The Black Death, which was one of the most devastating pandemics in history, killed around 30-60% of Europe's population.
Beginning of the Renaissance
An intellectual and artistic movement, the Renaissance was a time of growth and expansion for the arts, as well as the sciences.
Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orleans
The turning point in the 100 years war between England and France was also Joan of Arc's first military victory.
Johann Gutenberg Invents the Printing Press
The invention of the printing press revolutionized the studies of the arts and sciences, as well as the manufacturing of books.
Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition
Designed to get rid of all the non-Catholics (i.e. Jews and Muslims), it was one of the most deadly inquisitions of all time.
Botticelli Paints Birth of Venus
One of the most famous pieces of art during the Renaissance, it was painted as a result of the Platonic Academy; the painting was controversial due to it's sexual nature pushing the boundaries back then.
Columbus Discovers the Americas
Columbus's discovery would lead to the creation of the Americas 100 years later, which would lead to the western world as we know it.
1494 - 1559
A series of conflicts that arose due to dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples.
Michelangelo Paints the Sistine Chapel
Forced by the Pope, 9 scenes from the old testaments were painted onto the walls and ceilings of the chapel by Michelangelo.
Machiavelli Writes the Prince
Considered to be one of the earliest works of modern philosophy, it was published after Machiavelli's death for fear of controversy.
Martin Luther 95 Theses
By posting his problems with the church on the church door, he became excommunicated from the Catholic church; he created the form of Christianity we know today as Protestant.
Diet of Worms
The most famous diet (Imperial discussion) of worms was the one Martin Luther attended in 1521, where he was deemed a heretic and banned from the Holy Empire.
At the Zurich Disputation, Ulrich Zwingli presented his 67 Theses, which included many topics and -because it was successful- caused a widespread reform.
The Peasant's Revolt
1524 - 1526
Angered by the fuedal system and rising prices, the German peasants decided to revolt -peacefully at first- but it soon turned deadly-- more than 40 German monasteries and castles were burned.
Start of the European War of Religions
The wars, fought between the Catholics and the Protestants, were caused by the Protestant Reformation in western and Northern Europe.
Claiming of the Phlilppines
Ferdinand Magellan claims the Philippines for Spain, which becomes known as the first subsequent conversion to Catholicism and the first in East Asia.
The Schmalkaldic League
1530 - 1531
Formed in the winter of 1530 as a defensive alliance against the empire.
The Augsburg Confession
Created as a result of the Parliament meeting up and resolving the political, social, and religious problems created by the Reformation; the document is still the Lutheran doctrinal standard.
Henry the 8th of England Excommunicated
Due to annulling his first marriage and getting married again without the permission of the church, Henry the 8th of England was excommunicated.
Act of Supremacy
Henry the 8th is declared the supreme head of the Church of England.
Establishment of Church of England
Henry the 8th established the new independent entity Church of England.
Execution of Thomas More
Thomas More was executed by King Henry the 8th when he refused to accept his claim to be the supreme head of the Church of England.
Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
1535 - 1679
A group of men and women who were executed for treason and related offences in the Kingdom of England.
Foundation of the Mennonites
Created by Menno Simmons, this group has influenced the Hutterites, Quakers, Baptists, and Amish.
Establishment of Roman Inquisition
The Roman Inquisition was a system of tribunals (kind of like a court system) responsible for prosecuting individuals accused of a wide array of crimes relating to religious doctrine/alternate religious beliefs.
Foundation of the Jesuit Order
The Jesuit Order, founded by Ignatius Loyola, spread the word of god the members of the Society of Jesus, who were known as Jesuits and were considered the soldiers of god.
Articles of Religion
Forty-Two Articles of Religion is released by Archbishop Crammer.
Foundation of the Pontifical Gregorian University
The Gregorian University was the first university founded by the Jesuits; the Gregorian has one of the largest theology departments in the world.
The Peace of Augsburg
An edict of toleration for Lutheranism, the outcome became known as "cuius regio, euis religio", which means that each Prince could choose the religion for his area.
Establishment of the Anglican Church
The establishment of the Anglican church is completed by the Thirty-nine articles
The Heidelberg Catechism
One of the most important Calvinistic statements of faith, it's a Protestant confessional document used in the teachings of Reformed Christian doctrine.
Organization of the Holy League
Pope Pius the 5th organizes the Holy League, which is lead by Don Juan de Austria, to defend Europe from the larger Islamic Ottoman forces.
Saint Bartholomew's Massacre
Mobs of French Catholics killed Protestants during the French Religious Wars; it is believed that the massacre began due to King Charles the 9th's sister Margaret marrying the Protestant King Henry the 4th.
Publishing of the Bishops' Bible
1572 - 1606
This bible, a revision of the Great Bible checked against the Hebrew text, is considered to be the first bible to be published in England by episcopal authority.
Mission Nombre De Dios
This mission in St. Augustine, Florida, is considered to be the first Catholic mission to North America.
Expulsion of Jesuits
The Jesuits are expelled from Kyushu by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Formation of Ukrainian Catholic Church
The church is formed after Ukrainian subjects of the king of Poland are reunited with Rome; it is also the largest Byzantine Catholic Church.
Granting of Charter
Elizabeth the 1st grants charter to East India Company, which provides more opportunities for trade.
The Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Germany was invaded by Austria's imperial armies and then later by the Swedish who came to help the Protestants; in this period society broke down and two-thirds of the population died through famine, warfare, and plague.
The Peace of Westphalia
This series of treaties was the start of the separation of the church and state, and Calvinists were added to the list of tolerated regions, which brought stability.