History of life

Main

Start of earth

4600000000 bc

4.6 bya earth starts

Oldest known life

3800000000 bc - 3700000000 bc

3.7-3.8 bya carbon isotopes found in greenland- biomarkers

Eukaryotes arise

2200000000 bc

2.2 bya eukaryotes arise

oldest animal life

800000000 bc - 700000000 bc

700-800 mya oldest animals- may have been older but didn't leave fossils

Metazoans first appear

800000000 bc - 600000000 bc

600-800 mya first metazoans appear

snow ball earth

650000000 bc

650 mya earth was frozen and possible cause of cambrian explosion.

Ediacrans

570000000 bc - 525000000 bc

from 570 mya (precambrian) until cambrian era. they are fossils of exixsting phyla cnidarians. enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms

Trace fossils

543000000 bc

543 mya trace fossils show at start of cambrian and indicators of activity. Tracks and burrows.

small shelly

535000000 bc

small shelly organism arise

Trilobites

520000000 bc - 260000000 bc

trilobites 520 mya easily fossilized and extremely successful and diverse early animal. died in the devonian and permian extinction

ordovician extinction

450000000 bc

450 mya first big mass extinction- global cooling- first forests too up all the CO2 and caused global cooling

First invertebrates on land

435000000 bc

after first vascular plants on land we have first invertebrates on land in silurian

first common vascular plant

430000000 bc

silurian is first common vascular plants.

development of jaw

408000000 bc

fish develop jaw

first forests

400000000 bc

400 mya devonian. first forests

First vertebrates on land

390000000 bc

first vertebrates go to land in the devonian - co evolution with first forests.

devonian extinction

375000000 bc

375 mya extinction pulses green house gasses was a prolonged time

amphibians become popular

360000000 bc - 280000000 bc

carboniferous

permian extinction

251000000 bc

251 mya largest extinction the great dying. rapid warming. possible methane explosion.

Therapsids

250000000 bc - 230000000 bc

250 mya therapsids take over. mammal ancestors. were replaced by diapsids.

Dinosaurs

220000000 bc - 65000000 bc

220 -65 mya archasaur is first bipedal animal and gave rise to dinos

triassic extinction

205000000 bc

205 mya global warming

archeopteryx

145000000 bc

145 mya first known bird

first angiosperm

120000000 bc

first angiosperm that cause a severe radiation in animals and plants. soon 90% of plants were flowering

KT extinction

65000000 bc

impact extinction dinos go extinct.

Australopithecus afarensis

4000000 bc - 2750000 bc

4-2.75 mya1.2 m tall, bipedal, strong sexual dimorphism, ape-like features, massive brow ridges, low forehead, forward jutting jaw

Brain capacity - 380-450 cc

10-20% larger than modern chimps -

30-35% of modern hominids

Lucy -

bipedalism

4000000 bc

Australopithecus developed bipedalism as they left forests for grassland

Australopithecus africanus

3000000 bc - 1600000 bc

3-1.6 mya Minor differences from afarensis

1.4 m tall, slightly flatter face

Brain capacity - 400-600 cc

Homo habilis

2400000 bc - 1500000 bc

First use of stone tools
Oldowan tools

Chopper/ Pebble tools

Homo genus develops

2400000 bc

homo genus arrives
Larger skull
Similar thigh and pelvis bones

substantial brain expansion

2000000 bc

2 mya brains significantly enlarged in hominoids

homo erectus

1800000 bc - 400000 bc

larger cranium
More complex stone tools
Acheulian tools
Handaxes
fire

Homo Sapien

300000 bc - 0 bc

Homo sapiens sapiens and
homo sapiens neaderthalenis

Homo sapien Sapien

200000 bc - 0 bc

larger cranium
prominent forehead
distinctive chin
tools
cave paintings

Homo neanderthalensis

150000 bc - 32000 bc

lower forehead; prominent, heavy brow ridges; weak chin.

Body tends to be more massive and more heavily muscled with shorter limbs.

Lived in caves in Europe
Made highly specialized tools of stone and bone
Buried their dead in ritual burials

EON

Hadean

4600000000 bc - 3800000000 bc

first eon 4.6-4 bya

Archean

3800000000 bc - 2500000000 bc

3.8 bya to 2.5 bya

proterozoic

2500000000 bc - 544000000 bc

eon - 2.4 bya - 544 mya

Phanerozoic

544000000 bc - 0 bc

544 mya to present eon

ERA

peleozoic

544000000 bc - 248000000 bc

544 to 248 mya era

mesozoic

248000000 bc - 65000000 bc

era 248-65 mya

Cenozoic

65000000 bc - 0

65 my to present era

period

precambrian

4600000000 bc - 544000000 bc

beginning of earth to cambrian
4.6 bya to 544 mya

cambrian

544000000 bc - 505000000 bc

544-505 mya

ordovician

505000000 bc - 440000000 bc

505-440 mya

silurian

440000000 bc - 410000000 bc

440 - 410 mya

devonian

410000000 bc - 360000000 bc

410 to 360 mya

carboniferous

360000000 bc - 286000000 bc

360 to 286 mya

permian

268000000 bc - 248000000 bc

268 - 248 mya

triassic

248000000 bc - 213000000 bc

248 to 213 mya period

jurassic

213000000 bc - 145000000 bc

213 mya to 145 mya period

Cretaceous

145000000 bc - 65000000 bc

145 mya to 65 mya

tertiary

65000000 bc - 1800000 bc

65 mya to 1.8 mya period

quarternary

1800000 bc - 0 bc

1.8 mya to present