From Industrialization to Cold War
Political war against Communism
Railraods develop their own time, if a train left at 8:00AM - 12:00 PM, it would technically arrive 12 minutes before noon to the locals.
Hundreds of hand loom workers are unemployed, including Andrew's father Will.
Settle in Pittsburgh, and Andrew begins work as a bobbin boy in a textile mill, earning $1.20 per week.
Becomes the personal telegrapher and assistant to Thomas Scott. Learns of military organization and costs.
He takes out a loan from a local bank and invests $217.50 in the Woodruff Sleeping Car Company. After two years, he begins receiving a return of about $5,000 annually.
Using money from his investments in the Woodruff Sleeping Car Company, Carnegie invests $11,000 in an oil company in Titusville, Pennsylvania. He receives a return of $17,868 after only one year.
Carnegie and several associates reorganize the Piper and Sciffler Company in to the Keystone Bridge Company. They envision building bridges with iron for more durability.
On a visit to England, Carnegie visits Henry Bessemer's steel plants. The Freedom Iron Company, which Carnegie formed in 1861, had been using Bessemer's process of making steel for several years. While in England, Carnegie realizes the commercial potential of steel and returns to America with plants to expand his steel business.
Opens his first steel plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania. His first order is 2,000 steel rails for the Pennsylvania Railroad.
Carnegie has been one of Frick's largest coke customers and wants to merge. He soon increases his share to over 50% of the company.
A rival mill and prevents competition and keeps a monopoly.
A union contract at Homestead expires and Carnegie directs Frick to handle the situation. Frick hires Pinkerton agents and state militia is sent in to reclaim the mill. This incident marks the end of Carnegie's image as a friend of the worker.
Merges several of his steel companies and tensions rise between him and Frick. He asks Frick to resign as chairman of the board. Questions rise for the price of coke from Frick Company.
As a threat, J.P. Morgan believes Carnegie has become too much of a threat to his empire and must be bought out entirely. J.P. Morgan buys Carnegie Steel for $480 million and creates US Steel. Carnegie is the richest man in the world.
August 11, 1919, he dies in Lenox, Massachusetts.
Scotch-Irish (Protestants), Germans. Stopped with the American Revolution, French-Indian War, and Napoleonic Expansion.
The term meaning the process by which someone borne abroad becomes a U.S. citizen. The law governing naturalization, previously mentioned, said straight out that only immigrants eligible are free white persons. Repealed in 1962, and Asians were called "aliens ineligible for citizenship".
Irish (Catholic), Germans, Chinese
Italians, Jews, Poles, other Slavic groups
Dramatically reduced the total number of immigrants in America. In general, there was no upper limit. Nobody from Asia would be allowed to come with exception of Filipinos as they were an American colony. It limited annual incomers by ethnicity. ≥ 2% of a groups 1890 population in US.
Mexicans, Latin Americans, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, other Asians
Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Filipino experience
Mostly Mexicans and Chinese who were not from the state.
Defining battles of the Cold War, the French lost control of their colony despite their American backing.
The bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.