Madison & fellow republicans wanted war w/ GB. Failure of economic sanctions.
Orders in Council= GB relaxed neutral shipping restrictions in favor of US commerce,
Macon's Bill # 2- threw open US trade to everyone.
Madison accepted Napoleon offer but it was fraud, french seized US ships
frightened western settlers. blamed GB.
Treaty of Greenville- US promised that they would get native aprolal before taking land
Treaty of Vincennes- WIlliam Henry Harrison rocured most of southern Indiana and this angered Sgawnee chief temcumpseh and tenkswatawa
Battle of Tippecanoe- Harrison took over Prophets Town. Led to Gb and Native alliance
Hatred of Natives
Economic coercian disagreement
War Hawks= Republicans who wanted WAR
Henry clay and John C> Calhoun
Congress refused to enlarge army
SOuth and West favored war because of agricultural depression
New England opposed war because of success with commerce
Most of War: GB busy w/ napoleonic war. failed to secure naval control of Great Lakes.
most battles fought along canadian border.
US tried to invade CA but GB had blockade. US navy successful in denying GB access to Great Lakes.
Jackson had a smashing victory at Battle of NEw ORleans.
GB used CAN for supplies.
Put in Bay- Tecumpsah killed Northwest safe for american settlement
THames- ended GB plans for an Indian Buffer state.
GB torched D.C
Plattsburg- Gb wanted peace.
Treaty of Ghentpeace treaty proposed by GB. restored nations to pre-war conditions
GB sent tropps to New ORleans Battle of New orleans- Jackson war hero! death blow federalism!
2/3 majority in congress
3/5 slave rule removed
Internal dissent. Federalists tarred w/ brush of treason. Republics now powerful than ever
left federalist party because they didnt support his expansionist policy
Rush Bagot Treaty- strictly lmted naval ships on Great Lakes
Anglo American Accords- resolved many unsolved issued post-war
boundary of lousiana territory and canada set at 49th parallel.
Jackson= hero of spanish florida!
Trans-Continental Treaty 1819- US annexed East FLorda and spain recognized west seizure by us too.
ALL THIS DONE BY JQ ADAMS AS SEC OF STATE.
politcal harmoy and sectional unity
national pride surged
republicans only governing party
Economic Nationalism- 2nd Bank of US created by John C. Calhoun in Philly.
Tarrif of 1816- 1st protective tarrif in US history
act levid duties of 20 to 25% manufatured goods.
McCulloh vs. Maryland
Judicial Nationalism chief Justice John Marshall
Maryland didnt want national bank so they txed it to death. McCulloh banker who refused to pay taxes.
Supreme court said that taxing bank was not right.
Cotton Prices sank in England
Cotton= most valuable US export
Bank depression & hardest ti tge western farmers and buisnessmen.
SOutherners thought Tarrif of 1816 benefitted the North
Southerners rejected the Tallmadge Agreement whch banned future slave states.
HENRY CLAY PROPOSED THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE
missouri slave state and maine= free state.
GB needs to stop meddling w/ US affair and US will stay out of Europe.
Gb ignored this.
Jacksonian Democrats- Martin Van Buren built the Albany Regency- a tightly disciplined state political machine. Van Buren made a buisness out of politics. organized 1st national campaign that relied excessively on new techniques f mass mobilization. publicized jackson w/ newpapers, ads, and heavy campaigning.
Adams did well only in New Eng during the election of 1828.
William Crawford (offical party nominee), JQ Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and Calhoun but he dropped out. ALL REPUBLICANS
Clay liked national bank, tarrifs, and internal improv. AMERICAN SYSTEM
Jackson hated clay and his beliefs. He felt that he was the victim of corrupt bargain btwn Clay and Adams. CLay= JQ adams sec f state
he thought "CLay gave away presidency to Adams"
1st term- known for political infighting.
BANK WAR- destroyed 2nd bank of US.
NULLIFCIATION CRISIS- rejected south carolina's attempt to nullify the national tarrif.
Demoracts= enemy of special privelege.
friend of the COMMON MAN.
Spoils System- removed enemies. put friends in place
most intense in georgia
georgia moved against cherokees
most important in early admin. = INDIAN REMOVAL ACT
advised indians to emigrate beyond mississippi or submit to the laws of the US
CHerokees- forced removal.
TRAIL OF TEARS- CHerokees forced to go Oklahoma
supressing of indians- Black Hawk's War
Court ruled that Georgie violates constitution in extending jurisdication over cherokees.
Bank war erupted. Jackson presented w/ rechartering draft for national bank. He vetoes it.
he distrusted banks like most westerners.
didnt want paper money
president of bank- Nicolas Biddle
Jackson easily beat Clay (national republican party)
ackson won bank war against Clay and Biddle
Peggy Eaton= Calhoun's wife
had an affair
stirred up gossip among cabinet member wives.
Disunity among cabinet members
JAckson angry. wiped out alll cabinet members.
New cabinet- only bachelors. Jackson supported Peggy Eaton
Tejanos- Texans of mexican descent,
tx- sparsely populated
1st US empresario- recieved large grant in return for a promise to bring in settlers= Stephen Austin
Stephen Ausin founded the 1st US colony in Texas
Americans ignored the anti- Slavery laws in the republic of mexico
General Santa Anna elected pres of Mexico- overturned mexican constitution. Dictator
texas no longer had chance of becoming an autonomous state w/in mexico.
Texans sought to overthrow Santa Anna. Rebellion at the Alamo in San Antonio and then at Goliad. Texans killed and had to surrender
volunteers form US south rushed to help Texan Army
- commander= Sam Houston= commander of Texan Army
Sam Houston caught Sanata Anna off gaurd at the Battle of San Jacinto and established the Independence of Texas.
Boundary at South and West of the Rio Grande
Van Buren stepped up as Pres.
financial panic arose. Bank was dead. Huge debt. Economic depression. unemployment rose.
depressed agricultural farners,
Many fled West
The Second Party System
lmted federal government government contorl of individual support exapansionism morality and economy. against expa
farmers, workers, catholics commercial farmers, skilled workers
South and West Northeast and upper midwest.
Henry Clay William Henry Harrison- supporter of bank battle of tippecanoe war of 1812
Webster- Ashburton Treaty- settled boundary btwn Maine & Canada.
Tylers goal= annex texas
texas- slaveholding republic
americans and tejanos declared their independence from Mexico.
3 focal points of white settlement in north border of mexico- Texas, new Mexico, and Alta California.
Seal had control over mexico.
to serve as a buffer against the comanches, mexican gov't in 1821 invited americans into texas.
polk vs. clay. Polk won.
Polk wanted immediate annexation of TX
Tyler got revenge on WHigs party abondoning him by getting TX>
Polk wanted to annex California and Also New Mexico.
1846- WAR BROKE OUT
victory= Mexican Cession of 1848
49th paralel established
Whites were special people
Whites had the natural right to expand westward, carrying the blessings of democracy and progress.
American Expansion was to be peaceful and irresistible
Manifest Destiny was very closely related to the DEMOCTARIC PARTY!!!!
Polk was willing to compromise w/ GB on Orgeon because he didnt want war w/ Mexico and GB.
Polk refused to accept that Rio Grande= border btwn Texas and Mexico.
Polk sent General Zachary Tyler to go to rio grande and build a fort. Defeated mexicans.
He had earlier sent John SLidell to Mexico to offer money to buy Cali and NM but they refused.
Polk sent Zachary Tyler to fight at rio grande.
Mexicans lacked naval ships, good weapons, and leadership
Polk sent William Kearney to NM to fight.
land scarce in New england.
pressure to move west greatest in the slave states
led by Jesus Trujillo and Tomasito
largest uprising by mexicans who feared their land would be confiscated.
repressed by US army
Polk directed Winfield Scott to invade central mexico
Winfield Scott captured Mexico City
late 1840s- early 50s. 150,000 americans made trip from Missouri to Oregona, Cali, or Utah.
Oregon- unheard of. 15 miles a day.
6 month trip. 2,000 miles total.
missionaries failed to convert natives to christianity.
Cayuses killed the Whitmans and the whites retaliated and exterminated all Cayuses.
1842, overlanders left Independence, MO for the Willamette Valley.
Most were young farm families from midwest.
Santa Fe Trail- carried US goods to the Mexican Southwest.
Mexico surrendered its claim to Texas north of rio grande
ceded alta cali
and new mexico
1st US attempt to draw boundaries w/in which to contain Plain Indians. In exchange for accepting llimitations on their movement and for the loss of game- compensation- $50,000 a year.
Most Indians at fort Laaramie- Siouc and their allies.
Sioux viewd treaty as confirming their domincance ont he Great Plains.
Sioux and US reached a standoff at Fort Lamarie in 1851.
Neither yielded its claims on great plains.