political authority

henry viii

1509 - 1547

james i

1603 - 1625

charles i

1625 - 1649

friendly to catholics

william berkeley

1660 - 1677

charles ii

1660 - 1685

also friendly to catholics

edmund andros

1686 - 1689

overthrown by colonial rebels

william pitt

1757 - 1763

anti-france and spain
willing to commit resources

thomas hutchinson

1760 - 1774

only official governor in 1769
chief justice in 1760

george iii

1760 - 1820

earl of bute

1762 - 1763

keeps standing army in colonies after seven years' war

george grenville

1763 - 1765

focused on collecting revenue to pay off war debts

william pitt again

1766 - 1768

resumes prime minister position

frederick north

1770 - 1782

wants peace with colonies
gets parliament to remove most of townshend duties, trade resumes

lord dunmore

1771 - 1775

royal governor of virginia

thomas gage

1774 - 1775

also commander of royal army in new york

articles of confederation

1777 - 1789

loose association purely for defense
no executive or judiciary, only congress where each state had one vote
amendment requires unanimous consent of delegates and state legislatures
congress cannot levy taxes
congress controls western land as national domain

constitution ratified


checks and balances between executive, judiciary, legislative
house by people, senate by state legislatures, president by electoral college
president: initiate laws, veto congress, command military, appoint with approval the judiciary
congress: levy taxes, regulate trade, coin money, elastic clause
states cannot issue paper money

george washington

1789 - 1796

disinterested leadership with lots of ceremony
honor and work for the public good
no party but federalist beliefs

vice president: john adams
secretary of state: thomas jefferson
attorney general: william randolph
secretary of treasury: alexander hamilton
secretary of war: henry knox
chief justice: john jay

john adams

1796 - 1800

vice president: thomas jefferson
keeps hamiltonian cabinet to please federalists

thomas jefferson

1800 - 1808

republican simplicity but not really antifederalist
believed in independent farmer
cut budget, reduced capital building plans, reduced army, abolished population/whiskey taxes
reduces hamilton's debt
only very small dinners with politicians

vice president: initially aaron burr
secretary of state: james madison

james madison

1808 - 1816

modifies embargo act but still pressures britain/france
dolley madison: lots of parties to get influence/access, facilitate governing

james monroe

1816 - 1824

continued virginian/republican presidency, marks collapse of federalist party
little social networking

john quincy adams

1824 - 1828

initially ran as a democratic-republican but party had already fractured
technically a national republican

a good diplomat but not a very good politician
tried to create a conflicting cabinet
vice president: calhoun
secretary of state: clay

wanted infrastructure, government sponsored science
unable to implement

andrew jackson

1828 - 1836

democratic party
vice president: john c calhoun
secretary of state: martin van buren

casual presidency, hospitality to public
image of common man
jeffersonian limited federal government but national union
opposed federal grants to private transportation/monopolies
supported indian removal
used veto power
opposed bank

increased power of presidency

martin van buren

1836 - 1840

new york democrat
skilled politician
from north but appealed to south
rival of calhoun

william henry harrison

1840 - 1841

whig candidate, war hero
dies in office of pneumonia after a month

john tyler

1841 - 1844

wanted to annex texas in 1844

james polk

1844 - 1848

highly expansionist
personally invested in mexican american war

zachary taylor

1848 - 1850

mexican american war hero
slaveowner but no party opinion on slavery

wanted to avoid sectionalism

millard fillmore

1850 - 1852

president after taylor dies
signs in compromise of 1850

franklin pierce

1852 - 1856

doughface: northern but appealing to south
beats whig general winfield scott


james buchanan

1856 - 1860

doughface platform

abraham lincoln

1860 - 1865

personally opposed slavery but focused on preserving union
did not believe in racial equality

initial stance: conciliatory to prevent upper south from seceding
moves towards abolition later in war

secretary of state: william seward
secretary of treasury: salmon p chase


prince henry the navigator


mapped africa

portuguese sugar colonies


african slaves on cape verde

spanish settlement

1492 - 1600

200k spanish settle in new world
majority male laborers and artisans
social structure: peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, indians
indians killed by disease

christopher columbus


reaches san salvador
meets tainos

treaty of tordesillas


west is spain
east is portugal

john cabot


sent by henry vii to find northwest passage

vasco da gama


reaches india

amerigo vespucci


lands on south american coast

pedro alvars cabral


lands on brazil

waldseemuller's map


publishes map of new world
names it america

protestant reformation


martin luther begins reformation
against church rituals
anyone could be christian by reading bible

ferdinand magellan


circumnavigates globe
ship returns in 1522

hernan cortes


lands in mexico
meets malinali
takes over tenochtitlan and kills montezuma ii

encomienda system


spanish encomendero and indian labor
hypocrisy with catholic missionaries

san miguel de gualdape


first spanish settlement in north america
established by lucas vazquez de ayllon

francisco pizarro


conquers incas in peru
kills atahualpa

english reformation


henry viii breaks with catholic church
only partial reformation: still believed in catholic rituals
puritans wanted full reformation

jacques cartier


france sends cartier to st lawrence river to find northwest passage
later establishes small settlement but fails

hernando de soto


lands in florida but doesn't find anything

francisco vasquez de coronado


explores southwest north america looking for supposed wealth in cibola

juan rodriguez cabrillo


explores california coast



limits amount of labor that can be demanded from indians

st augustine


pedro menendez founds first permanent settlement in usa

martin frobisher


england looks for northwest passage again



sir walter raleigh attempts to settle roanoke

acoma pueblo revolt


juan de onate tries to take over pueblos
indians revolt against spanish but militarily weak

general equality in chesapeake

1600 - 1660

mostly yeomen and a very few elite planters
major division: between free farmers and servants

virginia company created


joint-stock company
granted 6mil acres of land to establish colony

jamestown established


initial conflict with powhatan's tribe
general disease/starvation but later supported by indians
little effort to convert indians, almost no mixing
occasional conflict

settlers mostly gentlemen + servants

separatists go to holland


withdraw from church because they believed it wasn't savable

henry hudson


sent by dutch east india company to find northwest passage
sails up hudson river

missionaries in spanish north

1610 - 1690

spanish territories: florida and new mexico
not much settlement but lots of missionaries
hypocrisy: coercive indian labor vs catholic salvation

tobacco industry begins


first shipment sent to england
primarily grown in chesapeake region

headright: free 50 acres for settling in america

house of burgesses


first representative government in colonies
all free adult men can vote

puritanism strongest

1620 - 1645

type of calvinist protestants
predestination: believed in the elect
visible saint: people that were probably part of the elect

technical separation of church and state: ministers can't hold office
but law/government influenced by religion
all male church members can vote
legislative body: general court
organized land distribution

indentured servants

1620 - 1670

80% of immigrants are indentured servants
very little slavery
women highly desirable
servants punished more harshly than regular people
conflict between servants wanting freedom and planters wanting labor

plymouth established


led by william bradford
mayflower compact created
establish friendly relations with massasoit's wampanoags

was not profitable

opechancanough's revolt


kills 1/3 english population
confirms hostility between settlers/indians

virginia becomes royal colony


to fix mismanagement that caused disease/starvation

new netherland established


peter minuit buys manhattan island, calls it new amsterdam
not very profitable
not much immigration
ethnically/religiously diverse

massachusetts bay colony


led by john winthrop
established by joint-stock massachusetts bay company
set example in new world: city on a hill

puritan immigrants mostly families
majority farmers and craftsmen
only 1/5 indentured servants

maryland established


land given to lord baltimore by charles i
intended to be for catholics but protestants are majority

rhode island founded


founded by roger williams for religious tolerance

anne hutchinson excommunicated


influenced by john cotton: covenant of grace vs covenant of works
arminianism: belief in works which hutchinson thought was false
antinomianism: belief in faith only
hutchinson moves to rhode island then to new york

connecticut founded


founded by thomas hooker who wanted more open church membership
fundamental orders of connecticut: freemen voters didn't have to be church members

puritan revolution

1642 - 1649

charles i conflict with puritan parliament
oliver cromwell's puritans win: charles i executed
puritans become dominant in england, stop immigrating to colonies

opechancanough's war

1644 - 1646

kills another 500 virginians
opechancanough later killed

treaty: indians give up already-settled land, land on edge of settlement reserved for indians

navigation acts


colonial goods must be on english ships

1660s: colonial exports only to english ports, colonial imports only from english ports

mercantilism: government control of trade to maximize profits

halfway covenant


because children of church members weren't converting and their children couldn't be baptized
halfway covenant: children of church members can become halfway members so they can baptize their children
but they can't vote or take communion

south carolina established


founded by barbadian planters and their slaves
slaves 1/4 of initial settlers
primarily rice-based economy

new amsterdam becomes new york


charles ii gives land to brother duke of york
dutch governor peter stuyvesant surrenders
preserves religious tolerance

polarization of chesapeake society


tobacco prices fall: more difficult to become landowner
population of landless rises with less mortality
wealthy planters get richer by exporting to england

planter elite and yeomen vs landless (mostly former servants)

burgesses restricted to landowners


only heads of households and landowners can vote
consolidation of power by governor william berkeley

king philip's war


wampanoags led by metacomet attack massachusetts settlements
settlers counterattack wampanoags, nipmucks, narragansetts
creates permanent hostility with indians

bacon's rebellion


bacon calls out government for favoring grandee planters
berkeley declares him a rebel, calls for new elections
backfires: legislature now full of anti-planters

bacon's laws: reforms against elite planters
berkeley calls him a traitor again
bacon's men attack indians and plantations

rebellion put down with bacon's death
bacon's laws nullified, berkeley replaced

pueblo revolt


popé leads pueblos in anti-catholic revolt
kills 2/3 missionaries, drives spanish back to texas
spanish later return but with reforms

barbadian sugar


sugar planters in barbados average 4x richer than tobacco planters in chesapeake
population over 3/4 slaves
slave population maintained by trade with africa

pennsylvania established


charles ii gives land to william penn
quaker colony: religious tolerance, social equality, peace with indians
economically successful

massachusetts charter revoked


result of king philip's war

dominion of new england


all colonies north of maryland incorporated
governed by sir edmund andros
all land titles invalidated

glorious revolution


william of orange and mary ii reassert protestantism

massachusetts government reestablished


because of glorious revolution in england
maryland protestant association also overthrows catholic government

massachusetts becomes royal colony again


ending rebel governments massachusetts
voting requirement: land ownership instead of church membership
changes into a wealth-driven not faith-driven society

royal authority reasserted over maryland also

covenant chain established


trade alliance between new york and iroquois confederacy

salem witch trials


over 100 people accused
19 people executed

demographic shift

1700 - 1770

population growth + increased diversity
by 1770 only half of colonies' population is english

20% is african descent

transition to slave labor


english economy improves, fewer servants come to colonies
poor free population decreases
social gap between rich and poor whites decreases
gap between white and black increases

french fur trade


french and british competition for fur trade
iroquois promise to both

religious indifference

1700 - 1730

not many church members
church becomes a social activity

yamasee war


french encourage yamasee/creek to attack south carolina
cherokee support british

colonies can initiate legislation


colonies can make their own tax laws and funding
lack of communication w/britain: assembly strength
british government has very little power

great awakening

1730 - 1750

more emotional way of preaching, less formal
did not affect church membership
expressed democratic values

molasses act


tax on molasses from nonbritish sources
supposed to discourage sugar trade with french caribbean
ignored for years

jonathan edwards


emphasized traditional puritan beliefs
sinners in the hands of an angry god

stono rebellion


group of slaves attacks whites but quickly put down

internal slave economy


majority of slaves are born in the south
slave trade still ongoing
planter elite and poor farmers still superior to black slaves

george whitefield


highly emotional sermons

albany plan of union


delegates from 7 colonies meet in albany to repair covenant chain
want indians' help against french

ben franklin/thomas hutchinson write plan of union: unified colonial government to deal with war/indian trade
affirms parliament's authority

plan fails: nobody ratifies, british government doesn't back, indians don't back

fort necessity


french soldiers + shawnee/delaware attach george washington at fort necessity

seven years war

1754 - 1763

aka french and indian war in north america



product of enlightenment: god revealed through science/reason
benjamin franklin was a deist

treaty of paris


ends seven years' war
britain gets canada, french territory west of mississippi given to spain, cuba returned to spain, martinique returned to france

britain blames colonies for not supporting
colonies blame britain for not defending

proclamation of 1763


forbids settlement west of the appalachians
limits indian trade to governor-licensed traders
forbids private sale of indian land
result of pontiac's uprising

boundary generally fails

pontiac's uprising


captures all british forts west of detroit
eventually put down by british + colonists

sugar act


officially the revenue act of 1764
lowers tax on french molasses: encourages following the law to raise revenue
increased enforcement to catch smugglers

stamp act


imposed tax on paper for official documents
blatant attempt to raise revenue
grenville: colonists are virtually represented in parliament

colonists: internal tax as opposed to external taxes for trade regulation
internal taxes can only be self imposed

sons of liberty formed


led by samuel adams, john hancock, ebenezer mackintosh
formed in resistance to stamp act

first act: hangs stamp distributor andrew oliver in effigy

stamp act congress


delegates from nine colonies meet in new york
petition to king/parliament: virtual representation doesn't work but maintained deference

virginia resolves


7 resolutions presented by patrick henry
only virginian assembly could tax virginians
rejected: nonvirginian tax laws are illegitimate

declaratory act


britain repeals stamp act but includes declaratory act
says parliament can always legislate for colonies

townshend duties


tax on imported goods like tea, glass, paper, lead
part of revenue goes to royal governor salary
colonists angry that duties were meant to raise revenue

nonconsumption agreements


boycott of british goods
boston, new york, philadelphia, charleston merchants agree to not import british goods

successful: imports fall >40%, british merchants protest to parliament

idea of daughters of liberty: homespun cloth, showing off boycotting

junipero serra


gaspar de portola and junipero serra found first california mission
establish presidios

regional economic contrasts


north: farmers not wealthy, merchant-based economy, very few slaves, exporting fish/timber/livestock, mostly english
middle: more diverse with lots of german/dutch/irish, lots of indentured servants or redemptioners, farming economy
south: highest population, 40% african descent, separated into tobacco chesapeake and rice/indigo lower south

export crops


tobacco: 1/3 all exports, 2/3 chesapeake exports
rice + indigo: 2/3 lower south exports
southern colonies supply 90% of all exports

boston massacre


british soldiers shoot into crowd and kill 5 men
hutchinson jails the soldiers
soldiers defended by john adams, josiah quincy
shows that colonists are fair, give fair trial

committees of correspondence


triggered by british response to burning of gaspee: suspects will be tried in britain
creates communication network between colonies

tea act


cuts out independent merchants and lets british east india company sell directly through government
makes tea cheaper

results in boston tea party: 3 ships' worth of tea dumped into harbor by sons of liberty

intolerable acts


coercive acts + quebec act
boston port act: closes boston to shipping until compensated for tea
massachusetts government act: council and court now appointed by governor, town meetings require governor's approval
impartial administration of justice act: british officials will be tried in british court
quartering act: soldiers can be lodged in private households
quebec act: allows quebec to continue catholicism and french style government, gives quebec land and fur trade

powder alarm


gage sends soldiers to take gunpowder supply, colonists think soldiers killed people
colonists move rapidly to fight, later dispersed

phillis wheatley


published poetry in 1773, freed in 1775

first continental congress


every colony but georgia meets in philadelphia
declaration of rights, staggered trade boycott, creates continental association

second continental congress


to raise army, reconcile with britain
john + samuel adams: radicals, independence
john dickinson: moderate, reconciliation

creates continental army led by george washington
declares war
creates unbacked paper currency

lexington and concord


gage sends soldiers to take ammunition at concord
paul revere + william dawes alert colonists, meet british at lexington
someone fires and people die, more fighting at concord and boston

revolutionary war

1775 - 1783

british can't destroy country: need to preserve colonies
defeating continental army isn't enough because of militiamen
no single political center to take

americans: volunteer militia not enough, congress had to set long term enlistments
northern states let free blacks serve

joseph brant


mohawk leader goes to england, complains about american settlers cheating indians out of land

olive branch petition


by dickinson's moderates
blames parliament, affirms loyalty to king
rejected by king

battle of bunker hill


costly british victory

dunmore's offer


promises freedom to slaves that fight for british
doesn't treat them very well

declaration of dependence


loyalists write up rebuttal to declaration of independence

loyalists: usually had strong ties to england, believed in stability of monarchy
royal officials, judges, rich merchants, lawyers, backcountry farmers

declaration of independence


independence needed to ally with france
all colonies but new york vote for independence, new york later switches
declaration drafted by thomas jefferson
slavery sections deleted

common sense


by thomas paine
explains why british rule is illogical, advocates republican government

battle of long island


first major fighting that year
howe leads british to defeat americans but doesn't keep going, washington evacuates

later howe still doesn't press, washington surprise attacks germans

battle of saratoga


british led by burgoyne capture fort tinconderoga, win at oriskany with joseph brant, then pushed back at fort stanwix

americans led by gates win at saratoga
convinces france to enter on american side

france recognizes usa


recognizes it as an independent nation, promises full military/trade support
primarily motivated to defeat britain

currency depreciation


continental congress's money is unbacked, too much is printed
states also print their own money
congress issues land grant certificates that also depreciate

americans fight indians


american militiamen continue to fight indians, don't uphold alliances and trade agreements
indians almost all turn to british side

state constitutions


10 states write new constitutions, 3 update colonial charters
virginia first to include bill of rights in 1776
bill of rights: basic individual rights that government can't restrict

built on republicanism: representative government by the people, government to promote welfare of people

voting usually excluded by property ownership
usually excludes women and blacks
new jersey does franchise women and blacks for some time

benedict arnold


arnold negotiates with british general clinton to give up west point
messenger caught, treason exposed, inspires more patriotism

battle of camden


gates + americans run away from british led by cornwallis
georgia and carolinas still sort of loyal to britain because of trade

ladies' association


wealthy women talk politics, fundraise for army

bank of north america

1781 - 1786

robert morris chosen to fix economic problems and war debt
proposes 5% impost but rejected

creates national private bank to hold hard money, issue backed banknotes
not very successful because doesn't issue enough money

mum bett


elizabeth freeman aka mum bett is first slave to win freedom in court

battle of yorktown


cornwallis isolated on yorktown peninsula by french navy
major win for americans, turning point towards end of war

treaty of paris 1783


recognizes american independence
guarantees debt collection
sets western border at mississippi
does not recognize indians

ordinance of 1784


divides northwest territory into 10 states in rectangular grid
gives self-government and eventual statehood
rejects: jefferson's proposal to give land for free to settlers, proposal to prohibit slavery

treaty of fort stanwix


treaty between articles of confederation and iroquois confederacy
gives land bordering canada to usa
gives ohio valley to usa
signed under coercion

northwest ordinance


statehood process for northwest: congress appoints magistrates/officials, legislation created after voting population hits 5000, state can write constitution and apply to union after voting population is 60000
state always subject to taxation
prohibits slavery (passing from 1784 ordinance) but with fugitive slave code

outlines orderly western expansion

shays's rebellion


poor farmers can't pay taxes imposed by coastal-dominated legislature in massachusetts
daniel shays leads armed group to county courts
massachusetts governor bowdoin sends private army, defeats rebellion

great compromise


creates bicameral legislature: house by population and senate with 2 votes per state
3/5 clause: slaves count as 3/5 for taxation and representation

federalist papers


hamilton, madison, john jay: shows failures of articles of confederation, outlines federalist position
to convince new york to ratify

constitutional convention


after failed annapolis convention
most states attend constitutional convention in philadelphia

virginia plan by madison: 2 house legislature by population, executive and judiciary, congress can veto state laws and use military force against states
new jersey plan: 3 men share presidency, 1 house legislature with 1 vote per state, congress can tax and regulate trade and use military force against states

federalists vs antifederalists


federalists: wanted strong national government, lots of political elite
wanted elite representation

antifederalists: rural, noncommercial, lots in the west, but many leaders in elite
also economically powerful states like new york
afraid of tyrannical government, wanted states' rights

olaudah equiano


publishes account of slave trade and slavery

french revolution

1789 - 1799

initially supported by americans because republican ideals
some like adams afraid of radicals

hamilton's debt plan


report on public credit: says national debt should be fully funded but not repaid
debt certificates become bonds that gain interest, creating more money
would increase land speculation
also wanted to take on state debt to secure federal power

madison: opposition
wanted to pay off debt instead of encouraging speculators
warned against high taxes

plan does pass

gradual emancipation laws


pennsylvania in 1780, rhode island/connecticut in 1784, new york in 1799, new jersey in 1804

chesapeake states reject gradual emancipation but allow individual emancipations
deep south doesn't even consider

expanding economy

1790 - 1800

post office established 1792
first turnpike 1794 in pennsylvania
roads connect new england, middle states

number of banks rises
banks get money from stocks, make loans in banknotes backed by hard money
issue more paper money than actually owned

population increases 35%

report on manufactures


by hamilton to encourage domestic manufacturing via subsidies to private companies
wanted use of children and women's labor

opposed by jefferson and madison: too much government intervention
did not pass

first bank of united states

1791 - 1811

european model: private bank controlled by government
government holds 20% stock, other 80% from private investors
stabilizes economy by controlling interest, currency

madison: opposes, afraid of giving too much power to few bankers

bill of rights


written by madison
individual liberties: freedom of speech/press/religion, right to arms, etc
does not cover right to vote

haitian revolution

1791 - 1804

small white minority and huge slave population
catalyzed by french revolution
white colonists against white royalist government, mixed-race planters against whites, slaves against everyone
toussaint l'ouverture allies with spain

causes fear of slave rebellion in south

cotton gin


invented by eli whitney
allows for increased cotton production

neutrality proclamation


effort to stay out of france-britain war
conflict: support of republicanism in france vs commercial ties with britain

battle of fallen timbers


conflicts at fort washington in ohio
1790: josiah harmar loses to miami and shawnee
1791: arthur st. clair loses to miami and shawnee

fallen timbers: anthony wayne defeats confederation of indians
indians rejected by supposedly allied british
reduces indian power in negotiations

whiskey rebellion


hamilton's 1791 excise tax on whiskey
unpopular for western farmers

tax collector john neville files charges against farmers for tax evasion, causes rebellion
pennsylvania farmers plan march on philadelphia
washington nationalizes pennsylvania militia, arrests rebels

jefferson thinks this is overreaction

republican motherhood


female republican ideals: virtue of women to promote good morals
judith sargent murray: supports women's education but in context of family duty

treaty of greenville


indians cede most of ohio
americans promise yearly treaty goods to create economic dependency
liquor dependency cripples indians

jay treaty


doesn't address captured property/slaves, gives britain too much time to withdraw from frontier, calls for payment of debt to britain
secures limited west indies trading rights

generally hated but passed

1796 election


adams/pinckney vs jefferson/burr
hamilton tries to support pinckney but adams wins

xyz affair


french ships detain american ships carrying british goods
adams sends negotiators to france
french foreign minister talleyrand sends xyz agents to bribe americans

alien and sedition acts


sedition act: illegal to defame president or congress
alien acts: extends citizenship waiting period, allows president to deport/imprison without trial any foreigner

opposed by republicans: against bill of rights


1798 - 1800

undeclared war in response to xyz affair
mostly in caribbean

federalists against france, republicans for france

virginia and kentucky resolutions


response to alien/sedition acts
drafted by jefferson + madison

proposes that states can nullify federal laws

gabriel's rebellion


planned slave rebellion in virginia
rebellion never happens, conspirators arrested and hanged

1800 election


jefferson vs running mate aaron burr
jefferson and burr tie in electoral college, goes to federalist house
hamilton influences house to vote jefferson

barbary wars

1801 - 1805

barbary states of north africa: demand tribute for shipping into mediterranean
tripoli declares war after usa doesn't pay increased tribute
uss philadelphia captured, stephen decatur burns it, but later fails to blow up tripoli fleet
william eaton gathers egyptian mercenaries and defeats tripoli

war cost more money than tribute but saved us honor

marbury v. madison


jefferson refuses to honor adams's last minute federalist appointments
william marbury sues secretary of state james madison
court: commission was valid but grounds are unconstitutional

napoleonic wars

1803 - 1815

louisiana purchase


territory originally french but transferred to spain in 1763, spain returns to france in exchange for italian land

lewis and clark expedition


from st louis to pacific ocean
guided by sacajawea
scientific/military expedition, establishes relations with indians

british impressment


british take 2500 us sailors

british ship leopard fires on american ship chesapeake in us territory

embargo act


bans importation of all british goods to avoid war
economic failure: unemployment rises, crop value drops

slave trade ends


nonintercourse act


replaces embargo act
only prohibits trade with britain/france/colonies (as opposed to british goods in general)

treaty of fort wayne


indiana governor harrison buys a bunch of land when tecumseh isn't looking

jemima wilkinson


publick universal friend
establishes new jerusalem in new york

part of movement of female preachers
mostly baptist, some methodist, quaker

war hawks formed


western/southern young lawyers that want war to end impressment, attack indians
henry clay: speaker of the house
john c calhoun: on foreign relations committee

approved defense budget, quadrupled army

battle of tippecanoe


harrison attacks tecumseh's brother at prophetstown
americans win but antagonizes indians

corporations expand


states rewrite incorporation laws, number of corporations increases
creates economy focused on gaining wealth

war of 1812

1812 - 1814

us declares war on britain after deciding whether to ally with britain or france
new england opposes war because commercial ties
supported by southern/western war hawks


creek war

1813 - 1814

war with tecumseh-allied creek indians in south
andrew jackson defeats indians in battle of horseshoe bend
gets a bunch of land

hartford convention


federalists meet in hartford to stop southern power
proposals: abolish 3/5 clause, require 2/3 for war/state admittance instead of just majority, one term presidency, prohibit successive presidents from same state
discussed secession

looked really unpatriotic

british burn dc


british sail into washington dc and burn the white house

treaty of ghent


ends war of 1812
doesn't really fix anything
impressments end, usa gives up canada claim, british stop helping indians

camp meetings


outdoor religious meetings
meant to have larger attendance, higher emotional impact

start of market revolution


roads, canals, etc improve transportation
roads mostly private except one national road

expansion of markets

battle of new orleans


andrew jackson defeats british by a lot
raises american nationalism

second bank of united states

1816 - 1836

stimulated economy: making loans, printing money
only national bank as opposed to tons of state banks

prosperous after 1819 panic
extremely stable currency

american colonization society


gradual emancipation and then recolonization in africa

rush-bagot treaty


disarmament between usa/britain for atlantic border

spanish colonies' independence

1818 - 1821

chile, colombia, peru, mexico declare independence from spain

panic of 1819


european financial crisis: cotton/tobacco/wheat prices drop rapidly
bank of us and state banks call in loans: farmers/merchants unable to pay
bankruptcy rises, unemployment rises

blamed on bank of us for not requiring state banks' specie payments

adams-onis treaty


treaty with spain
spain cedes florida, usa gives up claim to texas and cuba

prompted when jackson invades florida and calls himself commander and executes two british men

second great awakening

1820 - 1830

evangelical protestantism: methodist, baptist, presbyterian
as opposed to: episcopalian, congregationalist, lutheran, catholics were all skeptical
salvation to everyone: high female participation
church membership doubles
appealing to merchant classes
societal reform: alcohol, family structure, slavery

suffrage reform


reforming status quo of land ownership suffrage
some tie to taxation, military service
some give vote to all adult males

women still excluded, blacks mostly excluded

right to divorce


almost all states recognize limited right to divorce
except south carolina

feme covert: wives subordinate to husbands, can't keep wages/property, can't sue, can't make contracts
free unmarried women: own property, pay taxes, sue, but cannot vote



first steamboat in 1807
1820-1830 huge expansion through great lakes, mississippi
required tons of deforestation

female academies


taught female activities: drawing, music, sewing, french
also academics: literature, history, science, public speaking
still promoted female modesty
top female academies equal to top male colleges

advanced education still very limited

missouri compromise


maine free, missouri slave
southern missouri boundary: 36°30' becomes dividing line in west
approved because of henry clay

lowell founded


centralized textile production
expansion into 1830s
employed young unmarried women in factories

denmark vesey


accused of planning slave rebellion
vesey hanged, others hanged or exiled

monroe doctrine


warns europe against recolonizing north/south america
any interference in western hemisphere is aggression against usa
promises to not interfere in europe

1824 election


john quincy adams: northeast
john c calhoun: southern planter aristocracy, drops out when jackson enters
william crawford: jeffersonian limits on federal power
henry clay: american system of protective tariffs to encourage internal manufacturing/infrastructure
andrew jackson: war hero

first election to have popular vote
jackson wins popular vote and plurality in electoral college
goes to house: clay out, between jackson/adams/crawford
corrupt bargain: clay backs adams, adams wins, clay becomes secretary of state

opens texas to immigration


mexico gives stephen f austin right to sell land in texas for colonization

erie canal


links new york city with great lakes
wheat/flour east, manufactured goods west
turns new york into biggest port

american temperance society


founded by lyman beecher
membership increases in 1830s, drinking rate declines

cherokee constitution


cherokees in georgia write constitution based on us constitution
some wealthy cherokees intermarry with whites, convert to christianity

1828 election


adams: national republican
jackson: democratic republican

high voter turnout
less formal campaigns, henry clay makes local speeches for adams
partisan newspapers
scandal and character are important, lots of personal attacks

jackson wins both electorate and popular vote with most of south/west/middle

tariff of abominations


high tariffs on imports
intended to protect american manufacturers
south opposes: afraid that overseas shipping will decline, reduce cotton exports

nullification doctrine


john c calhoun leads south carolina nullification doctrine
cites virginia/kentucky resolutions
claims congress used tariff of abominations to hurt specific industries

appeal to coloured citizens


by david walker
against racism and slavery, references declaration of independence

book of mormon


published by joseph smith
revelations from golden tablets: american prophet to establish christ's heaven in america

restrictions on free blacks


southern state legislatures restrict free blacks' rights
can't testify in court, can be whipped, special taxes, require proof of freedom

free black elite: light skinned tradesmen, lived in white neighborhoods

indian removal act


relocates indians west of mississippi

jackson: relocation is only way to save indians from white settlement
northern white women protest removal, ignored by jackson



first railroad: baltimore/ohio, laid in 1829
railroads generally short and not that efficient

separate spheres


men: business, public life, generating income for family
women: home, family

public education


public school system is standard in north and south
female teachers becomes norm
both male/female advanced education expands

charles grandison finney


revivals in new york canal towns
promoted sunday school, closed businesses on sabbath
used publicity and promotion to expand cause



by william lloyd garrison (white)
antislavery publication

bank applies for renewal


henry clay and daniel webster ask bank to apply for renewal
expect: jackson vetos, veto is unpopular, jackson loses election, new congress overrides veto and restores bank
jackson's veto well written about oppression of masses

jackson beats clay in election by a lot

worcester v. georgia


court upholds sovereignty of cherokees, says georgian law does not apply

new york female moral reform society


condemns premarital sex
emphasizes gender sphere system

south carolina nullifies


calhoun resigns as vice president
south carolina nullifies all federal tariffs

force bill


jackson defines nullification as treason, authorizes military action, sends military to south carolina
also passes revised, lower tariffs

south carolina then nullifies force bill as symbolic gesture

economic expansion


mexican silver into economy, more money printed
inflation rises
hundreds of private state banks created
high sales of western land
national debt becomes surplus

lowell mill strikes


mill owners increase production, decrease wages
workers go on strike but ultimately not very effective
factory owners turn to immigrants as labor source

lynn shoebinder protests


female shoebinders working from home
wages also fell
protests organized through church networks
even less effective than mill strikes because of isolation

california opened to immigration


mexico gets rid of mission land, gives to rancheros
california indians devastated

prompts california trail

cherokee land sold


unauthorized cherokee faction sells all land to georgia, which resells to white settlers

american temperance union


total abstinence from alcohol
decreases alcohol consumption by 75%
maine bans alcohol in 1851



santa anna attacks texan rebels at alamo
all 187 rebels killed

later sam houston defeats santa anna, texas gain independence

1836 election


martin van buren: democrat
daniel webster: whig, new england
hugh lawson white: whig, proslavery southerners
william henry harrison: whig, western anti-indian

van buren wins in electoral, barely in popular

gag rule


blocked antislavery petitions from going on public record because unconstitutional
by southern congressmen

panic of 1837


bad harvests in europe, bank of england calls in loans to american merchants
cheap international cotton: prices down 30%
southern cotton merchants can't pay northern creditors
people pull money out of bank

whigs blame jackson's antibank policies
socialists blame capitalist structure

grimke sisters


angelina and sarah grimke
antislavery speakers but also women's rights

trail of tears


van buren sends troops to remove cherokees
cherokee, choctaw, chickasaw, creek, seminole relocated to oklahoma indian territory

1840 election


martin van buren: democrat
william henry harrison: whig

whigs use character appeal: harrison as common man
highest voter turnout ever

economic growth

1840 - 1860

population moves to urban centers but majority still rural
labor moves to factories
shift to coal burning steam power
biggest: rise in agricultural productivity

migration to midwest
farm tools improve
land-rich, labor-poor: cheap land
lots of land squatters

national economy: large domestic market
international market dominated by british

american system


interchangeable parts in manufacturing
increased mechanization

german/irish immigration

1840 - 1860

germans: skilled craftsmen, some farmers, middle-class
irish: very poor, immigrating because of potato famine, lower classes

irish face discrimination because catholic
wages still much higher than in ireland



henry david thoreau: walden, civil disobedience
ralph waldo emerson: self reliance, nature
margaret fuller

part of individualistic movement

oregon trail


trail to oregon/california
conflict with plains indians



telegraph first demonstrated
expands across country

by 1860: telegraph wire goes from atlantic to pacific

1844 election


henry clay: whig
james polk: democrat
james birney: liberty party

clay initially against annexation/war with mexico
tries to gain support by accepting annexation but alienates north

polk wins

manifest destiny


john o'sullivan coins term
america destined to expand across continent because of racial/ideological superiority
some want to open trade with asia

fourierist phalanxes


charles fourier tries to set up utopian communities
communal property ownership

abolition movement


former slaves: frederick douglass, sojourner truth
most northerners: abolish spread of slavery west

most black leaders: against colonization, wanted voting rights

texas annexed


slave state

mormon exodus


brigham young leads mormons to utah after smith is killed

wilmot proviso


prohibit slavery in all lands from mexican american war
northern support: free soil for free labor, also anti southern political power
south: offended because western economic opportunity, maintain political power

passes in house, falls in senate

mexican american war

1846 - 1848

nueces/rio grande border dispute
begins when mexicans attack american army in disputed territory
commanded by zachary taylor

opposed by northern whigs but supported by most americans

scott takes mexico city


winfield scott defeats santa anna to end mexican american war

treaty of guadalupe hidalgo


mexico cedes texas, new mexico, california
usa pays for land and assumes debt



complex marriage: sex between anyone in community
communal property ownership

free soil party


nominate van buren for president
antislavery platform
0 electoral votes in election

seneca falls


elizabeth cady stanton and lucretia mott
women's rights convention
produces seneca falls declaration of sentiments: after declaration of independence

california gold rush

1849 - 1852

causes california to become a state
san francisco becomes huge mining town
chinese immigration, disliked

harriet tubman


works underground railroad

free labor


wealth from hard work and self reliance
supported by lincoln
economic inequality natural: some work harder and are luckier
many americans still landless

education teaches free labor ideals

compromise of 1850


by henry clay
admit california as free, popular sovereignty on southwest, remove texan claim to new mexico with compensation by debt assumption, abolish dc slave trade, congress can't interfere with interstate slave trade, add better fugitive slave law

disliked by everyone
voted down as a package but approved as separate bills

fugitive slave act


part of compromise of 1850
requires that all citizens help catch runaways: offensive to north


1850 - 1860

9000 mi track by 1850
railroads across mississippi river by 1860
congress grants railroads companies federal land

fort laramie conference


meeting with plains indians
indians restricted away from wagon trails

uncle tom's cabin


by harriet beecher stowe (white)

1852 election


franklin pierce: democrat
winfield scott: whig
john hale: free soil

whigs divided between north and south
free soil party loses voters, collapses

gadsden purchase


james gadsden buys land from mexico
because pierce wanted transcontinental southern railroad

kansas-nebraska act


by stephen douglas
splits nebraska territory into nebraska and kansas
both by popular sovereignty: explicitly repeals missouri compromise

makes way for railroads

1856 election


james buchanan: democrat
john fremont: republican
millard fillmore: know-nothing

republican: antislavery party, only in north, free-labor
antislavery platform attractive to women
know-nothing aka american: nativist/anti-immigrant, successful in 1854/5 but split on kansas-nebraska act

buchanan: doughface, campaigns on popular sovereignty
republicans take most of north

bleeding kansas


north/south conflict over kansas popular sovereignty
missouri's david atchison gets proslavery to enter kansas, kansas becomes slave state
free soil kansans elect own government
john brown massacres proslavery, prompts guerilla war

mormon war


us troops invade utah territory to establish authority

lecompton constitution


proslavery kansas constitution even though there were more free soilers
buchanan supports
stephen douglas opposes lecompton, gets congress to reject it, kansas also rejects

dred scott v. sandford


chief justice roger taney: blacks not citizens, home state laws determine slave status, congress cannot prohibit slavery
declares missouri compromise unconstitutional explicitly

angers republican north, drives morale

lincoln-douglas debates


7 debates over slavery
lincoln: court has repudiated popular sovereignty, douglas doesn't care
douglas: accuses lincoln of abolitionism

freeport doctrine: douglas says slavery can be banned by not protecting it

harper's ferry


john brown tries to cause slave rebellion at harper's ferry
brown executed

aftermath: northern sympathy, increases north/south separation

south/north economies


north: mixed agricultura/commercial/manufacturing economy, industrialization, growth of cities
south: only agriculture, least urban in usa, not many immigrants, no state public education

southern politics


state legislatures dominated by planters
good relations with slaveless whites
preferential taxation to slaveholders

plain whites


plantation belt yeomen: small cotton crop, tied closely to planters, generally good relations
upcountry yeomen: subsistence farming, barter, not as influenced by planters
landless whites: herders, tenants, squatters

liked tobacco, few public schools + high illiteracy
very religious

1860 election


stephen douglas: northern democrat, popular sovereignty
john c breckinridge: southern democrat, federal slave code
john bell: constitutional union (southern moderate)
abraham lincoln: republican

republicans: anti spread of slavery but assures slavery, protective tariffs, transcontinental railroads, immigrant protection

lincoln wins easily

south carolina secedes


in response to lincoln's election
rest of lower south secedes early 1861

confederacy: president jefferson davis, vice president alexander stephens

southern slave economy


main crop: cotton, south produces 75% world supply
slaves move out of chesapeake to west
most slaves are southern born
1/3 southerners are black

slave codes to prevent rebellion
miscegenation: interracial mixing
george fitzhugh: free labor is exploitative
whites defend slavery as positive for economy

only 25% whites have slaves
planter: 12 or more slaves
most slaves on large plantations

southern life


paternalism: take care of slaves as dependents
needed to maintain population

southern honor: individualism, independence
absolute power of plantation master
chivalry: glorifies/subordinates southern women
almost impossible to divorce
women bound to plantation

slave marriage not legally binding
black christianity: believed in god's fairness, moses's exodus, jesus's universal salvation
resistance: passive work resistance, running away, rebellion

demographic shift: whites outnumber blacks 2 to 1

fort sumter


davis sends confederate troops to take fort sumter

first confiscation act


abolishes slavery in dc, allows seizure of slaves in confederate military as contraband of war

first battle of bull run


confederate victory

civil war

1861 - 1865

north has huge economic advantage
south believes north depends on cotton, europe also depends on cotton
north also would have to invade while south can just defend

union naval blockade: never broken, cuts south off from supplies

southern cotton diplomacy: pressuring britain to support south with cotton famine
failure: 1860 surplus cotton, international cotton sources, union/british trade in guns and flour

battle of antietam


lee's attempt to get maryland into confederacy
mcclellan's union army wins

second confiscation act


all slaves of rebel slaveholders declared free

various economic acts


legal tender act: creates national currency
homestead act: gives public land to settlers to work
pacific railroad act: funds transcontinental railroad
morrill land grant act: gives public land for mechanical/agricultural universities

national banking act: creates national bank system that replaces state bank system

battle of fredericksburg


lee vs ambrose burnside
huge southern victory

emancipation proclamation


frees all slaves in rebelling areas
did not have power to free slaves in union, and emancipation could be enforced by advancing union army

battle of shiloh


ulysses grant vs albert johnston
costly union victory

confederate draft


first draft in american history

union draft follows in 1863

militia act


congress allows black to join union military

battle of vicksburg


grant puts vicksburg under siege, eventually wins
gives union control of mississippi river

battle of gettysburg


lee attempts decisive victory, instead loses 1/3 of army
turning point of war: confederacy never goes north again

new york city draft riots


antidraft antiblack riots across north
in new york: irish workers riot against draft, fighting for black freedom

sherman's march to the sea


william sherman's scorched-earth march through georgia to atlantic, destroying supplies and freeing slaves

philip sheridan does similar thing in shenandoah

lee surrenders


lee surrenders to grant at appomattox in virginia
end of civil war