AP Euorpean History First Semester Timeline

Jordan Gray Mr. Collins p.5

Main

Dante

1265 - 1321

-Was a near contemporary of Petrarch
-Wrote "Divine Comedy"
-Was important to history because he was a prime example of the Italian Renaissance

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

-"Father of Humanism"
-celebrated ancient Rome

The Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

-Under strong French influence
-Pope John XXII was the most powerful Avignon Pope-->tried to restore the papal independence
-There was national opposition to the Avignon Papacy

Giovanni Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

-Friend and student of Petrarch
-Wrote "Decameron"

Lollards

1330

-John Wycliffe
-Wycliffe accused of hersey of Donatism
-Donatism: Wycliffe said the Holy Roman Empires sacraments were fake
-Lollards assailed the Late Medeival Church
-Lollards based in England

Hussites

1330

-John Huss
-Assailed the Late Medeival Church
-Based in Bohemia
-Similar to the claims of the Lollards

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

-Started by English King Edward III asserting claim to the French throne
-Between France and England
-Inside turmoil in both countries
-Joan of Arc fights for Franch King Charles VII and he has her indirectly killed

The Black Death

1346 - 1348

-Fleas on rats brought the plague to Europe through the ports in Venice
-Scientific name is the Bubonic Plague
-Thought the Plague was from the house animals-->killed a lot of house animals
-Many myths about the Plague and its causes
-Pogoms of the Jews
-Flagellants process through city-->known for beating and hurting themselves

The Golden Bull

1356

-Created an administrative body for the Holy Roman Empire
-Made the Holy Roman Empire more like a monarchy than a religious organization

Jacquerie

1358

-The rebellions of the French peasants against the noble priviledged classes

The Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

-Was a time of transition from medieval to modern times
-Ended when Spanish soldiers looted Rome

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

-Pope Urban VI wishes to make reform to the Curia
-September 20, 1378-->Cardinals separate and elect their own pope
-(1414-1417)Council of Constance-->Elect Martin V as new pope
-(1409-1410)Council of Pisa-->Alexander V elected as pope
-(1431-1449)Counsil of Basel-->Prague is given communion with Europe, Free preaching by ordained clergy, and punisment for clergy and laity alike
-Time of the Avignon Papacy and the Roman Papacy

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

-Killed many innocent people before people began to use the empirical method to see that these people were innocent and were being killed for no reason

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

-Council of Constance is when the papacy elected another pope
-Martin V was the new pope elected
-There were already three popes, but this new pope ahd been elected by the Avignon Papacy and the Roman papacy in order to not have chaos between the three popes

Early Exploration: Portugal and Spain

1415 - 1550

-Prince Henry "The Navigator" set the path for Christopher Columbus by trying to find a path from the coasts of Africa to Japan and China
-Columbus found South Amercia and the Bahamas, having no earlier knowledge that those places were not Asia

Northern Renaissance

1430 - 1540

-Famous for the religious look at painting: depicted scenes with God, angels, etc.
-Large mantel pieces above fireplaces: Ghent Altarpiece
-Jan van Eyck and Albrecht Durer were famous Renaissnce artists during the Northern RenaissanceHumaniism and Erasmus

The Printing Press

1450

-Came through the invention of a cheap way to make paper
-Invented in the German city of Mainz
-Johann Gutenburg

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

-Father of Christian Humanism

Ferdinand and Isabella

1479 - 1504

-Married in 1469
-Devout Catholics

Jesuits- Ignatius of Loyola- Society of Jesus

1491 - 1540

-Made by Ignatiius of Loyola after wounded in battle
-Church finally recognized Society of Jesus in 1540
-Ignatius of Loyla founded the Jesuits
-Jesuits are well educated about the Catholic Church

Columbus: Start of the Spanish Empire

1492 - 1550

-By exploring the new worldColumbus made way for religious and merchant conquest
-Converted by force or freedom many Native Americans

Columbian Exchange

1493

-Disease was brought to the Americas, many Native Americans died
-Trade food and luxuries such as corn, rice, radishes, peaches, etc.
-Gave Native Americans horses (very valuble)

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

-Italy's powerful families began to war with each other
-Ludovico invites the French to come to Italy
-France refuses to leave

Mannerism

1500 - 1571

-Was the art style of the Italian Renaissance
-Up until the Baroque style

Pope Julius II (Brown and Red)

1503 - 1513

-Sistene Chapel painted during the pontificate's rule
-Known as the "Warrior Pope"
-Fully secured the Papal States

Henry VIII reign from 1509-1547

1509 - 1547

-Henry VIII wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, but the Pope would not allow it
-Separated from the Catholic Churh to form the Church of England
-"Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived".

"The Prince"- Machivelli

1513

-Written as a satire on the way that rulers actually rule rather than the way that they should rule

Reformation

1517 - 1563

-Started with Martin Luther's posting of the ninety-five theses on the Castle Church
-Lutheranism is created
-Luther excommunicated in 1521 t the Diet of Worms
-Diet of Augsburg does not settle religious differences
Council of Trent in 1545- 1563
-Thirty Years' War between religions

Luther- 95 Theses

October 31, 1517

-Posted on the Castle Church
-Attack on Indulgences
-Wanted to debate certain policies in the Catholic Church

Luther- Diet of Worms

April 1521

-Just before a papal bull had been put out for the excommunication of Martin Luther
-At the Diet of Worms Luther was told to recant his offenses agaimst the Church and he wouldn't

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

-German peassants began to loook up to Luther and revolted against the nobility
-Luther turned against them and supported the nobility in crushing the peasant revolts
-By the time the revolts were suppressed, 70,000 to 100,000 peasants died

French Religious Wars

1525 - 1598

-Battles between the Huguenots and the Catholics
-Capture of Francis I by Emperor Charles V forces (Battle of Pavia)
-Ended with the Edict of Nantes

John Calvin- Geneva

1528 - 1536

-John Calvin converts to Protestantism in 1534
-Geneva revolts against the prince-bishop in the late 1520's
-Calvin swings the minds of the Genevans to adopt the Reformation
-Geneva at the time was Europe's only FREE city
-Calvin makes a second edition to "Institutes of Christian Religion"
-Geneva called a "Woman's Paradise"
-Genevan reformers want a new papacy

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

-Called the Silent because of his small group of confidants
-Assisted in the removal of Granvelle from office-Married Anne of Saxony in 1561

Copernicus: "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"

1543

-Copernicus through his book introduced the idea of a helio-centric system instead of a geo-centric system
-Sun centered vs. Earth centered

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563
  • Emperor Charles V forced Pope Paul III to call a council of the church in order to reassert Church doctrines -reaffirmed the old tradition of education for the clergy, good works in salvation, transubstantiation, purgatory, etc.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

-Compiled so much scientific (data) that his assistant wass able to use it to confirm the existence of a helio-centric universe
-Changed the thinking of theentire world when Tycho Brahe was able to take so many observations only with his eye and a telescope

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

-Also known as "Bloody Mary"
-Unpopular marriage with Philip II
-Militant Catholicism
-Henry VIII's first daughter

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

-Made the division of Christendom permanent
-"Cuius regio, eius reglio" (whoever ruled the land chooses the religion)

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

-Assisted by her advisor Sir William Cecil
-Daughter of Henry VIII's second wife Anne Boleyn
-1559--> an Act of Supremacy passed in Parliament repealing all anti-protestant legislation put in place by Mary I

Dutch Revolt Against Spain

1559 - 1564

-Ended with the removal of Cardinal Granvelle from office throught the help of William of Orange
-Granvelle had originally gone to the Netherlands to reassert spanish power over the Dutch

Thirty Nine Articles

1563

-The Thirty Nine Articles established Protestantism as the official religion of the Church of England

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

-Plays in Shakespeare's time (Elizabethan) were developed to form distinctive forms of tragedy, comedy, or morality

James I

1567 - 1624

-King of Scotland
-Elizabeth I's succssesor
-Mary Queen of Scots son
-1620-->First colony founded by England in Plymouth
-James I makes peace with Spain in 1604
-Dies in 1624 and the English go back to war with Spain

Rise of the Netherlands: Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

-Banking systems are still used in current times
-Decline stopped any hope of hsving another functional empire like the Dutch

Saint Bartholemew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

-Catherine de Medici's allows for the murder of 3,000 Huguenots to show the power of the Medici's and the Catholics over the Protestants

Baroque Art

1573 - 1708

-Famous for its play of light
-Very popular to exercise dramatics

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

-Declared the internal regional sovereignty of the Netherlands

Union of Utrecht

1579

-Formed by the Northern Provinces of the Netherlands in response to the Southern Provinces Counter-revolutionary actions throught the Union of Arras

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1598

-Was a sign of power to all surrounding Spain

Mary Stuart Executed

February 18, 1587

-Stopped all hopes of Catholics reconverting protestant England with out shedding blood

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

-Responsible for the Edict of Nantes
-Also known as Henry of Navarre before he rose to power

The Edict of Nantes (Brown and Red)

April 13, 1598

-Ended the wars between the Huguenots and the Cahtolics
-Established the religious freedoms the Henry IV had promised the French Huguenots (1591)

Cardinal Mazarin

1602 - 1661

-Tried to impose royal administration on France

Cervantes Writes "Don Quixote"

1603 - 1605

-Written as a Satire of the Spanish Government

Kelper: "The New Astronomy"

1609

-Used his predecessor's data to prove the heliocentric universe
-His predecessor was against the thought of the heliocentric universe

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

-Active participant in the 30 Years' War

Henry IV Assassinated

may 1610

-By a Catholic fanatic
-Because Hanry gave the Huguenots religious freedom in France (Through the Edict of Nantes)

Thirty Years' War (Treaty of Westphalia) (red and brown)

1618 - 1648

-last war about religion
-Treaty of Westphalia ended the war
-Prussia and Austria rise to power after the war

Bacon: "Novum Organum"

1620

-Critisized the idea that all knowledge was known and only needed to be explained

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

-French mathematician and physical scientist
-Believed in Faith through reason
-thought that atheists and deists of the time had overestimated reason

Charles I

1625 - 1649

-Known for the star of the Long/Short Parliament and the English Civil War

Galileo Condemned

1633

-Put on trial to decide if he had disobeyed the mandate of 1616
-showed that the Church was trying to shut out the possibility of learning new science that they were not educated in

Descartes:"Discourse on Method"

1637

-Rejected thought of learning from others, but rather to learn from others and form your own opinions

Long and Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

-Short Parliament (April-May 1640) was dissolved because theking did not want to deal with a list of grievances from the English people
-Long Paliament (1640-1660) resulted in the English Civil War

Frederick William

1640 - 1688

-The Great Elector

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

-ABSOLUTE RULER

English Civil War: Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

-Oliver Cromwell ruled with by a Military dictatorship
-Republic only for a short amount of time

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

-Reign of Richelieu and Mazarin led to the revolts by the nobles

Thomas Hobbes: "Leviathan"

1651

-Gave the idea that humans were born greedy and had to enter into a social contract
-SOCIAL CONTRACT

Royal Society of London

1660

-Made open a path for men and sometimes women to discuss the thoughts of the Scientific Revolution in a

Charles II

1660 - 1685

-Was the restoration to the manarchy of the throne after the short (militant) republic of Oliver Cromwell

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

-Modernized Russia
-Tried to make Russia more like England

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

-Revoked under deep influence of Roman Catholicism

James II

1685 - 1688

-Known for the Glorious Revolution
-Wanted to help the Roman Catholics

English Civil War: Glorious Revolution

1687 - 1689

-Began with James II demanding the repeal of the Test Act
-Ended with James fleeing to France and William III and Mary II taking the English throne (1689)
-1688-->James II imprisoned Anglican Bishops when they refused to recognize the suspension of the laws against the Catholics

Isaac Newton: "Principa Mathematica"

1687

-Laws of Gravitation
-Laws of Physics

English Civil War: English Bill of Rights

1689

-Gave the English people rights under the king

Locke Treatises on Government 1st and 2nd

1690

-Predecessor of the idea of the Social Contract

The Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1792

-Breakthrough of many inventions helping the motivation in trade
-Textile Production
-Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Steam Engine, etc.

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

-Sweden and Russia
-Sweden blocked Russia from the Baltic Sea

Act of Settlement (GB)

1701

-English crown is allowed to go to to the Protestant House of Hanover if Queen Anne died without an heir

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

-Charles II (Last Habsburg emperor of Spain) died with out heirs
-Left inheritance to the French king's grandson

Decline of Netherlands

1702

-Economy began to decline and the Netherlands slowly began to become second in place as a major world power

William III

1702

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1794

-Promoted the idea of free trade

Emergence of Rococo

1715 - 1768

-Lavish
-Lighthearted decoration
-Play of light
-Pastel colors

Death of Louis XIV

1715

-Built Versailles establishing the idea that he was the absolute

Neoclassicalism

1715 - 1768

-Recalled ancient style of republican values

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

-Fake stocks lead to not enough money
-France left in debt

Dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

-First Prime Minister of Britain

Commercial Revolution

1730 - 1792

-Fashion created major income for the market and people did not any longer have to make their own clothes, they could buy them

War of Jenkins's Ear

1739

-Opened "oppertunity" for the French and the English to fight wars with each other until 1815

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

-Ruler by the Pragmatic Sanction

Charles VI- Pragmatic Sanction

1740

-No heirs, daughter to succeed him just to keep a Hapsburg on the throne

Frederick II (The Great)

1740 - 1786

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

-When the Austrian Queen had to fight for her land because the Spanish thought that they could take the land

Diplomatic Revolution

1755 - 1756

-Austria with Britain v. France and Prussia
-Then switch: Austria with France v. Prussia and Britain

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

-Frederick the Great invades Saxony
-Treaty of Paris ends it (1763)
-Big worldwide conflict

Voltaire- Candide

1759

-Satirical about war, religion, and the human condition

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

-Tries to insert many reforms at one time
-Considered an Enlightened ruler

Rousseau:"Emilie" and "Social Contract"

1762

-Emilie established the two social circles between men and women
-Social Contract established the beliefs of Rosseau in a published work (similar to Mantesquieu)

American Revolution

1764 - 1788

-Americans did not want to pay the unfair taxing of the British
-Led to other nations demanding independence from their mother countries

Spinning Jenny

1765

-Produced thread at a faster pace

Joseph II

1765 - 1780

-Was considered an enlightened ruler but tried to implement taxes and economic reforms that the nobles of Austria rebelled against

Water Frame

1769

-made in order to to separate the good and bad in cotton faster than by hand

Steam Engine

1769

-Made originally (fully functional) by Thomas Newcomen
-James Watt patented a new and improved version of the Newcomen machine (along with partner Matthew Boulton)

Decline of Gothic Art

1776 - 1886

-Big paintings and structures that were focused off of Romanticism and nature

Smith: "Wealth of Nations"

1776

-Introduced the idea of Capitalism

Agricultural Revolution

1780 - 1800

-New crops from the Columbian Exchange
-Jethro Tull invents the ironplow
-Charles "Turnip" Townsend-->learned to cultivate the sandy soil with various fertilizers
-New methods of growing crops-->not grown in an open field, but in an enclosure
-Methods of letting lands lie fallow and letting soil be fertile

The Great Fear

1789

-Rumors spread throughout the French countryside, causing panic
-Created many disturbances throughout France including the refusal to pay feudal dues and the destruction of legal documents

Estates General Called

1789

-Deadlock
-Forced to call the Estates because the bank refused to grant the king short-term credit (1788)
-King agreed to meet with the Estates General through his advisor

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

-Taken by the Third Estate when they separated from the Estates General and turned into the National Assembly
-Locked out of their normal meeting place by King Louis XVI
-Swore that they would meet until the people of France had a constitution

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

-Bastille known as a symbol of fear and the old regime
-People of Paris storm the Bastille and free some prisoners, others are killed
-All of the guards and the commander of the Bastille are killed after a lengthy battle
-Head of the commander is chopped off and paraded around on a stake

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27, 1789

-The first constitution of France
-Written by the National Constituent Assembly (name changed)
-Women were not considered to be citizens
-Only men, and only men that paid a certain amount of money could vote

March of the Fishwives

October 6, 1789

-The women of Paris (armed) marched to Versailles to confront the King Louis XVI
-Demanded that the food prices come down
-Forced the royal family to go back to Paris because the people thought that the King was too isolated in Versailles

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

-Forced all of the Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church in France to pledge their allegiance to the Revolution
-Made all the clergy a branch of the state
-confiscated all Church lands

Legislative Assembly

1791

-Was the National Constituent Assembly as an entire body
-Met under the constitution of 1791

War with Austria

1791 - 1794

-Austria and other European countries promised to intervene in France's politics if the stability was needed

Convention Meets- Monarch Abolished

1791 - 1792

Reign of Terror

1792 - July 27, 1794

-Started after the King was executed
-Robespierre declared that all rights to a significant trial with much evidence were suspended
-Explained by saying that everyone could be a suspect
-Many people fall victim to the gietene (public executions--> sometimes run 24 hours a day)

Wollstonecraft- "Vindication of the Rights of Woman

1792

-Written as a woman's backlash to the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
-Was angry at men and at Rousseau because he thought that men and women occupied different spheres of influence

Tuileries Stormed- King captive

August 10, 1792

Louis XVI Executed

January 21, 1793

-Executed as a sign that the Monarchy was no longer in power
-Executed by gietine-->new form of execution (thought to be the most humane way)
-stripped of all his dignity and power
-Regicide

Levee en Masse

August 23, 1793

-Every able body man was conscripted into the French army
-France needed the men because they were in a war with five countries at the same time

Cult of Reason

November 10, 1793

-Adopted instead of worshipping God

Execution of Danton

April 6, 1794

-Thought to be a counter-revolutionary against the Committee of Public Safety

Cult of the Supreme Being

May 1794

-Robespierre thought that the worship of reason instead of God was too abstract

Fall of Robespierre

July 27, 1794

-Beheaded so that the others of the National Assembly could be in power just as he was

The Directory

1795 - 1799

-Replaced the monarchy after the Constitution of Year III

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory Established

August 22, 1795

-No more monarchy

Malthus: "Principle on Population

1798

-Said that there was no hope for the working class to become any richer

Napoleon- Coup Brumaire

November 9, 1799

-Overthrows the Directory for power

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages

1817

-If parents had a higher wage they would not have any more children and if wages are lower than the parents will give birth to more children