U.S. History Final Exam

From Industrialization to Cold War

Wars

The French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

Civil War

1861 - 1865

World War I

1914 - 1918

World War II

1939 - 1945

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Political war against Communism

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Vietnam War

1960 - 1975

Industrialization

Industrialization Takes Hold

1870 - 1920

Standard time zones

1883

Railraods develop their own time, if a train left at 8:00AM - 12:00 PM, it would technically arrive 12 minutes before noon to the locals.

Andrew Carnegie

is born

1835

Steam-powered looms in Scotland

1847

Hundreds of hand loom workers are unemployed, including Andrew's father Will.

emigrates to U.S.

1848

Settle in Pittsburgh, and Andrew begins work as a bobbin boy in a textile mill, earning $1.20 per week.

takes job at Pennsylvania Railroad

1853

Becomes the personal telegrapher and assistant to Thomas Scott. Learns of military organization and costs.

invests in sleeping cars

1856

He takes out a loan from a local bank and invests $217.50 in the Woodruff Sleeping Car Company. After two years, he begins receiving a return of about $5,000 annually.

invests in oil

1861

Using money from his investments in the Woodruff Sleeping Car Company, Carnegie invests $11,000 in an oil company in Titusville, Pennsylvania. He receives a return of $17,868 after only one year.

retires from the railroad and founds the Keystone Bridge Company

1865

Carnegie and several associates reorganize the Piper and Sciffler Company in to the Keystone Bridge Company. They envision building bridges with iron for more durability.

sees Bessemer's steel plants

1872

On a visit to England, Carnegie visits Henry Bessemer's steel plants. The Freedom Iron Company, which Carnegie formed in 1861, had been using Bessemer's process of making steel for several years. While in England, Carnegie realizes the commercial potential of steel and returns to America with plants to expand his steel business.

opens Edgar Thomson Works

1875

Opens his first steel plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania. His first order is 2,000 steel rails for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

proposes merger with Frick's coke company

1881

Carnegie has been one of Frick's largest coke customers and wants to merge. He soon increases his share to over 50% of the company.

buys the Homestead Works

1883

A rival mill and prevents competition and keeps a monopoly.

Homestead Strike

1892

A union contract at Homestead expires and Carnegie directs Frick to handle the situation. Frick hires Pinkerton agents and state militia is sent in to reclaim the mill. This incident marks the end of Carnegie's image as a friend of the worker.

organizes Carnegie Steel

1899

Merges several of his steel companies and tensions rise between him and Frick. He asks Frick to resign as chairman of the board. Questions rise for the price of coke from Frick Company.

sells out to Morgan

1901

As a threat, J.P. Morgan believes Carnegie has become too much of a threat to his empire and must be bought out entirely. J.P. Morgan buys Carnegie Steel for $480 million and creates US Steel. Carnegie is the richest man in the world.

dies

1919

August 11, 1919, he dies in Lenox, Massachusetts.

Immigration to the U.S. Prior to WWII

Colonial wave

1730 - 1760

Scotch-Irish (Protestants), Germans. Stopped with the American Revolution, French-Indian War, and Napoleonic Expansion.

Naturalization Act of 1790

1790 - 1962

The term meaning the process by which someone borne abroad becomes a U.S. citizen. The law governing naturalization, previously mentioned, said straight out that only immigrants eligible are free white persons. Repealed in 1962, and Asians were called "aliens ineligible for citizenship".

1st wave

1830 - 1860

Irish (Catholic), Germans, Chinese

2nd wave

1870 - 1924

Italians, Jews, Poles, other Slavic groups

National Origins Act

1924 - 1965

Dramatically reduced the total number of immigrants in America. In general, there was no upper limit. Nobody from Asia would be allowed to come with exception of Filipinos as they were an American colony. It limited annual incomers by ethnicity. ≥ 2% of a groups 1890 population in US.

3rd wave

1965 - Present

Mexicans, Latin Americans, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, other Asians

The Asian Experience in America

Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Filipino experience

Foreign Miner's Tax

1852

Mostly Mexicans and Chinese who were not from the state.

Origins of Cold War

Yalta Conference

February 1945

Potsdam Conference

July 1945

Dien Bien Phu

1954

Defining battles of the Cold War, the French lost control of their colony despite their American backing.

Yoshiko Uchida's Desert Exile

Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

The bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.