713 CE

Establishment of the Abbasid caliphate (Baghdad)

750

Reign of al-Mahdi

775 CE - 785 CE

Reign of al-Rashid

786 CE - 809 CE

First war of succession between Abbasid princes

809 CE

Reign of al-Ma' mun; first mercenary forces recruited

813 CE - 833 CE

Life of al- Razi, physician and scientist

865 CE - 925 CE

Persian Buyids capture Baghdad; caliphs become puppet rulers

945 CE

Life of al- Biruni, scientist

973 CE - 1050 CE

Beginning of Ghanzi raids into western India

998 CE

Death of Firdawsi, author of the Shah Nama

1020 CE

Life of Omar Khayyam, scientist and poet

1038 CE - 1123 CE

Seljuk Turks overthrow Buyids, control caliphate

1055 CE

Life of al-Ghanzali, philosopher and scientist

1058 CE - 1111 CE

Establishment of the Delhi sultanate in India

1206 CE

Fall of Baghdad to Mongols; end of Abbasid caliphate

1258 CE

Fall of Acre; last crusader stronghold in Middle East

1291 CE