AP Euro Timeline- 1st Semester

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Decline of Gothic Art

1200 - 1400

The decline of Gothic Art was the decline of the medival art with the emergence of the Renaissance influencing the decline of the medieval art.

Dante Alighieri

1265 - 1321

Dante was known as the first writer of the Renaissance. Dante's "Divine Comedy" helped kick start the era of Renaissance writing. Dante's importance was helping start humanistic writing and the Renaissance.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Francesco Petrarch was the father of humanism, we left the being a laywer to pursue letters and poetry. His contribution was leading other humanists to the study of the Scholastics/Classics.

Avignon Papacy/Babylonian Captivity

1305 - 1378

Pope Clement VII took up residence in Avingon and during this period popes gained a lot of power and authority granted by the French Monarcy. This period allowed for the Great Schism to take place.

Giovanni Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Giovanni Boccaccio was a pioneer of the humanist studies as well and wrote "Decameron" which shows economic and sexual misconduct. He also had a sympathetic look on human behavior and assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology. Boccaccio was important because he helped make humanism spread.

Hundred Year's War

May 1337 - October 1453

Huge conglict between France and England in which England lost all of their territorial holdings in France and the war weakened the authority of both monarchies.

The Black Death

1348 - 1800

The Black Death started in Constantinople in 1348 by the fleas of the rats on trade ships. The Bubonic plague swept across Europe and led to lots of death and wasn't helped by the overpopulation or lack of food. The Black Death led to the Hundred Year's War.

The Golden Bull

1356

The Golden Bull was a seven man electoral college in the Holy Roman Empire in hope to establish national unity. This event ended up causing the collapse and invasions of the Holy Roman Empire.

Jacquerie

1358

In France during the 100 Year's War, the upper class forced the peasantry to pay an always increasing taille and repair war-damaged property without money and finally the peasanty rose up in a series of bloody rebellions. This event helped the war take another step and for the nobility to gain some respect for the peasants.

Mannerism

1375 - 1550

Mannerism was a reaction to the simplicity and symmetry of the High Renaissance and made room for the abnormal and strange.

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

The Italian Renaissance was the rebirth of the modern world which included the revival of ancient learning and a period of cultural creativity. The Renaissance started the ideas of reform and other ways of thinking about things especially in religion.

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The Great Schism is where the Catholic Church becomes divided between two popes, one French and the other Italian.
This event was the leading cause of the development of the Protestant Reformation.

Lollards/John Wycliffe

1384

Led by the teachings and writings of John Wycliffe, the Lollards were Catholic but rejected hierarchy of the church, denounced the wealth and corruption of the clergy, and thought that the Eucharist was just the body and blood of Christ within the bread and wine. John Wycliffe and Lollards provided the basis for the anti-protestant reformation.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

The witch hunts were influenced by the lack of support that the Christian faith was providing during the Balck Death and Hundred Year's War. Witches were thought to perfom dark magic, have sexual orgies with the devil, and cannibalism. If accused as a witch, you were most likely burned at the stake. The witch hunts allowed people to start questioning known facts just for the sake of knowing.

Hussities/John Huss

1415

John Huss and his followers the Hussities were pro-Wycliffe and agreed with all of the Lollard beliefs. The Hussities were located in Bohemia. The Hussities helped forshadow the ideas for the Protestant Reformation.

Early Exploration-Portugal and Spain

1419 - 1507

Portugal took a great interest in the Christian development in Africa and India and the navigation to the spots of best revenue. The Spanish focused more on the New World and were the first to set up colonies in the New World. These explorations would lead to new and increased trade and even more conflict over territory.

Northern Renaissance

1427 - 1623

The Northern Renaissance was the scholarly works of northern humanists that created a climate suitable for religious and educational reform.The humanists in the north learned from the Italian humanists and developed their own culture.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Erasmus was one of the best Christian humanists ever known and was given the title, "Prince of the Humanists". Erasmus wrote many satires that were aimed at the goal of better understanding the Catholoic religion and the reform of it's institutions.

Printing Press-Guttenburg

1468

THe printing press was a cheap way to manufacture paper and helped increase literacy rates by increasing the amount of reading material available. Johann Gutenburg created the machine.

Ferdinand and Isabella's Marriage

1469

Ferdinand and Isabella get married in order to hopefully create a basis for the union of their two kingdoms, Aragon and Castille.

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

1474 - 1516

Ferdinand and Isabella were the monarchy of Spain and togther they tried to increase the royal power at expense of the nobility, made the Spanish army the best of Europe, made all of Spain Catholic, and sponsored the era of new discovery for Christopher Columbus.

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire

1492 - 1519

Columbus with the help of Queen Isabella sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. His voyage led to many more voyages and the colonization of the great political powers of Europe.

Italy's Decline by invasions

1494 - 1527

Italy declined due to invasions by the French in response to the Milanese call to help them revive their dynastic claim to Naples. Charles VIII was one of the first people to respond and did a lot of damage to the Italian people. Spain was also affected by creating the League of Venice against the French. The French returned to Italy under Louis XII and the new Borgia pope Alexander VI. The effect of these invasions helped decline Italy but helped create conflict between France and Spain for many more years to come.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1799

The Commercial Revolution was the creation and expansion of mercantilism, discovery of new worlds, more trade, adn more colonization. This event impacted mostly the economics of Europe by providing more money flowing through each state.

Academies of Science

1500 - 1700

The Academies of Science were groups that would talk about new science and scientific discoveries that helped the Scientific Revolution become so important in European history. London was the first to establish these academies.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Pope Julius came to be known as the "Warrior Pope" because he led the papal army against the French and the Venetians.
This infuenced people to fear the popes and their religious power.

The Columbian Exchange

1509 - 1547

The Columbian Exchange was where both Europeans and Native Americans exchanged diseases, animals, and agriculture. This exchange helped lead to the Agriculture Revolution.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII was known for having six wives in an effort to produce a male heir. In his reign he established the Act of Supremacy and created the Angelican church which was still Catholic in a Protestant dominated state.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII in order to divorce his first wife Catherine of Aragon he created the Act of Supremacy which put the king in charge of the Church. This event caused Angelicanism to be formed or the Church of England.

Machiavelli: The Prince

1513

The Prince was a cynical satire on the way rulers behaved and should do to stop despotism but keep tyranny. This book became the basis for all rulers and their rule.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Christianity began to dissolve into two separate religions Protestantism and Catholicism which sparked huge conflicts.

Martin Luther's 95 Theses

October 31, 1517

A list of protests mostly against indulgences, The theses were nailed to the castle door of the Church of Wittenberg in Germany and were well read in the North.

Diet of Worms

April 1521

The Diet of Worms is where Martin Luther refused to recant his complaints against the Catholic church. This event excommunitcated Martin Luther and strengthened the Protestant movement.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

German peasants in favor of Luther decided to revolt against the German church in the name of Martin Luther. This revolt caused Luther to be marked as an "un-Christian".

Ignatius Loyola- Jesuits

1530 - 1556

Ignatius Loyola was the leader of the Catholic/Counter-Reformation group called the Jesuits or Society of Jesus. Loyola made the group go through Spirital Exercises that were meant to tell Catholics to be deny themselves and submit to a higher spiritual power without question. The Jesuits provided the best and strongest COunter-Reformation in history.

Act of Supremecy-English Reformation

1534

This act was created by King Henry VIII and passed by Parliment that stated the KIng was the head of the church not the pope. This act created the Church of England or Angelican Church. The start of the English Reformation.

John Calvin-Geneva

1540

John Calvin established a theocracy based on his Protestant views in Geneva. This established a new Protestant view after Zwingli died.

Copernicus: On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Copernicus's On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres was a criticism of the geocentric model of the universe to help the church make an accurate date for Easter. His book helped formulate the accurate position of the universe adn helped start the Scientific Revolution.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Three sessions where an assembly of Church leaders met to reform and eliminate the abuses of the church. The Council of Trent strengthened the Catholic Church in the Reformation.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Tycho Brahe suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun and made instruments that helped him make more naked eye observations than anyone else. Tycho was important because he helped move society one step closer to proving that the Copernican system- all planets revolving around the sun.

French Religious Wars

1547 - 1589

The French Religious Wars were mostly between the Catholics and the Huguenots which involved many outbreaks between each religion lead by the Guise family (Ca.) and the Bourbon family (Hu.) After 8 years a truce was concluded in 1570. Then the St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre occurred and killed thousands of Huguenots. After the massacre came the War of the Three Henrys which led to king of France being assassinated. All of France's religious wars led to the French period of the Thrity Year's War.

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)

1550 - 1750

The Baroque Art was mostly associated with the Catholic Church and can be found in those types of churches. The Baroque sometimes used gold inside their paint and was seen as a nobility or rich art.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Queen Mary, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, took the crown after Henry VIII's death and tried to restore England as a Roman Catholic state. Over 300 English protestants were burned at the stake earning Mary the nickname "Bloody Mary".

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

The Peace of Augsburg permanently divided Christianity and established "Cuius regio, eius religio"- the ruler of the land determines the religion. This event permanently separated Europe as a whole religiously.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth I was the daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII and the last of the Tudors to rule England. Elizabeth tried to religiously unite England by passing a new Act of Supremacy that once agian established the monarch as the head of the Angelican Church and their Protestant teachings were told through the 39 Articles. At the end of her reign England was ranked as one of the Protestant powers of Europe.

Dutch Revolt

1561

The Netherlands were the greatest economical state/provinces of the time with their flourising markets and economy. Cardinal Granvelle wanted to place the Catholic religion over the Dutch when most of the provinces were Calvinist strongholds, because of Granvelle and increased taxation caused the Dutch people to revolt against the Spanish.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Shakespeare was known as the greatest playwriter in the English language. Shakespeare with his plays showed knowledge of the Renaissance and helped give a new centralized look on the human being.

The Rise of the Netherlands: Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

The Dutch Golden Age was a great example of a flourishing state to use as a template for the major politcial powers with the urban prosperity, government (republic), religious tolerance, and trading strategies. The Golden Age led to the fall of the Dutch and the formation of new governments for France and England.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots (French Protestants) were butchered in Paris because Catherine de Medicis feared the rise of Protestant power in the French Monarchy. This massacre led to the power struggle between the Catholics and the Protestants.

The Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

The Pacification of Ghent declared the Netherland provinces intermal regional sovereignty about religion.This event allowed Netherland to break away from Spanish control.

Union of Utrecht

January 1579

The Union of Utrecht was created by the northern provinces and made peace with Spain and joined the Counter Reformation. This union gave the Counter Reformation more power due to the huge economy that the Netherland provided.

Mary Stuart executed

1587

In 1586 Mary Stuart Queen of Scots who was in line for the throne after Elizabeth was upset about Elizabeth's religious policy. The disapproval for the policy of Elizabeth's, Mary supported an assassination plot against Elizabeth and was beheaded in 1587.

Spanish Armada

1588

The Spanish Armada was sent by Philip II of Spain in hopes to conquer England and place Catholic control over it. The Spanish Armada was met by the English ships and the sea which helped the English defeat the Spanish. This event marked the first step towards Spain's political decline and England's rise.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Also known as Henry of Navarre, Henry IV was the first Bourbon to wear the French crown and made an effort to reestablish the power of the French monarchy after the Wars of Religion. Eventhough Henry IV was raised a Protestant he converted to Roman Catholicism which was the dominant religion among his people.

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Henry IV proclaimed a religious settlement with the Edict of Nantes where all minority religions were given religious rights and the freedom of public worship, right of assembly, admission to public offices, and permission to maintain fortified towns. The Edict of Nantes led to more conflicts throughout Europe between the Protestants and the Catholics.

Miguel Cervantes: Don Quixote

1603

The book Don Quixote satires the well read chivalric romances of Spain. This book appealed to many philosophes.

James I

1603 - 1625

Originally King James VI of Scotland, James I took the English throne after Elizabeth I died. James I believed he ruled due to divine right and didn't believe in England's parlimentary government therefore creating problems, he also distrusted and gave little to the people of the Calvinist religion.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609

Kepler's book- The New Astronomy- using the work of Copernicus and Brahe explained and caluclated planetary motion. Kepler's book was important because it helped Sir Issac Newton later on to discover garvity using Kepler's planetary motion theory.

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

While Louis XIII was king of France, Cardinal Richelieu became his cheif minister which caused he much trouble with the nobility and the Huguenots of France. To handle these problems Richelieu reduced the nobility control in the government and deprived the Huguenots certain abilities like holding fortified cities.

Henry IV assassinated

May 1610

In May 1610, the same month Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes a fanatic Catholic assassinated him for his support of the Huguenots in France.

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Year's War was the worst religious war in history between Lutherism and Roman Catholicism and smaller religions like Calvinsim not being recognized. This war reshaped Europe religiously.

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Year's War occured when the Calvinists demanded thier rights once they gained numbers and went unrecognized in the Peace of Augsburg. The war was separated into four periods each period a different state, the Bohemian Period, the Danish Period, the Swedish Period, and the French Period. Each period affected that state by putting an extra financial burden on them and continued to separate each state religiously.

Francis Bacon: Novum Organum

1620

In Novum Organum, Bacon attacked the belief that all truths have been discovered, he also believed that scholastic thinkers paid too much attention to tradition instead of the knowledge of the ancients. Noum Organum was important because it, along with Bacon, was the first piece of writing to champion change and innovation in the Scientific Revolution.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Pascal was a French mathematician and a physical scientist who tried to put together faith and the new science. He believed that in religious matters only reason of the heart and a little bit of faith will prevail. Pascal is important because he set up the basics for the scientific revolution and deism.

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Charles I during his reign was so desperate for money that he signed the Petition of Rights but never followed any of the guidelines.Charles I supported the Angelican Church combined with his political actions created a revolt against him that started in Scotland. This revolt called the Short Parliment and the Long Parliment always asking for money. Charles I's reign ultimately led to the English Civil War.

Galileo Condemned

1633

Galileo's book "Dialogue on Two Cheif Systems of the World" got him in trouble with the Church and he refused to recant his beliefs. Eventhough condemned, Galileo was still able to contribute his ideas to the Scientific Revolution.

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

Descartes' Discourse on Method urged the rejection of scholastic philosophy and education and advocated personal thought, saying that the human mind can comprehend anything and everything. His book helped him create the method of scientific induction and provide an explaination for a major point of the Scientific Revolution which is personal thought.

Frederick William- Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Frederick William began his rule after the Thirty Year's War and started off by reducing the power of the Junkers (nobility) and the local assemblies. Frederick William impacted Prussia by giving them a stronger military of the Junkers and religious tolerance.

English Civil War

1643 - 1659

The Civil War was between the Roundheads (king's opposition) and the Cavaliers (king's supporters). With Scotland and Oliver Cromwell, a general, the Roundheads were able to defeat the Cavaliers and gain power and cause the Pride's Purge, the deletion of the monarchy, the Glorious Revolution, the English Bill of Rights, and the exectuion of KIng Charles I.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Louis took the throne from Cardinal Mazarin once he was old enough. Louis followed in Mazarin's path and ruled as an absolute monarch saying, "L'etat c'est moi" or I am the state. Louis married Phillip IV of Spain's Daughter for political reasons, created Versailles, wanted and tried for more control ofver the Catholic Church, and towards the end of his rule was the one who was involved in the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Year's War by expanding the Peace of Augsburg to Calvinism and giving certain territory to specific states.This treaty and the another treaty ended up making France as the predominant power.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

The Fronde was a series of rebellions against monarchy power by the nobility and townspeople whose traditional position in French politics had been undermined with the new strength of the monarchy. The Fronde started when Mazarin's financial policy wasn't approved by the Parlement and he arrested Parlement leaders. These revolts ultimately strengthened the crown in a new and better way but hurt France politically.

Hobbes: Leviathan

1651

Hobbes' book- Leviathan- provided philosophical justification for absolute political authority, the human condition, and that humans were only created to meet the needs of daily life. Leviathan is important because it provided a new perspective on the human condition during the Scientific Revolution that moved away from the religious view.

The Royal Society of London

1660

The Royal Society of London had members who saw themselves following the Scientific Revolution and the path that Bacon established with his work. The Royal Society led to more scientific thought and other institutions for science.

Charles II (England)

1660 - 1685

Charles II succeeded his father Charles I. Charles II made a wise decsion to try to avoid establishing any new government and he reestablished the Angelican Church. While restoring the Angelican Church, Charles put restrictions on the Catholics or non-Angelicans which led to James II taking the throne and the Glorious Revolution.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Peter the Great was the king of Russia that was determined to westernize Russia. He traveled west to learn about military strategies, economic development, reorganize central authority, to spread control further over religion. The effect of Peter's rule is that the wars and westernization were expensive and separated the people of Russia into two very distinct classes ultimately not changing Russia for the better and putting the state at risk for debt.

James II (England)

1685 - 1688

James II was the successor of Charles II for the English throne. During his reign James tried to reestablish an absolute monarchy and restore the Roman Catholic Church instead of the Church of England. When James was given a Catholic heir the political factions of the Parliment tried to drive him off the throne in the Glorious Revolution. The effects of James II's rule is the English Bill of Rights and a Dutch monarchy on the English throne.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

October 1685

Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes to unify France religiously by trying to get rid of or convert the Protestants. This event showed all of Europe that France wasn't religiously tolerant and led to more religious conflict.

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687

In this book Newton reasoned that all planets and all physical objects in the universe moved through gravity and proved the relationship mathmatically. This book added great understanding to the Scientific Revolution and the universe in which we live in.

Th Glorious Revolution

November 1688

The Glorious Revolution brought William of Orange (protestant) into England to try and remove King James II (catholic) after he had a son who would be his Catholic successor.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1689 - 1702

William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution took the English crown from James II and became William III of England. William III and his wife Mary were the monarchs of England required by the Parliment to accept the English Bill of Rights.

English Bill of Rights

1689

The English Bill of Rights was created by the English Parliment and required William and Mary to accept the bill which gave Parliment more freedom and established claims to help settle the long conflict with the Stuarts.

John Locke: Treatises on Government (1st & 2nd)

1690

In these Treatises on Government Locke rejected absolute government based on political authority and that all men have natural rights. Locke's importantance was establishing a new perspective on the governed and the rule of the government.

Emergence of Rococo

1700 - 1800

The emergence of the Rococo style was mostly associated with the aristocracy of the Old Regime and was lavish, lighthearted decoration with pastel colors that play with the light.

Neoclassicalism

1700 - 1800

Neoclassicalism was the return of the figurative and architectural models of the Renaissance and the ancient world.

Age of Mercantilism

1700 - 1800

The Age of Mercantilism is where mercantilism is put into place in states and in colonies in the New World. Mercantilism is where the government plays a big role in regulating the commerce. This age leads to slavery and colonial trade with the mother country with the colonies.

End of the Witch Hunts

1700

The witch hunts ended due to the advances in medicine, availability of lawyers, and greater physical security. The stop of these hunts allowed people to start looking at the beauty in objects not just death.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

The Great Northern War was between Sweden and Russia and Sweden's control of the Baltic Sea. The war started when Peter the Great of Russia invaded Sweden to get a foothold in the Baltic and ended when Charles XII died in the fighting at Danes. The war officially ended with the Peace of Nystad. This war would give Russia ice free ports and help permanently influence many European affairs.

Agriculture Revolution

1700 - 1834

In the Agriculture Revolution many methods and technology were invented that increased productivity in the field and in the crops. The enclosure method was developed in where farmers use fertilizers and certain crops to replenish the nutrients in the soil like turnips or clover. The invention of the Seed Drill and the Cotton Gin were the inventions that were used most in the Agricultural industry. This revolution kickstarted the Industrial Revolution due to the increase in products.

The Act of Settlement

1701

The Act of Settlement provided the English crown to go to the Protestant House of Hanover in Germany in Queen Anne the second daughter fo James II and the heir to the childless William III die without issue.

Decline in the Netherlands

1702

The Goldent Netherlands declined when WIlliam of Orange died and the Netherlands prevented the emergence of another strong stadtholder, declining political inflence. The Dutch fishing indusrty declined and so did their technology superiority in ship building. The only thing that kept the Dutch from disappearing was their financial dominance. The decline in the Dutch created the first model of a government other than an absolute monarchy in Europe and helped other states reform their governments too.

War of Spanish Succession

1710 - 1713

The War of Spanish Succession was when Spain's trade with America fell into French hands. Then the French recognized the Stuart claim to the English throne which started the war. The war soon became a bloody stalemate in 1709. This event caused even more conflict between the French and the English later on including the Mississippi Bubble.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Charles VI succeeded Joseph I who died with many political problems. With no male heir, Charles spent most of his reign getting the approval for the Pragmatic Sanction which allowed his daughter Maria Theresa to have the right to the throne after he dies so the Austrian Habsburg lands don't get taken over. In the end Charles left Maria without a good army or inheritance.

Treaty of Utrecht

July 1713

The Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of Spanish Succession by making peace with England. Philip V remained the king of Spain and Louis also recognized the right of the House of Hanover to the English throne.

Death of Louis XIV

1715

The death of Louis XIV was left France with a lot of debt and led to the rule of Louis XVI which was the start of the French Revolution.

Mississippi Bubble

1720

The Mississippi Bubble was where all gold payments in France stopped and so did the profit from paper money. This event helped put France into debt leading up to the French Revolution.

Emergence/Domainance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

Robert Walpole Prime Minister of Great Britian took control of the government from James II's son. He handled the House of Commons and maintained peace. As a result of Robert Walpole Britian became a great political power.

Industrial Revolution

1733 - 1856

Within the Industrial Revolution new inventions helped make productivity increase in making of goods and helped create factories that became a big part of cities in Europe. The Industrial Revolution helped create the Scientific Revolution.

War of Jenkin's Ear

1739 - 1815

During a boarding operation in the West Indes a fight broke out and a Spaniard cut off the captain's ear. When he went to the British Parliament about the incident they declared war against Spain. This war opened the gate for more political wars to break out.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Maria Theresa ruled during the War of Austrian Succession in which she defended her title to the throne while her husband became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Maria during the war established her reign father outside Austria and created a centralized bureacracy to control local affairs.

Frederick II (The Great)

1740 - 1786

Frederick II was an enlightened despot that was apart of the Seven Year's War and the start of the War of Austrain Succession. He called himself "the first servant of the State" and support enlightenment ideas and reforms trying to strengthen the power of the monarchy. He also supported religious tolerance and the mercantilist economy.

War of Austrian Succesion

1740 - 1748

In the War of Austrian Succession Frederick II of Prussia seizes Silesia in Germany shattering the Pragmatic Sanction. Maria Thersa Queen of Russia, preserves the Habsburg empire, which was threatened, by creating political allegiances. The French and the British joined in later and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the stalemate war. This war leads to the Diplomatic Revolution.

The Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Year's War had two parts the Continent part between Prussia and Austria and it's allies whcih included France because Prussia invaded one of Austria's allies in which Prussia had many defeats. The other part was the Colonial part between the French and the British over colonial territory for each state. This war led to the American Revolution in the colonies and bitter blood between Austria and Prussia.

Voltaire: Candide

1759

Candide was a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and the human condition,he also believed that human society could be improved. Candide and Voltaire are important because they both were the major voices in advocating for religious tolerance and added influence to the Enlightenment Era.

Catherine the Great (Russia)

1762 - 1796

Catherine was also an enlightened despot who created the Legislative Commission, reduced internal tariffs, increased exportation, and gained great support from the Russian nobility.

Rousseau:Social Contract

1762

The Social Contract provided outlines to the kind of political sturcture that Rousseau believed would overcome the evils of politics and society. The Social Contract is important because it helped reformers in the Enlightenment to reform a new government that would be overall much better for the people and the society.

Spinning Jenny

1765

The Spinning Jenny was a machine that allowed 16 then up to 120 spindles of thread to be moving which helped weavers supply the demand for fabric.

Joseph II

1765 - 1780

Joseph II co-ruled with his mother Maria Theresa and they both became enlightened despots. Both worked hard to strengthen the monarchy, Joseph extended freedom of worship to the Calvinists, Lutherans, and Greek Orthodox, and also encouraged a better economy.

The Water Frame

1769

The Water Frame was a water powered device designed to permit the production of of a ourely cotton fabric. This allowed cotton to be made faster and more efficiently.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution was between Great Britian and their 13 colonies in the New World. The British helped the colonies by taking away the French in Canada therefore reducing the need for British protection that they thought was suppressing them. The colonist began to fight for their independence and separation from Great Britian which was achieved with the Treaty of Paris in September 1783. This revolution would forever hurt Great Britian economically, politically, and in morality.

The Steam Engine

1776

The Steam Engine used steam to power objects such as transportation or factories. This invention allowed products to be made without human physical work.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

Smith's Wealth of Nations described his four stage theory of human social development and that the mercantile system of England be abolished. This book is important because it shows how society moved from barbarism to civilization and show the view of physiocrats.

The Tennis Court Oath

1789

The Tennis Court Oath was an oath that the National Constitiutional Assembly (Third Estate) took saying they wouldn't leave till they had a new constitution for France. This oath created distress for the King because now he had a big opposition to worry about.

The Estates General Meets

1789

With France in debt,Louis XVI calls the Estates General to meet to recieve more money from them. The effect of this event was that the calling of the Estates General kick starts the French Revolution when the Estates refuse to give Louis XVI money.

The Great Fear

July 1789

The Great Fear was when rumors were spread saying royal troops were being sent ot rural towns/cities so the people started destroying legal records and refused to pay feudal dues. The Great Fear called the National Assembly together and helped influence the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

The Storming of the Bastille

July 1789

Louis XVI decided to put pressure on the National Assembly and in effect the people started creating a citizen militia and all they needed was gun powder which was in the Bastille. The citizens stormed and gained control of the Bastille in 1789. The effect of this event is that with the fall of the Bastille in showed that feudalism was now dead and that the citizens meant serious business about the reforming the government.

Nobles Renounce Feudal Privileges

August 1789

On the night of August 4, 1789 the National Constitutional Assembly was called to stop the riots which forced the nobles to give up all of their feudal privileges. This event also led to the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

August 1789

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen ended feudalism, gave the citizens new rights, limited the government, and controled taxation. The only people not apart of the Declaration was women. This event influenced many reforms of the French government that the King wouldn't sign.

March of the Fishwives

October 1789

In October 1789 Fishwives stormed Versailles with knives and pikes demanding for more bread. This storming caused Louis to approve the Declaration and end feudalism and cause the monarchy to move back to Paris in the palace of Tuileres where the king was held under house arrest.

Civil Constitution of Clergy

July 1790

The National Assembly issued the Civil Constitution of Clergy which transformed the Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the secular state along with all of the bishops and pastors. This constitution led to bitter relations between the French church and state.

Wollenstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

A Vindication of the Rights of Women brought Rousseau before the judgement of Enlightenment ideals of progressive knowledge and certain policies against women that were inspired by Rousseau. This book is important because it shows the growing need for women's rights and the differences in the idea of women.

War with Austria

April 1792

Radicalized politics in France led to the overthrow of the constitutional monarchy and into the republic. This led to Austria's threat against the French that if the monarchy was harmed they would burn France to the ground. France then declared war against Austria.

Legislative Assembly/ Monarchy Captive

August 1792

In 1792 crowds stormed Tuileres and forced the monarchs to take refuge in the Legislative Assembly and they were kept captive in the palace and the king was unable to perform any political duties.This led to the War with Austria.

The Convention Meets/ Monarchy Abolished

September 1792

The Legislative Assembly meets and decides to assemble a new committee for a new constitution called the Convention. The Convention then abolishes the monarchy and creates a republic.

Louis XVI executed

January 1793

In December 1792 the National Convention found Louis XVI guilty of conspiracy against the liberty of the people and the security of the state.Louis XVI was then executed on January 1793. This allowed the Committee of Public Safety to take over France.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

The Reign of Terror was started by the Committee of Public Safety in which it ended up claiming 16,000 lives of the French. This event put even more fear into the hearts of the French people and caused even more turmoil for the people.

The Constitution of Year III- The Directory established

1793

The COnstitution of Year III reflected the Thermidorian determination to get rid of the monarchy and the democracy by creating two legislative houses. The Directory became the new government.

Levee en Masse

August 1793

A member of the Committee of Public Safety in charge of the military enforces the Levee en Masse which conscripts males into the army. This event gives the pro-repbulic people a stronger army to work and fight with.

Cult of Reason

1794

The Cult of Reason was an athiest group in France that was determined to replace Christianity and use the Churches as places of reason instead of religion.

Danton Executed

April 1794

Danton was accused of being insuffiently militant on the war, profiting from the revolution, and rejecting the links between moral value and politics and was executed. His execution led to the Law of 22 Prairial.

Cult of Supreme Being

May 1794

The Cult of Supreme Being was, established by Maximilien Robespierre, a deistic cult that reflected Rousseau's vision of a civic religion that would increase the morality of people. This cult led to the fall of Robespierre.

The Fall of Robespiere

July 1794

Robespiere was arrested for creating the Republic of Virtue by the other members of the committee and was beheaded the next day which allowed the Dierectory and Napoleon to take over.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

The Directory became the new government and had many troubles with the financial problems of France. This led to the rise of Napolean Bonaparte.

Malthus: Principle of Population

1798

Malthus' Principle of Population explained that the human population will eventually outstrip the food supply. This book is important because it's point leads into the "iron law of wages" by Ricardo.

Napoleon-coup Brumaire

November 1799

Napoleon Bonaparte with his military overthrew the Directory and took over beginning the start of his rule. This event allowed France to gain more power but still continued with the wars.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages

1817

Ricardo's Iron Laws of Wages said that as wages rose people would have more kids which puts more people into the labor force which then decreases wages equaling less kids. This again raises wages and repeats the process over again.