1st Semester AP Euro Timeline


Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

Cause: Edward III of England put a claimed for the French throne. Impact: centralization of power for French King, increase authority of Estates general, French nationalism, decrease nobility authority because of less nobility and finance, the king had to call for Parliament, and a French victory.

Black Death

1348 - 1350

Causes: from rats sent by Italian trade ships, some believed it came from poisonous vapors from earthquakes. Impact: centralized monarchy, increase death, increase church need and church income, decrease faith, and increase clergy's death. Economic consequences: decrease farm, decrease need of farms because of decrease in population, and increased wages. Remedies: flagellants and blame on others such as women.

The Golden Bull


Established a seven member electoral college that functioned as an administrative body that elected the emperor.



The French privileged classes forced the peasantry to pay increased taxes. This bullying led to the bloody rebellions known as the Jacquerie.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

100,000 people were put to death for harmful magic (maleficium). Believed that clergy possessed good magic, others possessed evil kind. 80% of the victims were women. Three groups of women convicted were widows, midwives, and healers and herbalist. The end of the witch hunts happened because of racialality, lawyers, and it became dysfunctional and threatened anarchy.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Ended the Great Schism by asserting supremacy and electing Pope Martin V over the other three popes. Afterwards they meet regularly.

Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain

1445 - 1498

In 1455 the pope granted the Portuguese explorers all the spoils of war. Church expected exploration to lead to more conversions. Bartholomew Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and Vasco da Gama traveled to India. In 1492 Columbus landed in the eastern Bahamas. The influx of New World's gold and silver and created new human an economic problems. Also people began to question their civilization's traditional values. Spanish empire in the Americas became expeditions of conquest. Benefited Spain by creating largest and longest-surviving trading bloc and spurred other European countries to undertake their own colonial ventures. Biological impact: introduced fruits, vegetables, diseases, and animals into the Americas.


1466 - 1536

he was the most famous northern humanist and illustrated the impact of the printing press. Wrote Colloquies (anticlerical dialogues and satires on religious dogmatism), Adages, and philosophia Christi (ethical piety in imitation of Christ). He aspired to unite classic ideals of humanity and civic virtue of Christian ideals of love and piety.

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

1469 - 1516

Married in 1469.United the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. Together they subdued their realms, secured their borders and Christianize Spain. The sponsored Christopher Columbus.

Columbus and the Start of the Spanish Empire

October 12, 1492 - 1498

Landed in the eastern Bahamas. Not until 1498 (3rd voyage) did he realize it wasn't China or Japan. Found that the natives' freely gave corn, yams, and sexual favors. Observed how easily the Spanish could enslave them.

Columbian Exchange

1493 - 1776

Transport of animals, plants, and germs into Americas, Europe, and Africa. Millions of people died from bubonic plague, typhoid, typhus, influenza, measles, chicken pox, whooping cough, malaria, and diphtheria.Introduction of animals like pigs, cattle, horses, goats, and sheep revolutionized the agriculture. Horses were used for travel and warfare. Sheep provided hides and wool. Plants to the New World are peaches, oranges, grapes, melons, bananas, rice, onions, radishes, and various green vegetables. Sugarcane demand the use of slaves. To Europe, maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peppers, beans, manioc, peanuts, squash, pumpkin, pineapple, cocoa, and tomatoes. Potatoes became a major peasant food.

Henry VIII for England

1509 - 1547

With is obsession for a male heir he had 6 wives. He only had one son Edward VI. In trying to divorce his wives he became leader of the English Church (Act of Supremacy).

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Started with the Luther posting the 95 theses against indulgences in 1517. Then he challenges the authority of the pope and inerrancy of church councils at Leipzig Debate in 1519. In 1536 Calvin, the leader of Calvinism arrives in Geneva. In 1540 Jusits founded by Ignatius of Loyola are recognized. The Peace of Augsburg recognizes the rights of Lutherans in 1555. The Reformation ends with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasantry opposed secular and ecclesiastical lords to override their traditional laws. Peasant leaders saw a point of view close to their own with Luther's ideals.Tens of thousands of peasants died during this revolt.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1540 - 1648

Leader Ignatius of Loyola who studied Christian classics. Believed in teaching one absolute spiritual self-mastery over one's feelings through disciplined studies. Added enthusiasm of traditional spirituality and mysticism and uncompromising loyalty. Recognized by pope in 1540.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Three sessions spread over 18 years. Council under pope's control. Voting was limited to high level of clergy. The council curtailed selling of church offices and strengthened authority of local bishops.

Elizabeth of England

1552 - 1603

Merged centralized episcopal system that she controlled with defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic rituals. She avoided Catholic and Protestant extremism. Showed little mercy to any who threatened unity of her rule. Puritans had two grievances against her reign: retention of Catholic ceremony and continuation of the episcopal system. Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth for heresy in 1570.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

In 1554 she entered a political marriage with Philip II of Spain. Parliament repealed Protestant statutes and reverted to Catholic religious practice.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Huguenots are French Protestants. The capture of French king Francis I by Charles V in 1525 provided motive for Protestant persectution. Aristocrats joined Calvinism. The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ended the third war and granted Huguenots religious freedoms within their terrtories. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572. Henry of Navarre rises to power. Passes the Edict of Nantes.

Thirty Nine Articles


Issued by Elizabeth I of England that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.

James I of England

1567 - 1624

1603 James VI the current King of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I as James I of England.1604 James rebuffed Puritans intention to maintain and enfhance the Anglican episcopacy. 1620 Puritans founed Plymouth Colony on Cape Cod Ba in North America. James's foreighn policy roused oppostion and doubt his Protestant loyalty. 1604 concluded peace with Spain. 1618 he rushed troops to aid German Protestants at outbreak of 30 years war.

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

In 1572 seven provinces formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands. 1672 Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands. William III of Orange led entire European coalition against France. Dutch distrusted monarchy. William III assumed dominant leadership. Religious life with the Dutch was toleration. Dutch republic had economic prosperity built on high urban consolidation, transformed agriculture, extensive trade and finance, and oversea commercial empire.

Dutch Revolt against Spain

1572 - 1648

Netherlands was the richest area in Europe. Merchant towns of Netherlands most independent and Calvinist strongholds. 1561 Cardinal granvelle hped to check Protestant gains by chuch reforms.4 first fusion of political and religious oppositon because of enforement of decrees of the Council of Trent. William of Orange was the leader of the movement. 1576 the Pacification of Ghent. Union of Arras made peace with Spain. Philip II declared William of Orange an outlaw. 1581 Union of Utrecht declared Philip no longer their ruler. 1584 William of Orange assassinated. Gain full recognition in Peace of Westphalia in 1648.

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

10 Catholic southern provinces came together with 7 Protestant northern provinces and unified opposition to Spain. The union declared internal regional sovereignty in religion.

Union of Utrecht

1579 - July 22, 1581

Northern provinces formed Union of Utrecht. On July 22, 1581 the Union declared Philip no longer their ruler and they turned to French duke of Alencon.

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1588

The Spanish Armada was in charge of riding Protest countries from Europe. 1587 Sir Francis Drake shelled port of Cadiz, interrupting Spain's war preparations. English won a stunning victory and the Armada was defeated. This gave heart to Protestant resistance everywhere. Spain never fully recovered.

Mary Stuart executed

February 18, 1587

Elizabeth believed execution would weaken royalty and send a outcry throughout the Catholic world. Event dashed all Catholic hopes for a bloodless reconversion of Protestant England. Pope Sixtus V publically supported a Spanish invasion of England.

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

In April 1589 the king was forced to ally with Protestant Henry of Navarre. A friar killed Henry III so Henry of Navarre succeeded as Henry IV. ""Paris is worh a mass". 1598 Henry proclaimed the Eddict of Nantes.

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1593 - 1685

The Edict proclaimed a formal religious settlement. It was a religious truce that granted Huguenots freedom of public worship, right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to maintain fortified towns. Edict transformed a hot warm into cold write. Louis XIV revoked the Edict in 1685.

Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658

Led England during the Purtian Rebulic. Became known through his military accompolishments for the Parliamentry army during the English Civil War. Was a very strict Puritan. died 1658


1602 - 1661

Attempted to impose direct royal administration on France and helped lay the ground works of Louis XIV's absolutism. After his death in 1661 Louis XIV assumed control of government.

Louis XIII and Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Policy to protect French interests by keeping Habsburg armies tied down.. He circumscribed many of the privileges in the Edict of Nantes.

Henry IV of France assassination

May 1610

He was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic. Best remebered for Edict of Nantes his political and economic policies laid foundations for transformation into absoule state.

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

He resorted to extra-parliamentary measures such as levying new tariffs and duties, collect discontinued taxes, forced loan, and imprisoning those who refused to pay. Charles recognized Petition of Right.He dissolved Parliament and didn't recal them until 1640. He made peace with France in 1629 and with Spain in 1630. He imposed religious conformities. The Scots rebell, he is forced to call for Parliament who refuses funds until he redress political and religious grievances, so he dissolves Parliament (Short Parliament). Landowners resented king's financial measures and paternalistic rule. 1642 Charles invaded Parliament and arrested his opponents. Parliament authority raised an army.

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

House of Commons impeached Straford and Laud, Abolished courts that enforced royal policy and prohibited levying of new taxes without consent. 1642 Charles invaded Parliament and arrested opponents led to Civil War.

Short Parliament

April 1640 - May 1640

When the Scots rebelled Charles was forced to call Parliament. They refused to fund the king until he redressed political and religious grievances. Shortly after the King dissolved Parliament.

English Civil War

1642 - 1660

1642 Charles invades Parliament and arrest opponent. Both Charles and Parliament raise an army. Parliament victory because of alliance with Scotland and reorganization of army under Oliver Cromwell. 1645 Cromwell defeated Charles. 1649 Charles was executed. From 1649 to 1660 England was a Puritan republic that Cromwell dominated, 1653 Cromwell dsbanded Parliament. Cromwell died in 1658 and English restored Anglican Church and monarchy in 1660.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

The groundwork for Louis XIV's absolutism was set by Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin. When he came to power after Mazarin's death he ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, the army, domestic administration, and economic regulations. Made sure major social groups benefited from his authority. He built Versailles the largest secular structure in Europe. He defended the divine right of kings, and said "I am the state". He had a strong army. His military concerns: northern borders along Spanish Netherlands, Habsburg, southern borders toward Spain, and neighboring countries. War of Devolution between Netherlands and France. He suppressed the Jansenists, Revolcated the Edict of Nantes. League of Augsburg included England, Spain, Sweden, United Provinces, and major German states. The League battle France in the 9 years war. War of Spanish Succession was the first time Louis went to war with inadequate finances, poorly equipped army, and mediocre generals.

The Fronde

1644 - 1652

The centralizing policies of Richelieu and Mazarin provoked provoked widespread rebellions among French Nobles. Named after the slingshots used by street boys.

Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

The period of time in which England was an official Puritan republic under the dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell. In 1558 Oliver Cromwell died and in 1660 monarchy was restore.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1650 - 1702

William of Orange was the stadtholder of Holland and led the entire European coalition against France. William III assume dominant leadership. He died in 1702.


1660 - 1685

During the reign of Charles II that restored the monarchy back into England. Along with the Parliament of Lords and Commons, also the Anglican Church. The king favored religious toleration. 1670 Treaty of Dover England and France allied against the Dutch. Also Charles pledged to announce conversion to Catholicism. Signed the Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 which suspended all laws against Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants. Parliament passed the Test Act requiring all civil and military officials to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation. Charles died in 1685 leaving James to fill his place.

Charles II of English

1660 - 1685

Charles II was the king that restored the monarchy to England after the Civil war. He favored religious toleration. He pledged to announce conversion to Catholicism in the Treaty of Dover. In Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 he suspended all laws against Roman Catholic and non-Anglican Protestant. Parliament passed the Test Act required all civil and military officials to swear oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation. He died in 1685

Royal Society of London


Founded in 1660. Members consciously saw themselves as following the path of Bacon. It was a institutions of sharing allowed information and ideas associated with the new science to be gathered, exchange, and debated.

Louis XIV personal reign

1661 - 1715

Louis XIV took personal rule after the death of Mazarin in 1661. He ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, army, domestic administration, and economic regulation. He made sure major social groups benefited from growth of his authority.1673 he curtailed its power.

Emergence and dominance of Robert Walpole

1676 - 1745

Sir Robert Walpole took over helm of government was based on royal support, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his control of government patronage. He maintained peace abroad and promoted status quo at home. Newspaper and public debate flourished Free speech freedom of association.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

1682 he begam co-ruler with his half brother. 1697 he visted western Europe. He returned to Russia determined to modernize it with western culture. 1698 strltsy rebelled and Peter brutally suppressed the revolt. He had a new military and developed a navy. Won the Great Northern War to gain warm ports. Built St. Petersburg in 1703 which symbolized Western Europe.

James II of England

1685 - 1688

Ruled during the Glorious Revolution. Demanded repeal of Test Act. He appointed Catholics to high positions in his court and army. Issued the Declaration of indulgence in 1687. When William of Orange invaded England James fled to France.

Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

During the reign of James II. 1687 he issued Declaration of Indulgence which suspended all religious tests and permitted free worship. Parliament invited William of Orange to invade England. James fled to France in 1689 and Parliament proclaimed William III and Mary II new monarchs

English Bill of Right


William and Mary recognized the Bill of Rights that limited powers of the monarchy and guaranteed civil liberties of privileged classes. England ruled by parliament called into session every three years. The Bill of Rights also prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying English throne.

The Great Northern War: Russia/ Sweden

1700 - 1721

After the 30 years war in 1648 Sweden controlled the Baltic and prevented Russia to warm ports. 1700 Peter the Great began to drive against Swedish territory to gain a foothold on Baltic. 1709 he defeated the Swedes. Closed in 1721 with the Peace of Nystad. Now Russia had access to warm ports.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - July 1713

France first time they under Louis's reign went to war with inadequate finances, poorly equipped army, and mediocre generals. The English had advanced weaponry and superior tactics. John Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough, bested Louis's soldiers. July 1713 France made peace with England.

Act of Settlement


Provided the English crown to go to the Protestant House of Hanover in Germany.

Decline of Netherlands


With the death of their stadtholder William III of Britain they wouldn't allow another. The unified politcal leadership vanished. They lost Naval Supremacyfishing industry declined. They lost technological superiority. disunity of provinces hastened economic decline. What saved them was financial dominance to finance European trade.

Death of William III of England


After his death the Netherland provinces prevented another stron stadtholder. Lead to Netherlands downfall.

Charles VI of Austria and the Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

Succeeded Joseph had no male heirs. Feared on his death Austrain Habsburg lands might fall prey to surrounding powers. Devoted his reighn to seeking approval of his family, estates of his realms, and the major foreign powers for Pragmatic Sanction that provided legal basis for a single line of inheritance within Habsburg dynasty. His daughter Maria Theresa was recognized as rightful heir. Charles VI died in October 1740

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

Government heavily regulated trade and commerce in hope of increasing national wealth.The bullion (measure of a country's wealth) is gold and silver. Viewed world as scarce resource and economic limitations. Colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources for homecountry. Home country protect and administer colonies. Adam Smith in his book Wealth of Nation was against mercantilism

Treaty of Utrecht

July 1713

Established boundaries Replaced the Spanish Habsburgs with Bourbons of France on the Spanish throne. Made peace with France and England during Spanish Sucession

Death of Louis XIV


Succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson Louis XV. The Mississippi Bubble took place and authority of the Parlement was renewed

Mississippi Bubble

Feb 1720

John Law He established a bank in Paris. Organized a monopoly, the Mississipi Company that managed French national debt. 1720The fiasco brought disgrace on the government.

War of Jenkins's Ear

1739 - 1815

During one boarding operation Spaniards cut off the ear of Robert Jenkins. Jenkins appeared before British Parliametn as an example of spanish atrocities to British merchantsin West Indies, lobbied Parliament to relieve Spanish intervention in trade, couldn't resit and went to war with Spain.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

rted Prussian aggression against Austria. aid to Prussia consolidated new powerful state in Germany, endanger France, brought Great Britain into continental war make sure Low Counties remained in Austria.British French conflict expaneded when France supported Spain against Britain in New World.Chose war in Austria. War ended in a stalemate with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Maria Theresa of Austria

1740 - 1780

Won loyalty and support through heroism and granted new privileges to . Recognized Hungary and promised Magyar mobility autonomy.

Frederick II The Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

He seized Austriam province of Silesia that shattered Pragmatic Sanction and upset contnental balance of power. Was considered a Enlightened absoultist of promotion through merit, Religious Toleration, administrative and Economic reforms.

Agricultural Revolution

1750 - 1800

Main goal of peasants was to ensure local food supply. Failure of harves meant hardship and death, beganed series of innovations in farm prodection. New Crops and New Methods: Low countries pressure of growing populaton and shortage of land required changes. New crops such as clover and trunips and increased animal fodder and restore soil. Manure as fertilizer and crop rotation, new method of animal breeding, enclosure method. This expaned population because the increase in food production

Industrial Revoltution

1750 - 1800

Sustained economic growth. Social cost made possible the production of more goods and services than ever before.demanded new kinds of skills, new discipline, large labor force, new demands, and a raise in standard of living. Increase consuming of goods and services. Great Britain became leader in industrial.New inventions like textile production, Spinng jenny, water frame, and steam engine. Increase need of iron. Reduce woman social rank.

Consumer Revolution

1750 - 1800

New machinery establishment of factories and creation of a new knid of work force which increased consuming goods and services. Inventions increaed supply of consumer goods. New fashion and invention were always better than old ones. expansion of consumption challenged social assuptions

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Fredrick II opened hostilities by nvading saxony. France and Austria made a new alliance dedicated to destruction of Prussia Sweden and Russia joined them. Two factors saved Prussia: Britain financial aid and Empress Elizabeth of Russia died. treaty of Hubrtusburg of 1763 ended contental conflict.

Diplomatic Revolution


in Ohio River valle(French Indian war). Prussia sighned Convention of Westminster Great Britain ally of Austria joined forces with Austria's majore eighteenth century enemy. France and Austria signed a defensive alliance.

Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 - 1796

Considered a enlightened absoulist for limiting administrative reform, economic Growth, and territorial expansion

Treaty of Paris


Gave Britain a some what victory after the 7 years War. and reduced French colonial powers

Joseph II of Austria

1765 - 1790

Considered an enlightened absolutist for Centralization of Authority, ecclesiastcal policies, economic and agrarian reforms. religious policies political centralized.

Spinning Jenny


Made by James Hargreaves. allowed 16 spindles of thread to be spun and could operate 120 spindles.

Steam Engine


steam engine revolutionized transportation Permitted industrialization to grow and expand into one area of production after another. James Watt paten steam engine.

Water Frame


Made by Richard Arkwright permited production of purely cotton fabric, factories sprang up near streams.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

1774 Intolerable Acts closed port of Boston, reorganized government of Massachustts, allowed troops to be quartered, and removed trials of royal customs officials to England. 1776 Declaration of Independence. 1783 Treaty of Paris ends War of American Revolution. It embraced democratic ideals and assert equality of white male citizens.

Estates General called to meet

August 8, 1788

Summoned in order to help with Frances financial problems.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

An oath to continue meeting until they gave France a constitution by National Assembly.

Great Fear

July 1789

Urban disturbance that swept the country side. political, social, and economic grievances of many sections of the country became combined.

Storming of Bastle

July 14, 1789

Large crowd marched to Bastille to get weapons for the militia. A fortress had once held political prisoners. Troops in the Bastille fired into the crowd. The crowd stormed the fortress.

Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27, 1789

National Constituent Assemble decided before writing a new constitution they should publish a statement of broad poliitical principles based on Enlightened ideals.

March of the Fishwives

October 6, 1789

Women marched to Versaille demanding more food. Resulted in the king and royal family moving back to Paris.

Legislative Assembly Meets

Oct 1, 1791

They established a new constitution and immediately confronted challenges flowing from the resistance to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

War with Austria

April 20, 1792

Girondist led to war with Austria and launched period of armed conflict. Believed war would preserve revolution. War led to establish of republic., 1792 Legislative Assembly imprisoned Louis XVI

Tuileries Stormed- King captive

August 10, 1792

1792 a large crowd forced Louis XVI to take refuge in Legislative Assembly. Later he was imprisoned and the recently constitutional monarch no longer had a monarch

Convention meets- Monarch Abolished

September 21, 1792

Met and declared France a republic and governed by elected assembly.

Reign of Terror

November 1792 - July 28, 1794

The actions to protect the revolution like having a war with Europe to defend the republic, the committee of Public Safety, levee en Masse, and De-christianization. Ended with the revolutionaries turning against themselves and of the fall of Robespierre.

The Directory


The executive body during the Thermidorian Reaction. they limited franchise soldiers permitted to vote.

Louis XVI executed

June 21, 1793

The king was executed on reason of conspiracy. Part of the Radical part in a revolution.

Levee en Masse

August 23,1793

the military requisition on entire populations.

Danton Executed

April 6, 1794

Jacques Danton provided heroic national leadership, accused of being insufficiently militant on the war.

Fall of Robespierre

July 26, 1794 - July 28, 1794

At the height of his power in 1794. established the Cult of the Supreme Being. July 26 he made a speech in the Convention declaring leaders of government were conspiring against revolution. July 27 he was shouted at and the next day arrested.

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established

August 22, 1795

Rejected constitutional monarchy and democracy and provided for a legislature of two houses Council of Elders and Council fof 500. It was the revolution of the holders of property.

Napoleon- coup Brumaire

November 9, 1799

Napoleon declared that he will rule France.


Avignon Papacy aka Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1377

Practices such as selling indulgences contributed to the Avignon papacy's reputation for materialism and political scheming. Pope John XXII tried to restore papacy in Italy. French regulated ecclesiastical appointments and taxation.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

French wanted French Pope, Italian wanted Italian Pope. The Conclave of Cardinal elected pope. Impact: lay taxation, heresy, secularism, and Unan Sancum (temporal authority subject to spiritual authority).

Lollard:John Wycliffe

1385 - 1401

Lollards in England that followed Wycliffe that became a major intellectual spokesman for the rights of royalty, threatened secular as well as ecclesiastical dominion and jurisdiction. He preached in the vernacular. Lollardy became a capital offense in England by 1401

Hussites: John Huss


He was a pro- Wycliffe. 1410 was placed under papal interdict. 1414 won an audience in front of Council of Constance. Was accused of heresy and imprisoned he died at the stake July 6, 1415

Cult of Reason

November 10, 1493

During Robespierre height of power he worshiped reason.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

He suppressed the Borgias. Raised the Renaissance papacy to its peak of military prowess "warrior pope". 1509 fully secured the Papal states. Julius turned to the second undertaking ridding Italy of French invader. Formed Holy League.

John Calvin-Geneva

1509 - 1564

Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as dominant Protestant force. Believed in divine predestination and to reorder society according to God's plan. In Geneva he was determined establish political and religious independence from Bern. Geneva began Europe's only free state.

95 Thesis

October 31,1517

Written by Martin Luther of a list of 95 problems with the Catholic Church. Started Lutherism and The reformation.

English Reformation

1520 - 1553

With the Act of Supremacy Henry declared himself the head of the English Church and established the Anglican Church.

Diet of Worms

April 1521

Luther was summoned to the Diet of Worms to recant. He stated it was against Scripture, reason, and conscience and he was than made an outlaw.

Act of Supremacy


An act that made Henry III the head of the church in England.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Strictly under the pope's control, voting limited to high levels of the clergy. most important reforms concerned internal church discipline. Trent strengthened authority of local bishops. Initially resisted but over time legislation took hold.

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

Made division of Christendom permanent recognized cuius regio, eius religio, ruler of land determine its religion. It didn't Calvinism and Anabaptism.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

3,000 hugguenots killed in Paris. In the next 3 days, 20,000 people died from the attacks. The pope celebrated this because it ended France ability to subdue rebellions in Netherlands. It became an international struggle against an authority whose cruelty consisted of any means of resistance.

The Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Most destructive of wars of religion. Preconditions for war: fragmented Germany, Religious Division, Calvinism and Palatinate, Maximilian of Bavaria and the Catholic League. Four Periods of War: Bohemian Period, Danish Period, Swedish Period, and Swedish French Period. Ended with Treaty of Westphalia.

Galileo Condemned


Condemned for his works like Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina that showed his views about how scripture should be interpreted to accommodate new science, Dialogue on the Two Chief World System that defended physical truthfulness of Copernicanism.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Louis XIV revoked the Dict of Nantes an action that forced France and Europe to learn again by bitter experience the hard lessons of the wars of religion.

Civil Const of Clergy

July 12, 1790

Made by the National Assembly that required clergy to be under the state and not under the pope. Religious devotion and revolutionary loyalty became incompatible.

Cult of the Supreme Being

May 7, 1794

replaced the Cult of Reason. It was a deistic cult that reflected Rousseau's vision of civic religion that would induce morality among citizens


Thinkers, authors/books, ideas


1265 - 1321

Considered the Father of Humanism. His critical textual studies, elitism, and contempt for the learning of Scholastic were featured in later humanist.


1304 - 1374

The cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature. Wrote Vita Nuova, and Divine Comedy.


1313 - 1375

Pioneer of humanist studies. Decameron, one hundred often bawdy tales that is social commentary and sympathetic look at human behavior.

Printing Press-Guttenberg


In response for the demand of books Johann Gutenberg invented printing with movable type. Thereafter books were made rapidly and produced on topics both profound and practical. new technology[ proved enormously profitable. Number exploded. Literacy nurturing self esteem and critical frame of mind.

The Prince


Cynical satire by Machiavelli on the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Danish astronomer that spent most of his life advocating an earth-centered system. Suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun and the moon, the sun and the other planets revolved around the earth. Constructed scientific instruments made more extensive naked eye observations. produced vast body of astronomical data.


1564 - 1616

Viewed government through the character of the individual ruler. many of his plays were performed at court. Created classical comedies and tragedies, medieval morality plays, and contemporary Italian short stories.. Themes deeply rooted in contemporary religious traditions.

Cervantes: Don Quizote


Written in prison intended to satirize the chivalry romances then popular in Spain. His juxtaposes the down-to-earth realism with old-fashioned religious idealism.

Bacon: Novum Organum


English father of empiricism and experimentation in science. Accomplishment was setting intellectual tone and create a climate conducive to scientific work. He attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered in Novum Organum . Urged philosophers and investigators of nature examine the evidence of their senses before constructing logical speculations. Examination and empirical evidence, Opened strong link between governments and scientific enterprise.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

French made influential efforts to reconcile faith and new science. write work refute dogmatism and skepticism. Pensees (Thoughts). Believed human beings' total sinfulness eternal predestination and complete dependence on faith. loving God exist but humans unworthy. reason should drive to faith in God. Better to believe in God exists and to stake everything on mercy than not to do so.

Descartes: Discourse on Method


Developed scientific method. In Discourse on Method he rejected scholastic philosophy and advocated thought on a mathematical model

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Set forth first astronomical model that actually portrayed motion, orbits were elliptical. published his findings in The New Astronomy.

Copernicus: On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres


Polish astronomer. On the Revolution of Heavenly Sphere he provided an intellectual spring board for complete criticism of the then-dominant view ofr the position of the earth in the Universe to a Heliocentric system.

Hobbes: Leviathan


He was the original political philosopher. Leviathan provided rigorous philosophical justication for a strong central political authority. Believed people to be generally bad and evil.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Principia Mathematica was his research and great works. He viewed that inertia applied to bodies both at rest and in motion. physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity which explained the movement of the planets He believed in empiricism- that one must observe phenomena before attempting to explain them.

Locke: Treatises on Government 1st and 2nd


Philosophical thinker. In First Treaties of Government cleared the philosophical decks of a long-standing traditional argument could not stand up to rigorous analysis. In Second Treaties of Government he argued for a government that must be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed. He believed people are generally good

Voltaire- Candide


Voltaire is the best known and greatest enlightened writer. Candide is a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and what he considered unwarranted optimism about the human condition.

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract


In his book The Social Contract it outlines political structure that Rousseau believed would overcome the evils of politics and society. He urged traditional conservative role for women in the novel Emile, he set forth a radical version of the view that men and women occupy separate sheres.

Smith- Wealth of Nations


Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations the most important economic work of Enlightenment. He believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system. He urged a mercantile system to be abolished

Wollstonecraft- Vindication of the Rights of Woman


In her Vindication of the Rights of Woman brought Rousseau before the judgment of the rational Enlightnment ideal of progressive knowledge.

Malthus- Principle of Population


Thomas Malthus, in his book Principle of Population, he contended that population must eventually outstrip food supply.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


David believed that if wages raised, parents would have more children and would enter the labor market thus expanding the number of workers and lowering wages. As the wages fell people would prduce less children. Then wages will raise and the process will start all over.


Decline of Gothic Art

1000 - 1375

Gothic Art was the art of Medieval. That was flat and showed importance by enlarging the foucus point. As civilation modernized this art modernized too.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Means rebirth and was the transition from medieval to modern times. It was considered a protype of the modern world. It took place in Italy because of the large churches in and culture taht people would put art on. Humanism, shadowing, linear perspective, and detail characterized the artwork. Famous people: Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Donatello. Ended with Charles V sacking Rome.

Mannerism until the Baroque

1450 - 1527

Was the advent new style known of the High Renaissance. Made room for teh strange and abnormal. Ended with the end of the Renaissance.

Northern Renassiance

1466 - 1536

Created a climate favorable to religious and educational reforms. More diverse social backgrounds and more devoted to religious reforms. Famous people: Erasmus, Albrecht Durer, Rudolf Agricola, Thomas More, Guillaume Bude, Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples, and Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros. Northern Reniassance was a lot darker and a lot smaller based. Wood blocks carving were very popular.

Baroque Art

1573 - 1708

Was a style associated with seventeenth- century painting, sculpture, and architecture. Painters depicted subjects in naturalistic, rather than idealized, manner. Famous painters: Michelangelo Caravagio, Louis LeNain, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Portrayed scenes from Bible intended to instruct the observer in religious truths. Became asociated with Roman Catholicism and absolutist politics. Most elaborate baroque monument was Louis XIV's palace at Versailles.

Emergence of Rococo

1715 - 1774

Embraced lavish, lighthearted decoration with an emphasis on pastel colors and a play on light. Associated with aristocracies.Originated in France after Louis XIV's death. Famous: Francois Boucher, Imperial Hall, Jean-Antoine Watteau and Jean-Honore Fragonard. Paintings convince people in France monarchy court and aristocracy were frivolous. It increased hostility toward political and social elites of the Old Regime.


1758 - 1794

Books and simultaneous rediscovery and excavation of Roman cities fostered rise. Constituted themes, topics and styles from antiquity. Popularity of Rome for artists and tourists contributed to rise of Neo classicism. Aristocrats from Italy increased admired of it. Subject matter usually public life or public morals. Painters used heroism and slef-sacrifice to draw moral and political lessons. Famous: Jacques-Louis David and Jean Antoine Houdon