A brief literary movement inspired by Klinger's play "Wirrar oder Sturn und Drang," that served at a precursor to Romanticism in literature.
Initiated by Neopolian, the French Revolution led to a bloody massacre of the French nobility and a complete government overthrow by the lower classes.
Originally a style of furniture this period focused on more simple lines in art as opposed to the extremely ornate baroque style. This movement also promoted close relationships with family and meaningful friendships.
Powers as rights of hereditary leaders were reinforced, and Hapsburgs regained their power and part of Italy. Suppression of Austrian culture and nationalism forced composers and artists to find more inconspicuous ways of sharing their work
During this period Goethe's poetry was highly influential on music and society. His works embody the style and content of romantic literature.
During this time Haydn composed music prolifically, and wrote the the first true songs.
One of Mozart's first french songs.
Johann Herder was a proponent of German people having pride in their culture. He collected poetry from German speaking areas and published this collection, which inspired Goethe to write "Heiden Roeslien"
Inspired by Emperor Josef 11
Poetry by Goethe
Haydn's role at the Esterhazy estate is terminated after the death of Prince Niklaus in 1790. He travels to London where he writes his famous "London Symphonies, and several canzonettas with texts set by Shakespeare and Anne Hunter.
This was a collection of German folk poems and songs by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano. These songs were eventually set by several other composers.
A set of poems by Goethe with characters that represent himself and his own lover Marriane.
Schubert's "Gretchen am Spinnrade" is the first lieder ever written.
Schubert composed over 250 songs during this year.
Berlioz composed songs in the Romance style during this period and also set Melodie in a style notably similar to Haydn.
This was the first song cycle ever written. It contains themes of nature and is cyclic in style with the last piece returning the music from the beginning of the first.
Metternich, after the Neopolianic era, was afriad of social uprisings and secret societies gaining power. He bans certain kind of poetry and literature, and becomes paranoid about controlling the large area of German-speaking territory.
The first majorly significant song cycle of the 19th century, "Die Shoenermullerin" tells the tragic story of a young miller and the maiden he loves.
Includes Eduard and Erkonig.
A collection of 41 poems inspired by the Greek war of independence.
During these years, he began writing romances as opposed to melodies. This period inludes "La Nuit d'Ete", a collection of 6 orchestral songs on poems by Gautier from "La Commedie de la Mort."
The concert was in Brussels, Belgium. She was 16.
This was a significant work dealing with the Romantic ideals concerning death.
Nearly all of Lizst's French songs were written during this time period. He set texts of Hugo and Dumas, but while the text was indeed French, the style was completely that of the German Lied.
Schuman composed constantly during this year; he published 8 sets of songs including the op. 24 Liederkreiss, Op. 25 Myrthen, Op. 39 Liederkreiss, op. 42 Frauenliebe und Leben, and op. 48 Dichteliebe.
Music in this piece seems to anticipate the famous chord from the prelude to "Tristan und Isolde"
This was Saint-Saens main period of song composition. His Melodie is sweet and lyrical.
Arguably his most advanced period, Berlioz's style is unquestionable. During this time he wrote "L'amort d'Ophilie" and "Zaide."
A collection o 28 mostly strophic songs that are graduated in difficulty. He dedicated the first 7 to his daughter Marie.
Op. 135, Clara picked out these poems for her husband. They are thought to be poems that Mary Stuart wrote while she was imprisoned.
Eichendorff's best known work--a typical romantic novella with the main themes of voyage and love.
The poetry for this set was written by a patron of Wagner> He was working on "Tristan und Isolde" at the time, and the music contains elements from the opera itself.
This is Beaudelaire's most famous work.
This period took place while he was studying at the Paris Conservartoire under Saint-Saens. "Lydia" and "Apres un Reve" both come from this period.
Heavily inspired by Paul Verlaine, he wrote his first 9 melodies which included "L'enfant," "Lied," "Serenade," and "Chant d'oiseaux."
The majority of Bizet's vocal music was written during this 2 year period.
Allowed many French composers, writers and artists to explore foreign styles of music and culture.
A society founded in Paris by the greatest composers of the time that promoted music of Ars Galica or French Art.
This work was Controversial because of it's sensual content. In fact, Brahms was criticized for that and was advised that it is too sexual for a family audience.
This work contains impressionistic symbols of Verlaine and his homosexual lover, Rimbaud.
Although Bizet died before the opera gained a lot of popularity, "Carmen" is arguable the most well-known opera of all time.
This was a text by jean Lahor, and was a tribute to Wagner.
Op 2: Consists of seven Mélodies. Includes settings of poems by Leconte de Lisle, Silvestre, Gautier, Bourget, and Ackermann. Also included is "Le Colibri" which is revolutionary in its use of 5/4 time signature.
Started when he was 20 years old. This work usues mostly texts from "Des knaben Wunderhorn"
A cantata for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. This is the first major work of Mahler's surviving in its entirety.
Significantly develops the capability of concert repertoire for voice.
Contains foreign musical motives including Spanish flavored music, and French Bergerettes.
During this period Faure fell in love with Verlaine's poetry. "Spleen,' "Green," and "Un Sourdine" are from this period.
His first vocal composition.
11 songs based on gypsy texts. These were originally string quartets.
During this time Wolf became manic and composed constantly, writing three songs a day sometimes. In this year he wrote nearly 245 songs.
Poetry of Morike
Poetry by Eichendorff
Poetry by Goethe
A collection of songs translated into German by Paul Heyse and Emanuel Geibel.
Translated by Paul Heyse
During this time he wrote and 30 songs.
Wolf went mad and was sent to a mental facility and never wrote music again.
This is his last composition for voice
These were a set of poems that Ruckert wrote after the death of his children. They contain the romantic ideals of death, nature, and the sadness of the human condition of existence.
Written for soprano and orchestra. These were the last songs he ever wrote. He composed them for Kirsten Flagstad. She premiered the work.
Mozart was a composer of the classical period and composed symphonic, chamber, choral, and operatic works. Concerning vocal compositions, he is best known for his operas, specifically those written in collaboration with Lorenzo Da Ponte, but he also composed songs in Italian, German, and French.
An influential musician of his time, and a part of the Second German school style of composition.
Known for his dramatic ballads in the style of traditional English and Scottish Ballads.
Joseph Haydn contributed to the evolution of song by composing songs in three staves instead of two. This allowed the role of the piano and of accompaniment to evolve.
As one of the most influential composers in history, Beethoven's music served as a transition from Classical Period's forms and styles into the height of the Romantic Period's development. His cycle, "An die ferne Gelibte," was the first of it's kind.
Eichendorff was a poet of the second german school, and his style was typical of the Romantic Period--nature, and man's state of existence being recurring themes.
Was known to have a beautiful voice as a child, and his father, who was also a musician, encouraged him to train in music. Jerome of Westvalia paid for his education in church music, keyboard, theory, and voice until he was 18.
Schubert composed over 900 songs in his lifetime, and his music influenced the compositional styles of Schumann, Brahms, and Mendelssohn.
Heine is one of the most significant German poets of the 19th century. Druing his lifetime he worked as a writer and as a literary critic. His poetry was often set by Schubert and Schumann.
A french poet, writer, and dramaticist, Hugo is famous for his humanistic style. He was very active in the politics of his time, especially as he aged.
Berlioz is best known for his a French composer best known for his symphonic compositions, but also composed around 50 songs during his lifetime.
Moerike was a German Romantic poet, but he worked as a pastor for most of his life until in 1851, he left the position to become a teacher of German literature. His poetry is most famously set by Wolf.
In his early career, Schumann composed only for piano, but in 1840 began writing symphonic, choral, and chamber works as well. His first songs were composed at age 7, and he was a prolific song writer throughout his career. His wife, Clara, was also a popular composer and musician.
Franz Lizst was known as a child prodigy, having his first concerts at age 9. He was a famous pianist of his time and was influenced by Beethoven and Schubert. His compositional style was very showy, and his transcriptions demand an exceptional amount of skill. He was one of the first performers in history to include works of past composers in his programs, including Bach and Mozart.
Wagner is known for his development of tonality, and for his contributions to the development of opera. Yet, in his early career, to make money, he composed songs that were less innovative and inspired by the style of Franz Lizst.
One of the most notable French Romantic poets.
A popular, well-rounded musician, and pianist of her time, although, due to societal norms of the time, her work was mostly unrecognized until the late 20th century.
Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. Brahms, an uncompromising perfectionist, destroyed many of his works and left some of them unpublished. His style was innovative and yet traditional--using old classical forms, but composing melodies that were highly chromatic and that strayed from the traditional bounds of harmony.
Saint-Saens is famous in many generas of music, and was also known as a child prodigy, composing his first Romances before he was a teenager.
Bizet is known for his theatrical style and dramatic flair, while he did write Chanson, the drama that makes his opera so thrilling, never relaxes for music to be performed off the stage.
Chabrier was a part-time musician. He made his living as a civil servant, but composed and played the piano as well.
Massenet contributed significantly to the French melodie, composing in this style often. His songs are full of flair, and often have operatic elements to them.
Paul Verlaine was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the "fin de siecle."
Faure is one of the most significant composers of French Artsong. Throughout his career he developed not only the style of Chanson, but the functionality of harmony as well. "Claire de Lune" and "Apres un Reve" are among his most famous pieces.
Duparc is best known for his 17 melodies with texts by poets such as Baudelaire, Gautier, Leconte de Lisle, and Goethe.
He was known to be high-minded and self critical. His music reflects the kind of melancholy mind-set he had. Chausson is thought to have died just as his career began to flourish.
A famous female composer
was a composer particularly noted for his contributions to lieder. He brought to this form a concentrated expressive intensity which was unique in late Romantic music.
Mahler is known for being the bridge between 19th century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century.
His most significant works were on the operatic stage, but his song is also unique it it's grand and soaring style.
His style of composition is known for being simply beautiful and elegant. He composed mainly in the style of Melodie.