ccot essay


Neolithic Revolution starts

2,000,000 BC - 1000 BC

Mark the start new stone age.

Beginning of Classical Civilization

1000 BC - 500 CE


Indus River Valley

around 600 ce

Ancient River Valley-Indus

2500 bc

The classical period served as a time to help organize and define regional characteristics.


Early Harappan 3500-2700 BC (Mohenjo-Daro, Mehrgarh, Jodhpura, Padri)


6000 BC

The earliest pottery made in the Harappan region was built beginning about 6000 BC, and included storage jars, perforated cylindrical towers and footed dishes. The copper/bronze industry flourished at sites such as Harappa and Lothal, and copper casting and hammering were used. Shell and bead making industry was very important, particularly at sites such as Chanhu-daro where mass production of beads and seals is in evidence.


3500 BC

The earliest settlements of the Harappans were in Baluchistan, Pakistan, beginning about 3500 BC.


3400 bc

Seals carved from steatite squares contain the earliest forms of writing. Almost 6000 inscriptions have been found to date, although they have yet to be deciphered. Scholars are divided about whether the language is likely a form of Proto-Dravidian, Proto-Brahmi or Sanskrit

fall of harappa

1900 BC

The Harappan civilization ended between about 2000 and 1900 BC, resulting from a combination of environmental factors such as flooding and climatic changes, tectonic activity, and the decline of trade with western societies.

early vedic age

1700 bc

Early Vedic/Rig Vedic Period (1700 BC to 1000 BC)
Early Vedic Period represents the time period when the Rig Veda was compiled. During this period, the king was believed to be the protector of the people, who took an active part in the government. The caste system started becoming rigid and the families started becoming patriarchal


1500 B.C.

The Aryan people, who come from the region between and including India and Europe, invade India from the north. They spread through the Indus Valley and down into the Ganges Valley.

2nd vedic age

1000 BC

Later Vedic Age (1000 BC to 500 BC)
The emergence of the later Vedic period was marked with agriculture becoming the dominant economic activity and a decline in the significance of cattle rearing. The political organization changed completely, with the reduction in the involvement of people in the administration


326 B.C.

Alexander the Great of Macedon (northeastern Greece) crosses the Indus River into India.

gupta empire

320 - 550

After centuries of being split into small kingdoms and republics, India is ruled by the Gupta Empire. Under the rule of the Gupta kings, Hinduism becomes the major religion of the empire. Literature, art, architecture and science flourish during this "classical age" of peace and prosperity.

mongols rule


The rule of the Mogul Empire begins, unifying much of south India with the north for the first time.