a moral system in which knights were not only expected to show the strength and skills to face combat, but were also expected to show a chivalrous side. Qualities idealized by knighthood, such as bravery, courtesy, honor, and courtesy towards women.
~Knights Templar- Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and Christians were treated so badly that throughout Christendom people were stirred to fight in crusades and the Templar Knights were formed to ensure the safety of the pilgrims who flocked towards Jerusalem. (1065)
~Order of St. Lazarus- an order of chivalry originally founded at a leper hospital, the crusaders of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was established to treat leprosy, its knights originally being lepers themselves. (1098)
~Hospitaller- Knights of the Order of Saint John who grew out of a brotherhood for the care of sick pilgrims in a hospital at Jerusalem during the First Crusade. (1100)
~Teutonic- a military order of German knights formed for service in the Holy Land, but who later crusaded in then-pagan Prussia and Lithuania. (1191)
established by William the Conqueror and the Normans following the defeat of the English Anglo Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. The system and structure of feudalism had been well established in Europe for some time and the Normans imposed feudalism in England.
(Oct 14) the Norman conquest of England between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under King Harold II. The battle marked the last successful foreign invasion of the British Isles. The Battle of Hastings was seen as the point when William gained control of England. It had also established the advantage of the combined arms attack over an army mostly made up of infantry. This demonstrated the effectiveness of archers, cavalry and infantry working cooperatively together.
a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem.
Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral. This was because Henry was furious that Becket had excommunicated the Archbishop of York and other leading churchmen who had supported Henry. Becket had refused to pardon the men he had excommunicated, and that’s when he was hacked to death with swords.
series of Inquisitions from around (including the Episcopal Inquisition and the Papal Inquisition). These inquisitions were a response to large popular movements throughout Europe considered heretical to Christianity.
set down rights which became part of English law and which are now the foundation of the constitution of all countries that speak English. It did not grant any new rights, but it did protect existing rights in writing. These rights included the basic right of anyone convicted of a crime to a jury trial; protection of private property; reasonable limits on taxes and a degree of guaranteed religious freedom.
a series of conflicts that waged between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France for control of the French throne. It was the result of a dynastic disagreement dating back to William the Conqueror who became King of England in 1066, while remaining Duke of Normandy.
one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe. The Bubonic Plague is thought to have started in China or central Asia, and eventually spread west. It is probable that the plague was carried by fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, the Black Plague killed 30–60% of Europe's population.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader of the 15th century, who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defense of Britain against Saxon invaders in the early 6th century.
nicknamed "The Maid of Orleans", led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War.