The rebirth in thinking and art, reverting thinkers to the ideas of Humanism, Classicism, secular ideas and Scholasticism.
Hundred Years War
May 1337 - October 1453
The result of Edward III's assertion to the French Throne of Phillip VI Valois. With Joan of Arc, the French forced the English back. The English invented the Longbow
The Black Death
1347 - 1350
The Black Death was due to poor harvests, exploding population, and poor sanitation. An infection from China, the Black Death killed 30-60% of Europe's population. The result was an increase in artisans, peasants revolts, and declining farms.
1427 - 1580
The expansion or "rebirth" of art in Northern Europe. Rather than criticizing the church like the Italian Renaissance did, the Northern Renaissance attempted to reconcile the relationship between church and world.
1500 - 1600
The capturing and persecution of "witches" that supposedly cast spells, curses, and rivaled the "magic" of God.
1500 - 1700
The Revolution in consumer goods by mercantilist trading. This was succeeded by the Industrial revolution.
The Columbian Exchange
1500 - 1600
Disease, plants, animals, and crops were exchanged from South America to Europe. Diseases from the europeans killed many natives, while crops, helped increase the european population.
1517 - 1563
The Reformation was the drastic call for reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism arose from this, as well as shattering the political unity of Europe.
1520 - 1580
A period of art in European history that used restrained naturalism, intellectual sophistication, and artificial qualities.
1550 - 1850
At a high social cost, landlords replaced the open field method with the closed field method and increased crop production drastically. People learned more about how to raise crops efficiently. Jethro tull, etc
Age of Mercantilism
1600 - 1800
The system of a mother country hosting a smaller colony for the sake of the Mother country. This included monopolizing goods, high tariffs, and a ban on trading with other countries.
Decline of Gothic Art
1600 - 1800
Gothic art was replaced with Neoclassicism in the 16th century with the Renaissance period.
Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)
1600 - 1700
Baroque art, popular among the Catholic Church, was an over-extravagant form of art and interior. Versailles is a perfect example.
The Thirty Year's War
1618 - 1648
The war caused by the conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The Holy Roman Empire, including Austria, Bavaria, and Spain, were on the Catholic Side. Sweden, Bohemia, Denmark-Norway, Transylvania, and Saxony were on the Protestant side.
Treaty of Westphalia
This ended the 30 years war. France, and Sweden gained territory. The rights stated in the Peace of Augsburg were extended to Calvinists, Lutherans, and Protestants. France was the main power of Europe.
Academies of Science
1650 - 1800
Royal Society of London, Paris Royal Academy of the Sciences, Berlin Academy of Sciences.Rather than scholasticism, people focused more on practical uses of science.
End of Witch Hunts
The Enlightenment along with other factors ended superstitions in witch hunts. People became sick of brutality and anarchy, and they also developed other securities against superstition. Ex: Medicine, science. etc
1700 - 1900
The Greek movement in art and architecture. Works of art contrast with frivolous Rococo styles and emphasize respect, honor, and responsibility.
1710 - 1750
The frivolous, lavish pastel colored art form associated with the Old Regime Aristocracy.
Treaty of Utretch
France made treaties with Britain, the Dutch, Prussia, Portugal, and Savoy ending the war of the Spanish Succession.
Seven Year's War
1754 - 1763
Also known as the French and Indian war. France, Spain, Sweden, and Russia were against Britain and Prussia. Frederick II made a preemptive strike against the other powers. William Pitt of England used the German wars to drain French Resources and then win America.
The Reversal of long standing alliances in the 7 years war. Britain and Austria versus France and Prussia then became Britain and Prussia versus France and Austria.
Treaty of Paris of 1763 (7 years War)
Britain received most of the America territories, while they returned part of India, and the Sugar islands to France.
1775 - 1783
The war in which the British Colonies broke free of England and established the United States of America. This showed Europe that a government without a king was possible.
John Wycliff and the Lollards
1328 - 1384
He was an English scholar who believed that the bible was the only source of doctrine. He translated the bible into the vernacular, rejected he papacy hierarchy, and rejected the Eucharist.
1509 - 1547
The English king known for his promiscuity and instating the Anglican Church in England. As a result of his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon, he instated the Act of Supremacy, declaring Henry the king of both the state and the Church.
1527 - 1600
A series of Reformations made by Henry VIII in order to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. He Made the Anglican Church in effect.
Act of Supremacy
The law passed by Henry VIII that said that the king of England was also the ruler of the Anglican Church.
Mary I of England
1553 - 1558
Known as Bloody Mary, Mary I was married to Phillip II of Spain and the worst fear for protestants. Hundreds of protestants were killed during her reign.
Elizabeth I of England's Reign
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth established a true monarchy after the Ruins of Mary I. She represented moderate religions, and passed the Thirty Nine articles.
The Thirty Nine Articles
Issued by Elizabeth I, the articles were a revision of Thomas Cranmer's original 42, and made Protestantism the official religion of England.
1564 - 1616
The most famous writer of all time, of Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Taming of the Shrew.
Execution of Mary I
After Conflict between Mary I and Elizabeth I, Elizabeth had Mary executed to ensure her spot on the throne.
James I Reign (England)
1603 - 1625
James I, the son of Mary Stuart Queen of the Scots, ruled England with a divided, scandalous court. He made the King James bible.
1603 - 1714
There were 6 Stuart monarchs that ruled both England and Scotland.
Bacon: Novum Organum
A philosophical work of Bacon explaining the use of inductive reasoning.
Charles I of England
1625 - 1649
The cash strapped king who called the Short and Long parliament in and lacked the strength to resist English civil war and Cromwell.
Long/ Short Parliament
1640 - 1660
When cash strapped Charles I called in parliament in 1640, he dissolved it immediately because they didn't give him funds. After the revolt in Scotland, he called them in again for the Long parliament.
English Civil War
1642 - 1646
After Charles I's declining rule, Parliament and Cromwell took over the government, making England a puritan republic.
The book promoting absolute monarchy. Humankind was inherently evil and gives up their privileges so they have protection in society.
1653 - 1658
Cromwell overthrew the monarch with the help of the monarchy and established a Puritan Republic. He was the Lord Protector, but was quickly replaced by William of Orange and his Wife Mary.
Charles II of England
1660 - 1685
The son of the executed Charles I. After Cromwell's reign, Charles II was happily invited back to the Monarchy. Upon his death, James II took over and then was disposed by William III of Orange.
Foundation of the Royal Society
The opening date of the Royal Society of London. An important date in the Scientific revolution.
Newton: Principia Mathematica
Newton published his works on gravitation and movement of celestial bodies.
1685 - 1688
The last Catholic English king. After Charles II died after the Glorious Revolution, James II took over and was quickly desposed by William III of Orange and Mary.
William of Orange's Glorious Revolution and Restoration of the Monarch
After James II, Mary II and her husband William of Orange took over the Throne and passed the English Bill of Rights.
Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1 and 2)
Locke's Book supporting natural rights, social contract, and the power of the sovereign people.
English Bill of Rights
After William of Orange and Mary took office, they signed the English Bill of rights, which guaranteed civil liberties of privileged classes, civil liberties, and the limiting of the government.
Act of Settlement
A act passed by Parliament to settle the succession to the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.
Death of William III of England
The death of the great ruler of first the Dutch and then the English and Scottish.
Robert Walpole Minister of England
1722 - 1742
A Whig statesman. He consolidated power, pursued peace abroad, reduced taxation and debt. He was the first Prime Minister of England.
War of Jenkin's Ear (Spain and England)
1739 - 1748
When Spanish commanders cut off the ear of Englsh smuggler and captain Jenkins. The English were suspected of violating the mercantilist laws.
Hargreaves invented the spining jenny in order to be able to spin 16 to 120 spools of thread all at the same time.
Richard Arkwright invented towater frame to produces pure cotton fabric rather than cotton with linen.
James Watt, a scottish engineer, invented the first steam engine, eventually able to improve transportation, textile making, and factory work.
Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations
The book suppporting laissez faire, self interest in economics, opposition to Mercantilism and free trade.
Wollstonecraft: The Vindication of the Rights of Women
A book supporting educating women, equality, and a better view in society. She was an early feminist.
Malthus: Principle of Population
Malthus said that human suffering was inevitable, and that there would never be enough food to support society.
Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages
He supported Laissez Faire, low controlled wages, and worked with Adam Smith.
An uprising of peasants against the French Nobility.
The French Wars of Religion
1562 - 1598
The French War between Huguenots and Catholics. Catherine Medici, alarmed by the increasing aggressiveness of HUguenots in France killed many protestants on St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre. The Henrys, Henry III and Henry Navarre made peace between the Protestants and Catholics.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
As the power of the Huguenots grew, Catherine de Medici decided it was time to exterminate them all. Several thousand peasants died.
Henry IV/ Navarre of France
1589 - 1610
Henry Navarre teamed up with Henry III in order to protect France from catholic radicals. After Henry III died, Henry Navarre took over as Henry IV and made amends with the catholic church. "Paris is worth a mass."
Edict of Nantes
The law that granted French protestants civil liberties. It ended the French religious wars.
Louis XIII of France
1610 - 1643
The French king with Adviser Richelieu. Together they made France a leading power of Europe. He defeated the Spanish multiple times.
Assassination of Henry IV Navarre
A catholic Fanatic killed Henry in 1610 after his passing of the Edict of Nantes.
1623 - 1662
Pascal tried to reconcile the relationship between Christianity and reason. He was a Jansenist and made a famous wager with skeptics.
Mazarin as French Chief Minister
1642 - 1661
Under Louis VIX, he was involved with the Peace of Westphalia, the League of the Rhine, and the Peace of the Pyrenees.
Louis XVI of France (Sun king)
1643 - 1715
The king who built Versailles and was an advocator of the Divine Right of Kings. Le'etat c'est moi. I am the State. His Adviser was Mazarin. From 1661 to 1715 he had a personal reign without a Chief Minister.
1648 - 1653
A series of two revolts during the reign of Louis XIV and Mazarin against Mazarin by the French Parlement. They rejected Mazarin's new plan for the budget.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
After years of persecution under Louis XIII and Louis XIV, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in France. This got rid of religious freedoms and rights under the Edict of Nantes. Many Huguenots fled France.
Death of Louis XIV
The Sun King's death and the succession of Louis XV.
John Law, a Scottish adventurer and banker, issued 625000 stock shares as money and did not have the gold and silver to cash them out. The Mississippi Bubble burst and left France with inflation.
Voltaire's famous satire of European society with his heroic character Candide. He promoted religious tolerance, deism, and reality versus blind optimism.
A book written to encourage the teaching of children based on their interests rather than curriculum. Rousseau also supported the social contract.
Declaration of Pillnitz/ War with Austria
Leopold II of Austria, declared war with the French Revolution and threatened to invade if Leopold's sister, Marie Antoinette, was hurt.
The rural countryside was swept into a paranoia that troops would be sent into the country. Peasants rebelled, burned legal documents, and reclaimed their land.
Storming of the Bastille
When Louis XVI dismissed finance minister Necker, people gathered around the Bastille to get weapons. The Bastille Fired into the crowd, and the crowd took it over. The fall of the Bastille represented the fall of the old Regime tyranny.
Estates General Called
Massive debt, unfair taxation, and food shortages forced Louis XVI to call the Estates general.
Tennis Court Oath
After the king locked out the Third Estate, they met up in a tennis court and swore that they would meet until they made a constitution. They became the National Assembly.
1789 - 1799
The period of radical ideas taking place in France replacing the old Regime with a republic.
Rights of Man and Citizen
The declaration from the National Constituent Assembly stating that all men were free and equal. However, women were further separated in their spheres. Taxation was fair, and jobs were given by merit.
Renunciation of Noble Privileges
August 4, 1789
With the disorder of the Great fear, nobles gave up their privileges in exchange for peace. Now every citizen was equal.
The Parisan Women's March to Versailles
october 6, 1789
With the shortage of bread, female fish mongers marched to Versailles and forced the King to move back to Paris.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The National Constituent Assembly issued the Constitution after confiscating church lands. It made the Catholic Church a branch of the government and required popes to swear loyalty to the government.
Legislative Assembly Meets
The new gov't's legislative members meet, mostly young, inexperienced radicals.
French Monarch Abolished
The Legislative Assembly voted to abolish the monarchy and establish the First Republic.
Execution of Louis XVI
The Convention found Louis XVI guilty of treason against the French people and executed him via guillotine.
Tuileries Stormed: King Captive
Revolutionaries and san-culottes stormed the palace and captured the King and put him on trial.
Execution of Danton
Soon, the Revolution turned against themselves. Danton was accused of "being too soft" and was executed. Robespierre took leadership.
Reign of Terror
1793 - 1794
The radical turn in the Revolution when the Mountain executed 20,000 people in Paris by Guillotine. Revolutionary Tribunals executed people without trials due to growing paranoia and radicalism.
Levee en Masse
The Convention demanded that the entire male population conscript into the military.
The Fall of Robespierre
Robespierre turned on his own party and accused them without any evidence. The Convention turned on him and executed him in 1794
Cult of the Supreme Being
Robespierre's imposition of Deism on the new republic. This cut off the French people from their Catholic Roots. This ultimately failed.
Cult of Reason
Robespierre's form of Deism imposed on the new Republic. The religion Failed.
Directory is Established: The Constitution of Year III
During the Thermidorian reaction, moderate Girondists were allowed back into the Convention. They established a new gov't, the directory, and made the Constitution of Year III, helping the middle class the most.
1795 - 1799
The new moderate government of the French after the Revolution. This was weak and was easily overthrown by Napoleon.
Napoleon- Coup Brumaire
Napoleon's weakening of the Directory so he could establish the Consulate and himself as the First Consul.
Holy Roman Empire
Avignon Papacy/ Babylonian Captivity
1309 - 1376
The period in which the Pope resided in Avignon, France, which caused the Great Schism.
The Golden Bull
Declared by Luxembourg and Emperor Charles VI, the golden bull fixed the Holy roman Empire's government by adding voting policies, and elections.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
The result of the French electing Clement VII and the Italians(Romans) electing Urban VI to be the pope. Spain and France supported Clement, and England, the HRE, Portugal, and Italy supported Urban.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
The Council ended the Great Schism and replaced both popes with Martin V. The council also declared that a group of bishops had more power over one church individual.
Pope Julius II- The Warrior Pope's Reign
1503 - 1513
Julius III's reign was categorized by ambitions projects, patronage of the arts, and an active foreign policy.
Luther's Diet of the Worms
The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V ordered Luther to come to the Diet of the Worms and recant what he said in the 95 theses. Luther refused and fled.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Pope Paul III called a group of bishops, archbishops, and priests to the council to strengthen the church and get rid of church abuses. They reaffirmed the Eucharist and 7 sacraments, abolished absenteeism, and added more power to the Pope.
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V emperor of the HRE, ended some conflict by passing the peace to allow princes to determine the religion of their own lands. Note: Cuius Regio eius religio. The ruler of the land determines the religion of the land.
1265 - 1321
He wrote the Divine Comedy and was a humanist in the Italian Renaissance.
1304 - 1374
The "father of humanism." Promoted Classicism, secular ideas.
1315 - 1375
An intuitive Renaissance writer that wrote the Decameron, a witty tale of 10 people fleeing the Black Death.
Italian Political Decline
1494 - 1527
French invasions and the unraveling of the Treaty of Lodi resulted in the Declined. Ludovico il Moro invited French king Charles VIII into Italy and conquered it.
Machiavelli's The Prince
Machiavelli, a brilliant evil man, released his book, The Prince, as a guide (or perhaps a satire) on how to rule an absolute government.
Condemnation of Galileo
Galileo was condemned by the Catholic church by promoting the Heliocentric theories in his book. He was in house arrest until his death.
Charles VI of Austria and the Pragmatic Sanction
Passed by HRE Charles VI, it ensured that the possessions of the Hapsburgs could be inherited by a daughter.
Maria Theresa Reign in Austria
1740 - 1765
The Mother of Joesph I and an enlightened despot. She had to fight for her spot as Austrian ruler even after the establishment of the Pragmatic Sanction. She implemented educational reforms, tax efficiency, abolished torture, and loosened serf rule.
War of the Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
When Charles VI died, Frederick II of Prussian invaded Austria to defeat Maria Theresa. Prussia and France teamed up against Austria, while Austria sought help from Britain. Maria, by making friends with the nobility, giving up monarchical power, and ceding some Austrian territory, was able to save Austria.
Joseph II's Reign of Austria
1764 - 1790
An Enlightened Despot of Austria and son of Maria Theresa, Joesph II was an austere man who implemented many reforms for Austria, later to be reversed by his brother. He supported promotion by merit, uniformity in language and revenues, abolishment of cruel punishments, freedom of the press, freedom of serfs, and a proportionate tax on the land.
1466 - 1536
The "Prince of the Northern Humanists" He was a member of the Brethren of the Common life. He criticized greed, superstition, and ignorance.
Rise of the Netherlands
1572 - 1610
Due to strong leadership of William III of Orange the stadtholder, urban prosperity of tulips and herring, and a strong overseas empire, the Netherlands rose to the top economically.
Pacification of Ghent
The treaty between the Hapsburg Netherlands Provinces to drive Spain out of the country and promoting peace between them.
Decline of the Netherlands
1650 - 1750
The death of William of Orange, conflict in the government, and fierce colonial competition from the naval England over the seas resulted in a decline of the Netherlands.
Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain
Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon Married to combine their domains and to rule Spain effectively, in which they did.
Early Exploration Portugal And Spain
1492 - 1600
Searching for gold, spices, and later, slaves, the Portuguese, Spanish, and others established trade routes to the coasts of Africa, India, and the Americas. They brought Diseases to the new world and crops back to Europe.
Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire
The beginning of the Spanish Colonial empire as Columbus reached the Americas in 1492.
Jesuits/ Society of Jesus/ Ignatius Of Loyola
1534 - 1600
The Jesuits are a conservative Catholic religious group formed by Ignatius of Loyola. They were against the Protestant religion and preached obedience to authority.
Dutch Revolt against Spain
The Dutch revolted against Phillip II of Spain after his attempts to spread Catholics to the Netherlands.
The so-called "invincible army." Their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth I failed.
Cervantes- Don Quixote
Cervantes invents a witty story about a man named Don who is obsessed with the chivalry found in books. He eventually dies a tragic death.
War of the Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
Charles II of Spain was dying and had no successors to the Spanish throne. Louis XIV of France, Maria Theresa of Austria, Leopold I of the HRE, and Joesph Ferdinand of Bavaria.
Gutenburg and the Printing Press
Johannes Gutenburg invented the printing press with a new movable type and was able to print out a bible quicker than ever before. Distributed pamphlets influenced ideas of the Reformation.
Luther's 95 Theses
October 31, 1517
The date when Martin Luther posted his list of 95 abuses by the catholic church the the door of a castle church in Wittenburg. He called for pope morality, and the condemnation of indulgences.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Poverty stricken, oppressed peasants revolted in the countryside of Germany, hoping for Luther to help them. But Luther condemned the violence and told landowners to shut them down.
Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus, looking to make a calender for the Catholic Church, discovered that the solar system was heliocentric rather than geocentric.
Kepler: The New Astronomy
Kepler, the assistant to Brahe, Published the New Astronomy to prove a heliocentric universe.
1600 - 1800
Prussia's great army and reputation for bloodshed in battle.
Frederick Wilhelm/William of Prussia
1688 - 1740
First the elector of Brandenburg then the king of Prussia. He was known as the "soldier King." He is the father of Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II The Great of Prussia
1740 - 1786
The Enlightened Despot of Prussia. He was the "first servant of the state." He established religious toleration, individual protections, freedom of the press, education and agricultural reforms and built miles of roads.
Hussites and John Hus
1369 - 1415
A Bohemian teacher at the University of Prague that embraced Wycliff's Ideas. He was a main inspiration to the Protestant Reformers. He believed in higher morality for priests, Bibles in the vernacular, and against indulgences.
John Calvin and Geneva
John Calvin became the Chief Reformer in Geneva. He supported only 2 sacraments, simplicity, and the idea of the "elect." God had chosen certain people to be the "elect" and certain people to hell. Geneva became a strict theocracy.
1546 - 1601
A nobleman and astronomer most famous for his large compilation of accurate astronomical details. The mentor of Kepler.
Peter the Great of Russia
1682 - 1725
The Russian emperor who provided a "window to the west." He traveled widely and founded Petersburg, as well as trying to improve Russia by Westernizing it.
The Great Northern War- Russia and Sweden
1700 - 1721
Sweden versus Peter the Great. By the end of the war, Sweden had lost its supremacy as the leading power in the Baltic region and was replaced by Peter the Great's Russia. They fought over the throne of Poland
Catherine the Great of Russia
1729 - 1796
The Englightened despot of Russia. She made friends with nobles, acquired Polish territory, and westernized Russian as Peter the Great had done.