Made from the Traditions and Encounters: A Global Peerspective on the Past textbook, by Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler.
Beginning around 5000 B.C.E, villages much like the Banpo Village- discovered in 1952- flourished along the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers.
In the same region as Yangshao, it was the first organization of China's public affairs.
Bronze Metallurgy is the primary explanation of Shang's rise and success, and during their rule they monoploized its production.
Zhou seized the capital after tring to disicpline the Shang king. It ruled most of China until it gave up its throne to an ambitious Qin ruler.
In 221 B.C.E. the King of Qin proclaims himself the First Emperor after bringing the Period of the Warring States to a close.
Centralized rule returns almost immediately after the First Emperor's death under the rule of Liu Bang in 206 B.C.E. This Dynasty is separated into two different time frames of Former Han (206 B.C.E.- 9 C.E.) and Later Han (25 C.E.- 220).
The Grand Canal was built during this dynasty; it began with the first emperor and was finished under the rule of the second emperor. During the 610's rebellions began to spring up, and the emperor was assasinated in 618.
The second emperor supposedly put an end to banditry and cut tax rates,and this dynasty stayed in power because of its maintenance of transportation and communication networks, the equal field system, and bureaucracy based on merit. A rebellion in 755 greatly weakened the Tang Government, and when it regained control in 763 it was not up to its former glory.
During this dynasty China was the most urbanized nation. After the Tang Dynasty warlords ruled until Song imposed their rule. Song did not trust military leaders, so it never quite reached its full potential; the first of its problems that led to its downfall was financial and military issues.
Kubilai Khan's brothers overran Russia and explored as far as eastern Germany, but only asked for tribute from cities and villages and did not occupy the territories.
In 1279 Chinggis Khan's grandson, Kubilai Khan, proclaims himself the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty.
Mongol rule ended in Persia when the last of the Mongol rulers died without an heir.
After the Yuan Dynasty falls, Hongwu rises to power as the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in 1368. He reestablishes Confucian and Neo-Confucuan schools and centralizes China through the use of mandarins and eunuchs.
When Ming fell the Manchus created the Qing Dynasty.
Qianlong emperor restricted Eurpoean commercial presence to Guangzhou, and merchants could only deal with cohongs, specially liscensed Chinese firms.
Nationalism strengthened in China, but the conflict between Nationalists in China and Communists in China began.
In 1945 the United Nations are created.
Mao Zedong, leader of the Communist Party, proclaims the People's Republic of China.
In the 1950's China recognized Moscow's power in exchange for Russian military equipment and economic aid.
Hong Kong reverts back to Chinese control from Britain.
After the domestication of the horse, carts and horse-drawn chariots arrived in China.
Iron metallurgy spread to China around 1000 B.C.E., and contributed to resistance of the Zhou Dynasty.
Paper was fashioned from bark, textiles and hemp before 100 B.C.E., but it was not heavily used until then.
Paper Currency appeared under during this time and became too convenient to discard.
Under the Tang and Song Dynasties gunpowder was invented while trying to find a medicine that gave eternal life. This resulted in primitive bombs and even a form of flamethrowers.
Under Tang rule naval technology evolved to use iron-nails, compasses and sails, thus increasing the range of trade.
By 1260 China's population had reached 15 million, which can be contributed to by fast-ripening rice and other advances in technology and agriculture.
By 1500 China's population had increased to 100 million.
By 1600 China's population had increased to 160 million.
Launched to industrialize China, it was ended when Cixi executed reformers and confined the Emperor to the Forbidden City.
The Five-Year Plan was introduced to get China up to speed in its social and economic development. During this period of reform China elmiinated family traditions and created equal rights for women.
The Great Leap Forward (1958-2961) and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) were policies that ended up hampering development in China rather than speeding it up. The Great Leap Forward was the start of controlling all land and businesses. This exhausted lands and pushed China backwards. The Great Proletarian Cultural Movement seeked to eradicate foreign influence, but it eradicated many valuable sources like teachers, intellectuals, professionals and managers.
Deng came into power after Mao's death in 1976. He began to try recover China from the chaos of the Great Proletarian Cultural Movement, and he opened up China to foreign, capitalist influences. When pro-democracy demonstrations began to spring up, he approved of bloody solutions and this resulted in the well-known event at Tiananmen Square.
In 1992 China's government announced the plans for the creation of a socialist market.
In the 1990's several Asian tigers fell in status and in 1997 there was a financial crisis. But China recovered from this and became one of the four rapidly growing economies known as the BRICs.
In 2001 China joined the World Trade Organization and moved to a global economic superpower status.
In 2003 China became the third nation to successfully launch spacecraft into orbit and have it land, too. They would continue to advance their space program.
In 2005 China and Russia hold their first joint military movement together to strengthen their friendship.
The Three Gorges Dam construction is finished, and will power much in China.
In a display of power to warn off spy satellites, China shoots down an old weather satellite.
China hosts the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
China becomes the world's second-biggest economy, overtaking Japan. But the rural people of China do not share in this economic boom; it belongs mainly to the urban people.
In 2012 Bo Xilai is booted from the Communist Party on accusations of being corrupt and abusing his power. Later, the party holds a congress expected to decide on a change in leadership once every ten years. Xi Jinping is expected to take over in 2013.
Three different school of thought emerged during the Period of the Warring States, and among these was Confucianism.
It is not known when Laozi lived or if he was the true founder of Daoism, one of the three schools of thought to emerge during the Period of the Warring States. Daoism is less active than Confucianism, focusing more on reflection and self-knowledge rather than interfering with things outside of one's control or understanding.
The doctrine of Legalism, the third school of thought to emerge during the Period of the Warring States, was derived from many men, but among the most notable was Shang Yang. The adoption of this doctrine put an end to the Warring States.
Qin Shihuangdi proclaimed himself the First Emperor in 221 B.C.E. Under his rule currencies, weights and measures are standardized. Many criticized his rule. So, too preserve his throne, he ordered the burial of 400 living scholars. In 210 he dies and is buried in a lavish tomb with terra-cotta soldiers, and one year after his death revolts begin, bringing the Qin Dynasty to an end.
Known as the "Martial Emperor," he was the greatest and most energetic of emperor of the Han Dynasty. In 124 B.C.E. he established a university to prepare men for government service. He also expanded China, and the expansion spread the influence of Confucianism to Vietnam and Korea.
The only woman emperor siezed the throne after her husband died of a heart attack in 660. This was ironic because China was strongly patriarchal, which can be seen through the practiced foot binding of women in wealthier families.
This man was an important representative of Neo-Confucian, and it is important because it shows the influence of Buddhismduring this time and it affected Asian thinking.
Chinggis Khan united the Mongols and led them to dominate Northern China.
The Bubonic Plague breaks out in China during this time through usage of the Silk Roads, severly hurting its economy and polotics. The Mongols are chased out of China, and this brings the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty.
Zheng He was sent by the Ming government into the Indian Ocean to establish a Chinese presence. Accompanied by many ships containing soldiers and treasures, Zheng He traded with different ports, payed respects to local deities and customs, and was not afraid to use military force if he deemed it necessary to be noticed.
Nurhaci untied the Manchu tribes into a centralized state. After the Ming Dynasty fell he helped to create the Qing Dynasty and reigned from 1616 to 1626.
With the aid of European advisors and weapons, Cixi overcomes the Taiping Rebellion. Recognizing the need for change after the rebellion, Cixi launched reform programs.
This pandemic killed 20 million.
Hu Jintao succeeded Jiang in 2003 as the President of China.
A pandemic already, in 2004 the United Nations estimated China to have 1 million people infected with HIV.
Around 700 B.C.E. Zhou began to face resistance from subordiantes on top of nomadic invaders in 771 B.C.E. In 400 B.C.E. territorial princes ingnored the government and expanded their states
Liu Zexu's actions to abolish the opium trade ignites a war between Europe and China. China is defeated in 1842. In 1858, 1884, and 1895, China suffers similair defeats with France, Japan and Britain.
This treaty guides China's foreign relations until 1943 and also ceded Hong Kong to Britain and made it so British citizens were not subject to Chinese law. It also forced China to open up ports for commerce and residence. This was the start pf China being divided up into spheres of influence.
The Taiping Rebellion, led by Hong Xinquan, raged throughout China and brought the Qing Dynasty to near collapse.
The Nian Rebellion springs up in north eastern China.
Russia fights against Qing forces, Britain, France, and Sardinia, but against these forces it reveals Russia's disadvantage in technology.
The Muslim Rebellion springs up in south western China.
China lost Vietnam to France in 1885, Burma to Britain in 1886, and Korea, Taiwan and part of Manchuria to Japan in 1895.
This war was fought over the independence of Korea because China wanted to reassert its authority but Japan wanted it separate from China. The Japanese win.
In 1899 the Boxers organized to eradicate foreigners and their influences from China; they went on a rampage in northern China. In 1900 the Boxers siezed several embassies, forcing the hands of Britain, Germany, U.S., Russia and Japan to crush the rebellion.
After the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, global war erupted. Along with others, the Frenchemployed Chinese laborers. In 1914 Japan demanded northeast China from Germany, and in 1915 Japan made the Twenty One demands on China that would make it a prtoectorate state of Japan. After accepting some of the demands, these were leaked to Britain who spoke up for China.
This movement protested foreign interfence, especially from Japan.
Jiang Jesh launched a successful expedition to unite China, but in 1927 he turned against their communist allies, and the Nationalists beat out the Communists.
In the 1930's Japan began to attack China, and global conflict opened up. First, Japan started with the conquest of Manchuria in 1931, and then, in 1937, it launched a full0scale invasion that resulted in the Rape of Nanjing.
Japan took the city of Nanjing and treated the city brutally through raping and killing its citizens.
By the end of the conflict the communists in China are poised to lead China. The Civil War resumes.
When the U.S. moved too far up the Yalu River China becamse involved with the Korean War.
Five months before the Olympics are to be hosted in China, Tibet erupts into Anti-China violence.
Russia and China sign an agreement that settles their disputed borders.
Japan arrests a Chinese crew sailing in disputed waters and both sides open up in argument. Japan releases the crew but denies China the apology it demands.
Google redirects its Chinese users to the Hong Kong site after stopping its censorship earlier in the year.
Both China and the Phillipines oppose one another as they try and take the reef they have both claimed; it is believed that there are oil reserves in the reef.