Galileo didn't create the first telescope, Hans Lippershey did in 1608 a Dutch eyeglass maker. Nontheless, Galileo made a telescope without ever seeing one and then used it to look in the sky to learn more. http://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/G/W/L/galileo.jpg
Issac Newton (1600s)
Created the laws of gravity and motion and also invented calculus.
He knew that the earth was round and sailed from Portgual to the West Indies and then sailed back with 3 ships named the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria.
Line of Demarcation is thought up (1493)
The Line of Demarcation was set by Pope Alexander VI. This line split the land between Spain, which had rights to the left of this line, and Portugal which had the same rights east of the line.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
The specific terms of the Line of Demarcation are set in the treaty of Tordesillas which is signed between the 2 countries.
Vasco da Gama, Portugueses Navigator (1477-1499)
1497 - 1499
Vasco da Gama followed Dias's footsteps and lead a 4 ship expedition around the cape of good hope. After 10 months, he managed to reach Calicut, though on the way back they lost half of their ships in a scurvy and many sailors died due diseases and the the lack of nutrition.
Martin Waldseemuller (1507)
Martin Waldseemuller used Vespucci's descriptions about his voyage to Brazil and made a map of the region.
Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1520)
9/20/1519 - 1520
Sent out 5 ships from Spain, the arrived at the southern tip of South America finally in 1520. They managed to sail around the whole world.
Dutch Immigrants build Cape Town (1652)
The dutch arrived at the southern tip of Africa, and built Cape Town. Boers, or Dutch Farmers settled in Cape Town, over time they were ousted, enslaved or killed.