History Fall Final


the Great Awakening

1730 - 1739

religious revivals--> religious freedom--> revivalists v. traditionalists; less belief in established church; new ways of finding salvation

Trial of Zenger


NYC paper printer Zenger wrote bad things about governor and was arrested and tried for seditious libel BUT NOT GUILTY because accusations were found true

Seven Years' War/French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

War over land claims in Ohio Valley

Proclamation Line of 1763


Established boundary at Appalachian Mountains meant to make peace with Native Americans

Treaty of Paris


Kicked out French in North America-> Native Americans no longer have allies; Ohio company can now expand British North America and focus on a mercantile empire

Sugar Act


Parliament tax on refined sugar, along with others.
-> tax reduced on molasses
-> new machinery to end smuggling
-> no jury trials for cases against merchants
= way to get colonists to pay Navigation Act levy that they could have otherwise avoided

Stamp Act


printed material must carry a stamp; affected everyone-> outrage "NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION"

Declaratory Act


Parliament rejected American claims of taxation without representation

The Townshend Acts


new taxes imposed on British goods with smuggling regulations-> bad for merchants; => boycott

Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770

five Bostonians dead; soldiers defended by John Adams because fight was instigated by civilians and they were doing their job
-> repeal of Townshend Acts b/c Americans couldn't survive without British goods

Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party


British had an abundance of Chinese tea and sold it in the American markets, thus lowering the price and competing with American merchants=> Boston Tea Party (attempt to tweak mercantilism)

The Intolerable Acts


Boston Port Act: Boston port closed until tea is payed back
Massachusetts Government Act: took away governors council election and appointed governors and council and all town meetings must apply to governor
Administration of Justice Act: allowed governor to decide where trials for capital crimes should take place(->no fair trial)
Quartering Act: soldiers housed in occupied homes

Continental Congress


resistance to Intolerable Acts-> complete halt of trade and effort to prevent monopolies; new opportunity for colonists to participate in politics with representatives

The Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed

The Declaration of Independece


United States declared an independent nation; universal entitlement to the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

Articles of Confederation


lot of federal government power but little states power, unicameral government

The Charles River Bridge Case


The Charles River Bridge company had a monopoly on bridges on the Charles River and the Warren Bridge Company had begun to make a bridge there, so Roger Taney ruled that it was okay if they finished bridge and then charged for it until the debts were paid off. Then it would be free. Okay because it was for the better interest of society

The Great Compromise/the Connecticut Compromise


Combined the New Jersey Plan of a unicameral legislature with one vote per state(smaller states), and the Virginia Plan of a three-branch, bicameral legislature with votes based on population representation(larger states)

Land Ordinance of 1787


Said that citizens in West were equal citizens -> new states

Whiskey Rebellion


Pennsylvania Farmers tried to block Whiskey Tax from Hamilton Plan that Jefferson had enacted

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1798 - 1799

A result of the Alien and Sedition Acts: Madison wrote Virginia Resolution asking federal government to protect free speech against Sedition Act; Kentucky resolution written by Jefferson saying that states could nullify laws made by Congress that were unconstitutional.

Alien and Sedition Acts


Federalist Bill:
-The Naturalization Act: all people born in US are as of the moment citizens; 14 yr residency for alien to become citizen
-The Alien Act: ability to deport any foreigners deemed dangerous (mostly bc of French coming from French Revolution)
-The Sedition Act: a crime to publish false libel against members of the government

Revolution of 1800


The Republicans gained office with Jefferson, but there was a tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr-> the creation of the 12th Amendment that said if the election was tied it would go to the House of Representatives.

Gabriel's Rebellion


failed slave rebellion but well organized; -> tightening of slave control and laws

Marbury v. Madison


A bunch of people were appointed offices by Adams the night before he left office, but Madison(Jefferson's secretary of state) refused to give them their positions. Williams Marbury sued-> "judicial review": the court can review laws that states had made and review if they were constitutional; judicial brach=> branch with equal power

Embargo Act


banned American ships from sailing to European ports because Jefferson didn't want to get involved in to war between France and Britain->devastation of American economy

Non-Intercourse Act


repeals Embargo Act

War of 1812

1812 - 1814

Ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent; began because even after America won their freedom, Great Britain continued the practice of impressment on American ships

Missouri Compromise


When Missouri asked to enter the Union, big controversy over status of state. Decided that it would enter as slave state and Maine would enter as a free state so equal number of representation for free/slave states. All states below the 36 30 line would have slavey, but not slavery above it.
= the rising divisions that slavery created

Panic of 1819


Huge demand for American products after War of 1812, but when prices dropped to normal, speculative bubble burst. Banks asked for their money/loans and many people had gone bankrupt, thus deepening the distrust of banks

Adams-Onis Treaty


Spain sold Florida to the United States

McCulloch vs. Maryland


John Marshal said that the Bank was a legal exercise of Congress's powers. The Elastic Clause in the Constitution said that congress could pass those laws that were necessary and proper and this was ruled as one of them.

Monroe Doctrine


Claimed that the US wouldn't let European powers colonize the Americas, it would abstain from involvement in European wars, and warned European countries not to interfere with Latin America. **Asserted US dominance in the Western Hemisphere. and NATIONALISM

Gibbons vs. Ogden


Court got rid of a monopoly that the New York legislature had granted for steamboat navigation because the power to regulate interstate commerce belonged to Congress and was granted by the Commerce Clause

Election of 1824


Clay vs.Adams vs. others BUT Clay dropped out and gave support to Adams-> base of Whig Party and Clay became Quincy Adams's sec of state

Tariff of Abominations


Raised taxes on imported, manufactured goods. Southerners hated this especially SC and threatened to nullify it

Indian Removal Act


Allotted money to remove the tribes eventually they were moved from the Southeast to Kentucky on something called the Trail of Tears

Nat Turner's Rebellion


believed he was chosen to lead a rebellion. He and followers marched from farm to farm assaulting white inhabitants.
Sent shock throughout the plantation owner community->stricter and more punishments for slaves
turning point = brought forth idea of gradual emancipation

Force Bill


Response to the nullification crisis of SC over the tariff of abominations. allowed him to send an army to enforce tariffs

The Panic of 1837


Began right when Van Buren came into office; BUS was killed in 1836 and Jackson placed federal funds into pet banks but government couldn't regulate state banks' activities. Too much paper money was produced causing inflation-> specie circular and government only took gold and silver as payment. England demanded payment of debts in gold and silver as well OVERALL lead to serious economic downturn

Mexican War

1846 - 1848

War over land; American support by manifest destiny

Wilmot Proviso


David Wilmot proposed prohibition of slavery in Mexico Cession territory
-> Free Soil Party of 1848

Seneca Falls Convention


Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott barred from participating in anti-slavery convention because they were women so they created a gathering on women suffrage;
"Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" new version of Declaration of Independence with women place into the words

Compromise of 1850


Henry Clay's attempt to resolve sectional differences and get CA admitted as a state:
-California = free state in Union
-slave trade in capital abolished
-law to reclaim runaway slaves
-status of slavery in new states left to popular sovereignty
-US to pay of Texas debts acquired while it was an independent state

Fugitive Slave Act


federal commissioners could determine the fate of fugitive slaves without a jury

Kansas-Nebraska Act


Douglas's bill passed in 1854; said that there would be no slavery in new territories-> Democratic part split in two; South became mostly democrat whereas Whigs and old Democrats became the Republican party
Douglas made bill because he wanted to make transcontinental railroad but need territories to be states in order for railroad to be successful

Ostend Manifesto


declared the rationale behind why US should purchase Cuba from Spain and if couldn’t purchase it it would wage war with Spain; manifest destiny, Monroe doctrine etc. Some debate over whether to make it a slave state or not but decided against because of Controversy with Kansas-Nebraska Act

the trial of Celia


killed master while she was being sexually assaulted, but not considered self-defense because she is not considered "a woman" so she was sentenced to death after her baby was born

Dred Scott vs. Sanford


went to free state with master and wished to be free so sued and Roger Taney ruled slavery constitutional

Lecompton Constitution


Attempt to admit Kansas as a slave state. Drafted by proslavery peeps as real constitution but never official or submitted to a vote

John Brown's Raid


Harpers Ferry in Virginia took it over with other men but executed-> martyr for many northerners despite wrongdoings

Crittenden Compromise


Senator John Crittenden proposed that Missouri Compromise line be extended to the Pacific Ocean (36, 30) BUT the seceding states rejected it as an action taken too little too late

Secession Crisis

1860 - 1861

After Lincoln became president, Southern states began to secede from Union. Separate economies of North and South

The American Civil War

1861 - 1865

10% Plan


Lincoln proposed easy way to allow South back to Union. Could get majority of rights back as long as they swore an oath of loyalty and once 10% of people took oath they could elect a new state government

Wade-Davis Bill


Response to 10% Plan, made by radical Republicans and much harsher; required a majority of southerners to swear oath and guaranteed blacks' equality before the law BUT didn't include participation by blacks

Freedman's Bureau

1865 - 1870

war measure; ability to divide and hand out confiscated land to former slaves. Vetoed by Johnson because it got rid of big national government, it believes that rights should go to states
-> to ensure equal legal treatment, establish schools, settle racial disputes, and create a free labor working system

13th Amendment


Abolished slavery

Treaty of Ghent

April 9, 1865

Appomattox Courthouse Lee surrenders to Grant

Civil Rights Bill of 1866


Said that people born in the US were citizens, regardless of race. Spelled out rights and said blacks were equal before law. VETOED BY JOHNSON BUT STILL PASSED

Radical Reconstruction

1867 - 1877

attempt to change society and fix nation; desire to give blacks equal amount of rights

Tenure of Office Act

March, 1867

Passed by congress to limit power of president. Said that president couldn't remove certain officeholders without the consent of the Senate; once Johnson violated that act he was impeached

14th Amendment


Gave citizenship to everyone born in the US; All rights protected; if states denied the right to vote to any particular group they simply wouldn't have that group as representation in Congress; passed in order to make Civil Rights Act of 1866 constitutional

15th Amendment


Said that federal and state governments could not deny any citizen the right to vote based on race

Enforcement Acts


To stop KKK and Grant sent troops to arrest them so that soon they were stopped and group dissolved

Slaughterhouse Cases


the 14th amendment didn't change traditional federalism and citizens' rights belonged to the state so couldn't do anything about prejudice against blacks in New Orleans slaughterhouse business

Panic of 1873


economic depression detracted attention from Southern Reconstruction

Colfax Massacre


attack citizens of Colfax with canons in Louisiana

Civil Rights Act of 1875


outlawed discrimination in public hotels and theaters

United States vs. Cruikshank


threw out those convicted of Colfax Massacre in 1873 because it went against Enforcement Acts

Compromise of 1877


Election of 1876 was highly disputed because 50-50 vote between Hayes and Tilden, so bargain was that if Hayes won for Republicans, he would recognize Democratic control of the South and not intervene in local affairs, thus ordering the last of the troops out of the South. Democrats had to protect political and civil rights but they did not do so.


George Washington

1789 - 1797

John Adams(F)

1797 - 1801

Federalist: more power to central government, Northern support VS. antifederalist that wanted more states to have power/South

Thomas Jefferson(D-R)/(Anti-Federalist)

1801 - 1809

Republican; Accepted Hamilton's program in exchange for the capital being located in Washington D.C. Entire presidency was contradictory with embargo and louisiana purchase because made the power of the national government big when republicans wanted it to be smaller

James Madison(R)

1809 - 1817

wanted stronger federal government
-chartered second BUS in 1816
-Macon's Bill No. 2: rescinded Jefferson's Embargo on France and Britain and allowed trade. Jefferson's sec of state

James Monroe(D-R)

1817 - 1825

Domination of one-party politics-> "Era of Good Feelings"

John Quincy Adams(R)

1825 - 1829

Henry Clay = sec of state

Andrew Jackson(D)

1829 - 1837

Democrat; rejected the idea of putting money into the national Bank of the United States and created smaller pet banks to put money into, but needed to find a Secretary of State that would help him do this. Eventually he found Roger Taney. (He took it as a mandate to do so when he got reelected after vetoing the Bank of the United States bill) He finished putting this money in smaller pet banks by 1834, and by 1836 the charter for the second BUS had expired-> Independent Treasury Act;
His veto on the Bank Bill lead to the creation of the Whig Party

Martin Van Buren(D)

1837 - 1841

William Henry Harrison(W)


Whig Party

John Tyler(W)

1841 - 1845

-Harrison's VP
Part of Whig Party (for the American System) BUT had Democratic (against the American system) views

James Polk(D)

1845 - 1849

-Reduced tariff
-Reestablished the independent Treasury System
-Settled dispute over Oregon territory
-wanted to bring California into Union
-Began Mexican war by inciting fight

Zachary Taylor(W)

1849 - 1850

In the compromise of 1850, he only agreed with admitting California as a state, but he died and his successor Fillmore supported Clay and helped secure compromise

Millard Fillmore(W)

1850 - 1853

Zachary Taylor's vice president

Franklin Pierce(D)

1853 - 1857

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Abraham Lincoln(R)

1861 - 1865

Andrew Johnson(D)

1865 - 1869

NO one liked Johnson; Lincoln's successor. Impeached after violating the Tenure of Office Act which was used against him by congress as part of the moderate congressional reconstruction: an effort to balance the powers and take more power away from the president. Vetoed acts to extend the life of the Freedmans Bureau and the Reconstruction Act

Ulysses S. Grant

1869 - 1877

general of the Union Army;