1st Semester AP Euro Timeline

Jessica Yan, Collins Period 5.

Main

Italian Renaissance

1304 - 1550

The rebirth in thinking and art, reverting thinkers to the ideas of Humanism, Classicism, secular ideas and Scholasticism.

Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

The result of Edward III's assertion to the French Throne of Phillip VI Valois. With Joan of Arc, the French forced the English back. The English invented the Longbow

The Black Death

1347 - 1350

The Black Death was due to poor harvests, exploding population, and poor sanitation. An infection from China, the Black Death killed 30-60% of Europe's population. The result was an increase in artisans, peasants revolts, and declining farms.

Northern Renaissance

1427 - 1580

The expansion or "rebirth" of art in Northern Europe. Rather than criticizing the church like the Italian Renaissance did, the Northern Renaissance attempted to reconcile the relationship between church and world.

The Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

Disease, plants, animals, and crops were exchanged from South America to Europe. Diseases from the europeans killed many natives, while crops, helped increase the european population.

Commericial Revolution

1500 - 1700

The Revolution in consumer goods by mercantilist trading. This was succeeded by the Industrial revolution.

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

The capturing and persecution of "witches" that supposedly cast spells, curses, and rivaled the "magic" of God.

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1563

The Reformation was the drastic call for reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism arose from this, as well as shattering the political unity of Europe.

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

A period of art in European history that used restrained naturalism, intellectual sophistication, and artificial qualities.

Agriculture Revolution

1550 - 1850

At a high social cost, landlords replaced the open field method with the closed field method and increased crop production drastically. People learned more about how to raise crops efficiently. Jethro tull, etc

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)

1600 - 1700

Baroque art, popular among the Catholic Church, was an over-extravagant form of art and interior. Versailles is a perfect example.

Decline of Gothic Art

1600 - 1800

Gothic art was replaced with Neoclassicism in the 16th century with the Renaissance period.

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

The system of a mother country hosting a smaller colony for the sake of the Mother country. This included monopolizing goods, high tariffs, and a ban on trading with other countries.

The Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

The war caused by the conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The Holy Roman Empire, including Austria, Bavaria, and Spain, were on the Catholic Side. Sweden, Bohemia, Denmark-Norway, Transylvania, and Saxony were on the Protestant side.

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

This ended the 30 years war. France, and Sweden gained territory. The rights stated in the Peace of Augsburg were extended to Calvinists, Lutherans, and Protestants. France was the main power of Europe.

Academies of Science

1650 - 1800

Royal Society of London, Paris Royal Academy of the Sciences, Berlin Academy of Sciences.Rather than scholasticism, people focused more on practical uses of science.

End of Witch Hunts

1680

The Enlightenment along with other factors ended superstitions in witch hunts. People became sick of brutality and anarchy, and they also developed other securities against superstition. Ex: Medicine, science. etc

Neoclassicism

1700 - 1900

The Greek movement in art and architecture. Works of art contrast with frivolous Rococo styles and emphasize respect, honor, and responsibility.

Rococo Art

1710 - 1750

The frivolous, lavish pastel colored art form associated with the Old Regime Aristocracy.

Treaty of Utretch

1713

France made treaties with Britain, the Dutch, Prussia, Portugal, and Savoy ending the war of the Spanish Succession.

Seven Year's War

1754 - 1763

Also known as the French and Indian war. France, Spain, Sweden, and Russia were against Britain and Prussia. Frederick II made a preemptive strike against the other powers. William Pitt of England used the German wars to drain French Resources and then win America.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

The Reversal of long standing alliances in the 7 years war. Britain and Austria versus France and Prussia then became Britain and Prussia versus France and Austria.

Treaty of Paris of 1763 (7 years War)

1763

Britain received most of the America territories, while they returned part of India, and the Sugar islands to France.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The war in which the British Colonies broke free of England and established the United States of America. This showed Europe that a government without a king was possible.

England

John Wycliff and the Lollards

1328 - 1384

He was an English scholar who believed that the bible was the only source of doctrine. He translated the bible into the vernacular, rejected he papacy hierarchy, and rejected the Eucharist.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

The English king known for his promiscuity and instating the Anglican Church in England. As a result of his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon, he instated the Act of Supremacy, declaring Henry the king of both the state and the Church.

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

A series of Reformations made by Henry VIII in order to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. He Made the Anglican Church in effect.

Act of Supremacy

1534

The law passed by Henry VIII that said that the king of England was also the ruler of the Anglican Church.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

Known as Bloody Mary, Mary I was married to Phillip II of Spain and the worst fear for protestants. Hundreds of protestants were killed during her reign.

Elizabeth I of England's Reign

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth established a true monarchy after the Ruins of Mary I. She represented moderate religions, and passed the Thirty Nine articles.

The Thirty Nine Articles

1563

Issued by Elizabeth I, the articles were a revision of Thomas Cranmer's original 42, and made Protestantism the official religion of England.

Shakespheare

1564 - 1616

The most famous writer of all time, of Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Taming of the Shrew.

Execution of Mary I

1587

After Conflict between Mary I and Elizabeth I, Elizabeth had Mary executed to ensure her spot on the throne.

Stuarts (England)

1603 - 1714

There were 6 Stuart monarchs that ruled both England and Scotland.

James I Reign (England)

1603 - 1625

James I, the son of Mary Stuart Queen of the Scots, ruled England with a divided, scandalous court. He made the King James bible.

Bacon: Novum Organum

1620

A philosophical work of Bacon explaining the use of inductive reasoning.

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

The cash strapped king who called the Short and Long parliament in and lacked the strength to resist English civil war and Cromwell.

Long/ Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

When cash strapped Charles I called in parliament in 1640, he dissolved it immediately because they didn't give him funds. After the revolt in Scotland, he called them in again for the Long parliament.

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

After Charles I's declining rule, Parliament and Cromwell took over the government, making England a puritan republic.

Hobbes Leviathan

1651

The book promoting absolute monarchy. Humankind was inherently evil and gives up their privileges so they have protection in society.

Cromwell's Reign

1653 - 1658

Cromwell overthrew the monarch with the help of the monarchy and established a Puritan Republic. He was the Lord Protector, but was quickly replaced by William of Orange and his Wife Mary.

Foundation of the Royal Society

1660

The opening date of the Royal Society of London. An important date in the Scientific revolution.

Charles II of England

1660 - 1685

The son of the executed Charles I. After Cromwell's reign, Charles II was happily invited back to the Monarchy. Upon his death, James II took over and then was disposed by William III of Orange.

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1676

Newton published his works on gravitation and movement of celestial bodies.

James II

1685 - 1688

The last Catholic English king. After Charles II died after the Glorious Revolution, James II took over and was quickly desposed by William III of Orange and Mary.

William of Orange's Glorious Revolution and Restoration of the Monarch

1688

After James II, Mary II and her husband William of Orange took over the Throne and passed the English Bill of Rights.

English Bill of Rights

1689

After William of Orange and Mary took office, they signed the English Bill of rights, which guaranteed civil liberties of privileged classes, civil liberties, and the limiting of the government.

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1 and 2)

1689

Locke's Book supporting natural rights, social contract, and the power of the sovereign people.

Act of Settlement

1701

A act passed by Parliament to settle the succession to the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.

Death of William III of England

1702

The death of the great ruler of first the Dutch and then the English and Scottish.

Robert Walpole Minister of England

1722 - 1742

A Whig statesman. He consolidated power, pursued peace abroad, reduced taxation and debt. He was the first Prime Minister of England.

War of Jenkin's Ear (Spain and England)

1739 - 1748

When Spanish commanders cut off the ear of Englsh smuggler and captain Jenkins. The English were suspected of violating the mercantilist laws.

Spinning Jenny

1765

Hargreaves invented the spining jenny in order to be able to spin 16 to 120 spools of thread all at the same time.

Steam Engine

1769

James Watt, a scottish engineer, invented the first steam engine, eventually able to improve transportation, textile making, and factory work.

Water Frame

1769

Richard Arkwright invented towater frame to produces pure cotton fabric rather than cotton with linen.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

The book suppporting laissez faire, self interest in economics, opposition to Mercantilism and free trade.

Wollstonecraft: The Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

A book supporting educating women, equality, and a better view in society. She was an early feminist.

Malthus: Principle of Population

1798

Malthus said that human suffering was inevitable, and that there would never be enough food to support society.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages

1817

He supported Laissez Faire, low controlled wages, and worked with Adam Smith.

France

Jacquerie

1358

An uprising of peasants against the French Nobility.

The French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

The French War between Huguenots and Catholics. Catherine Medici, alarmed by the increasing aggressiveness of HUguenots in France killed many protestants on St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre. The Henrys, Henry III and Henry Navarre made peace between the Protestants and Catholics.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

As the power of the Huguenots grew, Catherine de Medici decided it was time to exterminate them all. Several thousand peasants died.

Henry IV/ Navarre of France

1589 - 1610

Henry Navarre teamed up with Henry III in order to protect France from catholic radicals. After Henry III died, Henry Navarre took over as Henry IV and made amends with the catholic church. "Paris is worth a mass."

Edict of Nantes

1598

The law that granted French protestants civil liberties. It ended the French religious wars.

Assassination of Henry IV Navarre

1610

A catholic Fanatic killed Henry in 1610 after his passing of the Edict of Nantes.

Louis XIII of France

1610 - 1643

The French king with Adviser Richelieu. Together they made France a leading power of Europe. He defeated the Spanish multiple times.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Pascal tried to reconcile the relationship between Christianity and reason. He was a Jansenist and made a famous wager with skeptics.

Mazarin as French Chief Minister

1642 - 1661

Under Louis VIX, he was involved with the Peace of Westphalia, the League of the Rhine, and the Peace of the Pyrenees.

Louis XVI of France (Sun king)

1643 - 1715

The king who built Versailles and was an advocator of the Divine Right of Kings. Le'etat c'est moi. I am the State. His Adviser was Mazarin. From 1661 to 1715 he had a personal reign without a Chief Minister.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

A series of two revolts during the reign of Louis XIV and Mazarin against Mazarin by the French Parlement. They rejected Mazarin's new plan for the budget.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

After years of persecution under Louis XIII and Louis XIV, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in France. This got rid of religious freedoms and rights under the Edict of Nantes. Many Huguenots fled France.

Death of Louis XIV

1715

The Sun King's death and the succession of Louis XV.

Mississippi Bubble

1720

John Law, a Scottish adventurer and banker, issued 625000 stock shares as money and did not have the gold and silver to cash them out. The Mississippi Bubble burst and left France with inflation.

Voltaire's Candide

1759

Voltaire's famous satire of European society with his heroic character Candide. He promoted religious tolerance, deism, and reality versus blind optimism.

Rousseau's Emile

1762

A book written to encourage the teaching of children based on their interests rather than curriculum. Rousseau also supported the social contract.

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

The declaration from the National Constituent Assembly stating that all men were free and equal. However, women were further separated in their spheres. Taxation was fair, and jobs were given by merit.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The period of radical ideas taking place in France replacing the old Regime with a republic.

Tennis Court Oath

1789

After the king locked out the Third Estate, they met up in a tennis court and swore that they would meet until they made a constitution. They became the National Assembly.

Estates General Called

1789

Massive debt, unfair taxation, and food shortages forced Louis XVI to call the Estates general.

Storming of the Bastille

1789

When Louis XVI dismissed finance minister Necker, people gathered around the Bastille to get weapons. The Bastille Fired into the crowd, and the crowd took it over. The fall of the Bastille represented the fall of the old Regime tyranny.

Great Fear

1789

The rural countryside was swept into a paranoia that troops would be sent into the country. Peasants rebelled, burned legal documents, and reclaimed their land.

Declaration of Pillnitz/ War with Austria

1789

Leopold II of Austria, declared war with the French Revolution and threatened to invade if Leopold's sister, Marie Antoinette, was hurt.

Renunciation of Noble Privileges

August 4, 1789

With the disorder of the Great fear, nobles gave up their privileges in exchange for peace. Now every citizen was equal.

The Parisan Women's March to Versailles

october 6, 1789

With the shortage of bread, female fish mongers marched to Versailles and forced the King to move back to Paris.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

The National Constituent Assembly issued the Constitution after confiscating church lands. It made the Catholic Church a branch of the government and required popes to swear loyalty to the government.

Legislative Assembly Meets

1791

The new gov't's legislative members meet, mostly young, inexperienced radicals.

Tuileries Stormed: King Captive

1792

Revolutionaries and san-culottes stormed the palace and captured the King and put him on trial.

Execution of Louis XVI

1792

The Convention found Louis XVI guilty of treason against the French people and executed him via guillotine.

French Monarch Abolished

1792

The Legislative Assembly voted to abolish the monarchy and establish the First Republic.

Levee en Masse

1793

The Convention demanded that the entire male population conscript into the military.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

The radical turn in the Revolution when the Mountain executed 20,000 people in Paris by Guillotine. Revolutionary Tribunals executed people without trials due to growing paranoia and radicalism.

Execution of Danton

1793

Soon, the Revolution turned against themselves. Danton was accused of "being too soft" and was executed. Robespierre took leadership.

Cult of Reason

1794

Robespierre's form of Deism imposed on the new Republic. The religion Failed.

Cult of the Supreme Being

1794

Robespierre's imposition of Deism on the new republic. This cut off the French people from their Catholic Roots. This ultimately failed.

The Fall of Robespierre

1794

Robespierre turned on his own party and accused them without any evidence. The Convention turned on him and executed him in 1794

The Directory

1795 - 1799

The new moderate government of the French after the Revolution. This was weak and was easily overthrown by Napoleon.

Directory is Established: The Constitution of Year III

1795

During the Thermidorian reaction, moderate Girondists were allowed back into the Convention. They established a new gov't, the directory, and made the Constitution of Year III, helping the middle class the most.

Napoleon- Coup Brumaire

1799

Napoleon's weakening of the Directory so he could establish the Consulate and himself as the First Consul.

Holy Roman Empire

Avignon Papacy/ Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

The period in which the Pope resided in Avignon, France, which caused the Great Schism.

The Golden Bull

1356

Declared by Luxembourg and Emperor Charles VI, the golden bull fixed the Holy roman Empire's government by adding voting policies, and elections.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The result of the French electing Clement VII and the Italians(Romans) electing Urban VI to be the pope. Spain and France supported Clement, and England, the HRE, Portugal, and Italy supported Urban.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The Council ended the Great Schism and replaced both popes with Martin V. The council also declared that a group of bishops had more power over one church individual.

Pope Julius II- The Warrior Pope's Reign

1503 - 1513

Julius III's reign was categorized by ambitions projects, patronage of the arts, and an active foreign policy.

Luther's Diet of the Worms

1521

The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V ordered Luther to come to the Diet of the Worms and recant what he said in the 95 theses. Luther refused and fled.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul III called a group of bishops, archbishops, and priests to the council to strengthen the church and get rid of church abuses. They reaffirmed the Eucharist and 7 sacraments, abolished absenteeism, and added more power to the Pope.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Charles V emperor of the HRE, ended some conflict by passing the peace to allow princes to determine the religion of their own lands. Note: Cuius Regio eius religio. The ruler of the land determines the religion of the land.

Italy

Dante

1265 - 1321

He wrote the Divine Comedy and was a humanist in the Italian Renaissance.

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

The "father of humanism." Promoted Classicism, secular ideas.

Boccaccio

1315 - 1375

An intuitive Renaissance writer that wrote the Decameron, a witty tale of 10 people fleeing the Black Death.

Italian Political Decline

1494 - 1527

French invasions and the unraveling of the Treaty of Lodi resulted in the Declined. Ludovico il Moro invited French king Charles VIII into Italy and conquered it.

Machiavelli's The Prince

1532

Machiavelli, a brilliant evil man, released his book, The Prince, as a guide (or perhaps a satire) on how to rule an absolute government.

Condemnation of Galileo

1633

Galileo was condemned by the Catholic church by promoting the Heliocentric theories in his book. He was in house arrest until his death.

Austria

Charles VI of Austria and the Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Passed by HRE Charles VI, it ensured that the possessions of the Hapsburgs could be inherited by a daughter.

War of the Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

When Charles VI died, Frederick II of Prussian invaded Austria to defeat Maria Theresa. Prussia and France teamed up against Austria, while Austria sought help from Britain. Maria, by making friends with the nobility, giving up monarchical power, and ceding some Austrian territory, was able to save Austria.

Maria Theresa Reign in Austria

1740 - 1765

The Mother of Joesph I and an enlightened despot. She had to fight for her spot as Austrian ruler even after the establishment of the Pragmatic Sanction. She implemented educational reforms, tax efficiency, abolished torture, and loosened serf rule.

Joseph II's Reign of Austria

1764 - 1790

An Enlightened Despot of Austria and son of Maria Theresa, Joesph II was an austere man who implemented many reforms for Austria, later to be reversed by his brother. He supported promotion by merit, uniformity in language and revenues, abolishment of cruel punishments, freedom of the press, freedom of serfs, and a proportionate tax on the land.

Netherlands

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

The "Prince of the Northern Humanists" He was a member of the Brethren of the Common life. He criticized greed, superstition, and ignorance.

Rise of the Netherlands

1572 - 1610

Due to strong leadership of William III of Orange the stadtholder, urban prosperity of tulips and herring, and a strong overseas empire, the Netherlands rose to the top economically.

Pacification of Ghent

1576

The treaty between the Hapsburg Netherlands Provinces to drive Spain out of the country and promoting peace between them.

Decline of the Netherlands

1650 - 1750

The death of William of Orange, conflict in the government, and fierce colonial competition from the naval England over the seas resulted in a decline of the Netherlands.

Spain

Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain

1469

Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon Married to combine their domains and to rule Spain effectively, in which they did.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

1492

The beginning of the Spanish Colonial empire as Columbus reached the Americas in 1492.

Early Exploration Portugal And Spain

1492 - 1600

Searching for gold, spices, and later, slaves, the Portuguese, Spanish, and others established trade routes to the coasts of Africa, India, and the Americas. They brought Diseases to the new world and crops back to Europe.

Jesuits/ Society of Jesus/ Ignatius Of Loyola

1534 - 1600

The Jesuits are a conservative Catholic religious group formed by Ignatius of Loyola. They were against the Protestant religion and preached obedience to authority.

Dutch Revolt against Spain

1566

The Dutch revolted against Phillip II of Spain after his attempts to spread Catholics to the Netherlands.

Spanish Armada

1588

The so-called "invincible army." Their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth I failed.

Cervantes- Don Quixote

1605

Cervantes invents a witty story about a man named Don who is obsessed with the chivalry found in books. He eventually dies a tragic death.

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Charles II of Spain was dying and had no successors to the Spanish throne. Louis XIV of France, Maria Theresa of Austria, Leopold I of the HRE, and Joesph Ferdinand of Bavaria.

Germany

Gutenburg and the Printing Press

1456

Johannes Gutenburg invented the printing press with a new movable type and was able to print out a bible quicker than ever before. Distributed pamphlets influenced ideas of the Reformation.

Luther's 95 Theses

October 31, 1517

The date when Martin Luther posted his list of 95 abuses by the catholic church the the door of a castle church in Wittenburg. He called for pope morality, and the condemnation of indulgences.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Poverty stricken, oppressed peasants revolted in the countryside of Germany, hoping for Luther to help them. But Luther condemned the violence and told landowners to shut them down.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Copernicus, looking to make a calender for the Catholic Church, discovered that the solar system was heliocentric rather than geocentric.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1621

Kepler, the assistant to Brahe, Published the New Astronomy to prove a heliocentric universe.

Prussia

Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

Prussia's great army and reputation for bloodshed in battle.

Frederick Wilhelm/William of Prussia

1688 - 1740

First the elector of Brandenburg then the king of Prussia. He was known as the "soldier King." He is the father of Frederick II of Prussia

Frederick II The Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

The Enlightened Despot of Prussia. He was the "first servant of the state." He established religious toleration, individual protections, freedom of the press, education and agricultural reforms and built miles of roads.

Switzerland/Sweden/Bohemia

Hussites and John Hus

1369 - 1415

A Bohemian teacher at the University of Prague that embraced Wycliff's Ideas. He was a main inspiration to the Protestant Reformers. He believed in higher morality for priests, Bibles in the vernacular, and against indulgences.

John Calvin and Geneva

1536

John Calvin became the Chief Reformer in Geneva. He supported only 2 sacraments, simplicity, and the idea of the "elect." God had chosen certain people to be the "elect" and certain people to hell. Geneva became a strict theocracy.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

A nobleman and astronomer most famous for his large compilation of accurate astronomical details. The mentor of Kepler.

Russia

Peter the Great of Russia

1682 - 1725

The Russian emperor who provided a "window to the west." He traveled widely and founded Petersburg, as well as trying to improve Russia by Westernizing it.

The Great Northern War- Russia and Sweden

1700 - 1721

Sweden versus Peter the Great. By the end of the war, Sweden had lost its supremacy as the leading power in the Baltic region and was replaced by Peter the Great's Russia. They fought over the throne of Poland

Catherine the Great of Russia

1729 - 1796

The Englightened despot of Russia. She made friends with nobles, acquired Polish territory, and westernized Russian as Peter the Great had done.