Gillinov Timeline

French and Indian War

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

1756 - 1763

The British were expanding, for farming purposes, as the French were simutaneously expanding to trade and to live among the Indians. The British and French collided in Ohio, and a small part of Pennsylvania.

Fighting Styles

1756

The French and Indian used the Guerrilla fighting style, where they used hit and run tactics. The British fought traditionally, in the "respectful" way. The British General Amherst used the idea of biological warfare, and gave the Indians diseased blankets.

Battle at Fort Duquesne

1758

This was the most famous battle of the French and Indian war. The French fought with most of the Indians against the British with some of the Indians. Young George Washington fought in this battle. The British won this battle, overtook the French Fort, and named it Pittsburgh after the Prime Minister, William Pitt.

The British Won

1763

The British won the war easily, and then the Treaty of Paris was written. Britain received all of North America east of the Mississippi from France. There was much debt, especially for the British.

Proclamation of 1763

1763

This document stated that the British could not go past the Appalachian Mountains, because King George could not afford another war with the Indians.

American Revolution

American Revolution

1776 - 1782

The war started because the Americans were mad about all of Britain's rules and taxing, and they wanted independence.

Battle at Saratoga

1777

The patriots blocked the British by burning bridges and cutting trees. Many American militias gathered near Saratoga, New York, under General Gates. The militias attacked and beat the British, who surrendered under General Burgoyne on October 17. This battle made France (and Spain) realize that the Patriots did have a chance in the war, so both countries sent reinforcements.

Battle at Yorktown

1781

The British went out on a peninsula at Yorktown, and patriots surrounded Yorktown on land while the French warships blocked the water exit. The Patriots battered the British, and on October 19th the British forces under General Cornwallis surrendered.

Patriots Won

1782

In March 1782, the British Parliament voted to give up on America, and signed a treaty called the Treaty of Paris. This gave America the territories east of the Mississippi, and their independence.

XYZ Affair

Aftermath of American Revolution: French Revolution

1789 - 1815

King Louis was going broke because of all the money spent on the American Revolution. Ideas of liberty spread to France, so they decided they did not want a king. The French Revolution then breaks out.

Royal French Family Executed

1791

King Louis and his family attempted to escape to Germany, but they were discovered at the border and executed at the guillotine. The French rebels believed that if they killed the royal family, they could never return to a monarchy.

Is America there to help?

1792

By 1792, France was at war with all of Europe and wanted America's help. The rest of Europe did not want France's Revolution to spread. America was fearful of getting involved because they were afraid of losing and becoming part of Britain again. The Anti-Federalists (Jefferson) wanted to help, while the Federalists (Washington and Adams) did not want to help.

Negotiating with X,Y, and Z

1792

France was attacking American ships and stealing goods to attempt to force America to help. Then, Adams sent three ambassadors to negotiated with France. The agents were called Agent X, Agent Y, and Agent Z. France demanded a bribe of 25,000 dollars before negotiations.

This Story Made its Way to America...As the XYZ Affair

1793

This made Americans angry.

Adams' Reaction

1798

Adams felt the need to prepare for war. He passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien part of this limited foreigners from coming to America, and the Sedition part made it so people who criticized the government would be punished. He did this to unite the country, although some believed this was a violation of the 1st Amendment.

Jefferson's Reaction

1799

Vice President Jefferson anonymously criticized Adams by writing the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.

Matthew Lyon

1800

Matthew Lyon, who was in jail for criticizing the government, was reelected which showed how the people thought.

No War

1800

Although America prepared for war, there actually was no war.

1800-1812

Louisiana Purchase

1800

When the slaves in Haiti rebelled, the French no longer needed their export city in Louisiana so they sold it to the Americans. The Louisiana Purchase made by Jefferson angered the Federalists because they believed it would make the Federalists the minority. It also raised questions as to whether the new territory would be free or have slaves, and Jefferson did not directly interperet the constitution and made it free.

Orders in Council

1801

This required Americans to decide if they would rather be liable to seizure by Britain or France. They had to stop in Britain to be checked for weapons, but if they did then the French would seize them and if they did not the British would seize them.

Embargo Act

1807

The Americans stopped all trade with Britain and France in attempt to gain neutral trading rights, but this failed because it put Americans out of work and did not harm Britain or France.

War of 1812

War of 1812

1812 - 1814

The war was started because:
1. The British were taking over American ships and impressing sailors because they wanted us to stop trading with the French, with whom they were at war with
2. When we were fighting the Native Americans, we found evidence that their weapons were of Canadian origins, which meant that the British were helping the Native Americans
3. The war hawks wanted to acquire Canada

Battle of Lake Erie

01/04/1812

The Americans won this battle, which gave them control of Lake Erie for the whole war.

Battle of the Thames

1813

This battle was the only one fought in Canada, where the Americans were attempting to acquire Canada. This battle resulted in the death of Tecumseh, which broke apart the unified Indian tribes and made them more vulnerable.

Battle at Washington D.C.

1814

The British set fire to D.C. and burned down many important buildings like the White House, the Capital Building, and more. This was America's low point in the war.

Battle of Fort McHenry

01/08/1814

The British attacked Baltimore and fired at Fort McHenry. This was the most important battle because if the British had won they would have taken control of the entire east coast. The Americans won.

Treaty of Gagnt

01/10/1814

The British and French stopped their war, so there was no reason for the British to keep fighting with America over their trading with the French, so this treaty ended the war.

Battle if New Orleans

1815

This battle took place three weeks after the treaty was signed because there was a lack of communication. Andrew Jackson put the British in a trap, which earned him presidency.