Vocal Rep

Main Layer

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

1729 - 1781

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a central figure in Germany. Lessing made German authors go away from the French tradition and introduced them to Greek styles as well as William Shakespeare. One Greek style he introduced was the poetry of Anacreon and then started the style of Anacraeon poets such as Johann Gellert and Johann Uz.

Franz Joseph Haydn

1732 - 1809

The Age of Goethe

1750 - 1830

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a huge influence on development German lied with his literature. These were some themes that were found during The Age of Goethe were the following:
1) The artist as the Wanderer - Cast out from society. This is found in Schubert Lied.
2) Reveling in Nature, coupled with isolation from human society.
3) Love of the past and of the exotic. Ideas from the Greeks, Romans, Persians, Shakespeare and the Middle Ages. Hafiz was a Persian poet who Goethe admired.
4) Super Natural forces. (Ghosts, fairies...etc.)
5) Love

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

1756 - 1791

Johann Zelter

1758 - 1832

Made an extreme impact of German life and the reason for German music education is because of him. He was close friends with Johann Goethe they wrote 900 letters to each other where they discussed basic questions on music along with other topics.

Ludwig Van Beethoven

1770 - 1827

Johann Carl Gottfriend Loewe

1796 - 1869

Johann Carl Gottfriend Loewe composed about 400 songs. Carl Loewe was best know for his ballads which were considered his most significant works. Ballads were considered to be miniature dramas and became popular with other composers such as Zumsteeg, Zelter and Reichardt. One of Loewe's popular works was his setting of Goethe's 'Erlkönig'. Loewe would use rules from the Second Berlin School which can be found on this timeline.

Franz Schubert

1797 - 1828

One of the greatest composers of German Lieder. He was influenced by Zelter, Zumsteeg, & Reinchardt. His piece 'Gretchen am Spinnrade' was considered to be the birth of German Lied. He is also well known for his pieces 'Erlköning', 'Gaynmed' Die Forelle', and 'Die junge Nonne'. Schubert also wrote the following song cycles 'Die schöne Müllern' and 'Winterreise' which will be discussed more in this timeline.

Heinrich Heine

1797 - 1856

German poet whose work was put to music by Schumann's 'Dichterliebe'. Heine's works have also been put to music by Schubert, Brahms, Wagner, and Mendelssohn.

Hector Berlioz

1803 - 1869

Hector Berlioz's most important work was Les Nuits d'ete written in 1941 was considered the first song cycle in French melodie. Berlioz was one of the first composers to discuss his pieces of songs as melodies. Berlioz was deeply sensitive in poetry. Wrote about 20 songs in his life, 11 of them were orchestral form.

Napoleon Comes to Power


Napoleon comes to power in France and crowns himself Emperor. This starts feelings of disdain from the Germans since they are living in a system dominated by the French.

Eduard Mörike

1804 - 1875

German poet whose work was put to music by Hugo Wolf.

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

1805 - 1847

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel was the sister of the composer Felix Mendelssohn they were both taught by Carl Zelter. Fanny composed over 300 Lieder but many were never even published. Her father was against having Fanny make music her profession both because of the fact she was a women along with her ailing health. Instead Fanny would hold Salons where she was able to perform her pieces. Certain audience members of these salons would be Liszt, Hegel, Paganini, and Heine.

Volume I - Das Knaben Vunderhorn


Acim von Arnim and Clemence Brentanto published the first volume of 'Das Knaben Vunderhorn'. 'Das Knaben Vunderhorn' is a collection of folk lyrics and the two men continued to collect more lyrics till 1808. The lyrics deal with ethics of life, love, nature and war. It was dedicated to Goethe and revised the German morale for the better. Later on the texts from 'Das Knaben Vunderhorn' is written by major composers such as Mahler, Strauss, and Brahms.

Stimmen der Volker in Lieder


Johann Herder wrote 'Stimmen der Volker in Lieder' which translates to 'Voices of the People in Song'. This because an important source of text for Germans in the 19th century. Herder also believed that Germans had a common spirit which from different from other people. He called this common spirit 'Folksgeist'.

Felix Mendelssohn

1809 - 1847

Felix Mendelssohn was taught in theory and piano by Carl Zelter. Zelter introduced Felix to Goethe, the two became good friends. Felix is well known for conducting Bach's 'St. Matthew Passion' for the first time since Bach's death in 1750. Felix was a terrific musician and composer but his art songs never had as much success as his instrumental music.

Robert Schumann

1810 - 1856

Robert Schumann in many ways reinvented the German Lied. With the use of making the piano accompaniment equal with the voice it was something new and exciting in German Lied. 1840 is considered to be Schumann's "Liederjahr" (Lieder year). Schumann composed the cycles 'Dichterliebe', 'Liederkreis', 'Frauenliebe und-leben' as well as marrying his wife Clara Schumann. Robert Schumann was the editor of the 'Neue Zeitschrift für Musikä. Schumann was a very critical and influential writer and he would sign his writings with his autobiographical alter egos "Florestan" or "Eusebius". Sometimes Schumann would even use the name "Raro" which would link he and his wife Clara (ClaRARObert). In his music Schumann would use the same motives many times. One of them spelled his wife Clara's names (C-B-A-G#-A). Schumann was close friends with Johannes Brahms and Felix Mendelssohn. Schumann suffered depression and was place in an asylum in 1854 where he died two years later.

Franz Liszt

1811 - 1886

Born in Hungary but became a citizen of a cosmopolitan Europe. Austria, France, Italy and Germany all claimed him as a resident of their native land. In 1848 he settled in Weimer with Princess Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein who had fallen in love with him. Liszt was appointed honorary Kappellmeister to the Grand Ducal court where he conducted until 1861. In 1865 he became a secular priest. In 1869-1886 Lizst divided his time between Weimar, Budapest and Rome. Within this time period his music became more bold. Liszt wrote 82 songs all together as well as two oratorios and four masses.

Richard Wagner

1813 - 1883

Richard Wagner wrote in a more large scale form instead of for something smaller for the song. Most of the songs he wrote were for a larger or larger-average size voice except for Wesendonck Lieder. Wagner believed that the words must share equally with the music to be able to realize the drama.

Napoleon is Defeated


Napoleon is sent to Elba and is defeated in Waterloo.

The Congress of Vienna


The Power of the Rights were Reinforced.

Birth of German Lied

October 14, 1814

German Lied is born the day Robert Schubert completed his composition of 'Gretchen am Spinnrade'.

Biedermaier Style

1815 - 1848

The term Biedermaier was originally used to describe furniture in the 18th century in Vienna. The furniture could be described as simple, graceful and the opposite of Baroque. It later became a term fro a life style which focused on family, private life and the meaning of deep friendships.

Student Unrest in Vienna


After The Congress of Vienna had met, Austria's Prime minister Metternich was afraid of secret societies forming. Metternich contacted the German confederation and convinced them to pass laws that would censor books, magazines and newspapers. Metternich also had officials keep watch on students and professors at the universities. This lead to a student uprising in Vienna where all societies and clubs were shut down and the members were imprisoned. The reaction to this was that the Salons were held in private homes and became popular.

Popularity of Private Salons


After the Student Unrest in Vienna people would have their own private Salons in their homes. People felt safe and free in a private environment.

An die ferne Geliebte, Op. 98


Written by Beethoven and considered to be one of the first song cycles. Different then the typical song cycle. For example songs can not be performed by themselves, the piano accompaniment is continually played throughout. It is also in cyclic form meaning that the beginning themes are brought back at the end of the cycle.

Charles Gounod

1818 - 1893

Gounod composed over 200 songs, choosing texts by contemporary poets. Some poets he would use Victor Hugo, Alfred de Musset, La Fontaine, and Theophile de Banville. Gound's pieces are known for their lyricism and elegance.

Clara Wieck Schumann

1819 - 1896

Wife of Robert Schumann. Also a very talented pianist and composer. She wrote many piano and chamber works. Her songs were admired by her husband, Brahms, Mendelssohn and Liszt. She had written 3 collection of Lieder.

Pauline Viardot

1821 - 1910

Pauline Viardot was loved by de Musset, Gounod and Berlioz. She was one of the greatest singing actresses in opera history. She was close friends with Berlioz and Meyerbeer. Viardot was a terrific pianist as well. At the age of 17 she made her singing debut in Rossini's Othello. She married French writer and critic Louis Viardot. She met Russian poet Ivan Turgenev who fell in love and had a menage a trois with her husband until 1883 when both men died. Viardot composed 100 over 100 vocal pieces and more then 90 were published during her lifetime.

First German Romantic Opera


The first German Romantic Opera came in 1821 in the production of Carl Maria von Weber's 'Der Freischütz'

Charles Baudelaire

1821 - 1867

French poet whose work was put to music by Duparc, Faure, and Chabrier.

Cesar Franck

1822 - 1890

Franck taught at the Paris Conservatoire for many years and was the organist at the Church of Sainte-Clotilde. Some of his most famous students were Duparc, Chausson and d'Indy. Because of his talented students Franck's musical ideas continued even after his death.

Die schöne Müllern


Die schöne Müllern (The Miller's Daughter) is a song cycle written by Franz Schubert based from the poems written by Wilhelm Müller. In this cycle we are introduced to the following characters:
The Young Miller, the old Miller, the beautiful daughter, and the huntsman. Another important character is the brook who represents the connection the Young Miller has to nature. We are also introduced colors throughout this cycle. There is the color green which is the loved color (the ribbon on the lute) as well as being the hated color (the color of the hunters home). There is also the color blue which is the color of the maiden's eyes and of the brook. There is also the color white which represents the flowers.
The representation of the Young Miller's emotions is so well captured by Schubert's representation in the music and the cycle as a whole.
There are twenty songs in total in this cycle.

Second Berlin School Rules - Loewe

January 10, 1824

Loewe has rules which are also used in the Second Berlin School.
1) Text takes priority
2) Strophic song
3) Accompaniment stays in the background so melody could exist without it
4) Syllabic

Winterreise, Op. 80, Nos. 1-24


Winterreise (Winter's Journey) is another song cycle written by Franz Schubert using the poetry of Wilhelm Müller. Winterreise is considered to me a monodrama on the narrator who is a lonely wander who tells his story while traveling. He is alone and only sings of nature until the final song 'Der Leiermann' translated to 'The Organ-Grinder' or 'The Hurdy-Gurdy Man'.

Johannes Brahms

1833 - 1897

Johannes Brahms wrote about 380 songs. Was interested in folk song and folk music. Brahms did not aim for perfect connection of text to the music. Brahms was very close with the Schumann family. They was a very special relationship between him and Clara Schumann. Brahms also used the CLARA theme in his music just like Robert Schumann.

George Bizet

1838 - 1875

Bizet composed about 50 melodies most that are similar to the style of Gounod who was his teacher. Bizet's melodies suited the voice very well.

Dichterliebe, Op. 48, Nos. 1-16


Dichterliebe (A Poet's Love) by Robert Schumann with the poems by Heinrich Heine is a song cycle of 16 songs. Dichterliebe tell a typical story found in German Lied of an unhappy love and the betrayal of the poet by his lover. The beginning of this cycle starts with an ambiguity of the tonality drawing the listener in. This cycle was written during Schumann's Liederjahr.

Liederkreis, Op. 39


A collection of songs written by Robert Schumann during his Leiderjahr. Unlike the songs cycles written during the same years these songs are writing by different poets and do not tell a whole story. The one thing they do have in common is the fact that the 12 poems in this opus makes references throughout about the sky and flight.

Frauenliebe und -leben, Op. 42


Frauenliebe und -leben (A Women's Love and Life) was written by Robert Schumann during his Leiderjahr. The poems of the cycle were written by Adalbert von Chamisso. This cycle has no narrative.

Myrthen, Op. 25


Written by Robert Schumann during his Liederjahr for his future bride Clara. There are a total of 26 songs in this cycle including well known pieces such as 'Widmung' and 'Die Lotosblume'. The Clara theme is also played throughout the cycle as well.

Emmanuel Chabrier

1841 - 1894

Chabrier composed a few melodies and they are all rooted in the idea of romance. Chabrier's songs were written with good humor and wit. For example he wrote a song discussing little ducks 'Villanelle des petits canards'.

Les Nuits d'ete


Berlioz's 'Les Nuits d'ete' is considered to be the first cycle of French melodie.

Paul Verlaine

1844 - 1896

French poet. Works were put to music by Faure and Debussy.

Gabriel Faure

1845 - 1924

Gabriel Faure is considered on of the greatest composers of French song to this day. He has three composition styles. The first being his Early style from 1860-1865 which consists of the pieces 'Mai', 'Lydia' and more. In 1880-1904 his Middle Style began where he wrote 'Le Ramier', 'Les Roses d'Ispahan', 'Les Berceaux', and more. His final period was in 1906-1922 where he wrote 'La Chanson d'Eve', 'Le Don silencieux' and more.

Henri Duparc

1848 - 1933

Henri Duparc wrote 16 songs using wonderful French texts and the songs were melodic and harmonic. Duparc had strong views on singers and what types of singers he wanted for his song. In 1885 Duparc had a nervous disease and he retired to artistic silence.

Ernest Chausson

1855 - 1899

Ernest Chausson wrote about 50 melodies throughout his life. Chausson was a student of Massenet and Franck. Chausson payed attention to meolody and was known for starting his pieces with a lower range and then allowing the piece to ascend. Later on in his writing life his songs were more expressive. Chausson enjoyed poetry from Camille Mauclair and Jean Richepin. Chausson died in a bicycle accident in 1899.

Cecile Chamindad

1857 - 1944

Was known as "little Mozart" by Bizet and recommended that she study piano at Paris Conservatoire but her father refused. Chamindad studied piano and theory with LeCouppey and harmony with Savard and compositon with Benjamin Godard. She had a very successful career as a pianist and as a composer. Chamindad wrote about 400 compositions, for piano, ballet, one opera, and a concerto for piano and orchestra along with over 100 other songs.

Hugo Wolf

1860 - 1903

Hugo Wolf was considered to be the "Wagner of Lied". This being that Wolf played extreme attention to the text of the poem. He composed about 250 songs total. He also wrote the Möricke Lieder, Goethe Lieder, and Eichnforff Lieder. He also had songs containing a Spanisches Liederbuch and a italienisches Liederbuch.

Gustav Mahler

1860 - 1911

Composer and conductor. Was the musical director of the Vienna Court Opera in 1897. He later conducted at the Metropolitan Opera House and conducted the New York Philharmonic Society concerts. He died in Vienna in 1911. Was well known for his compositions of big orchestral cycles. Mahler found 'Das Knaben Wunderhorn' when he was in his early twenties. The Wunderhorn anthology allowed Mahler to have a subject for both songs and symphonies for the rest of his life. There are 24 songs for the Wunderhorn-Lieder and they are not arranged as a folk songs but had the texts as though they belonged to the present moment.

First French Orchestra


Richard Strauss

1864 - 1949

Strauss was considered an amazing composer at both opera and songs. Had inspiration to write because of his wife who was soprano Pauline de Ahna. Strauss was the most publicized composer of the early 20th century. One of his very well know works is his 'Four Last Songs'.

Reynaldo Hahn

1874 - 1947

Hahn was born in Venezuela but had a great career in France where he was both a composer and a singer. Hahn wrote about 95 songs, 84 of which are melodies. Hahn would treat the vocal lines as speech lines and gave them the chance to move freely throughout his music. Hahn did not break "new ground" in his compositions but they were beautiful and simple nonetheless.

Eichendorff Lieder

March 1878 - 1888

Poetry by Joseph von Eichendorff set to music by Hugo Wolf. Includes 'Verschwiegne Liebe', 'Nachtzauber' and 'Die Zigeunerin'.

Wunderhorn-Lieder I

1880 - 1885

By Gustav Mahler.

Möricke Lieder

February 1888 - October 1888

Songs written by Hugo Wolf in 1888 with poetry by Eduard Möricke. Wolf would write one song per day. Some songs in this cycle are 'Er ist's', 'Elfenlied' and 'Verborgenheit.

Goethe Lieder

October 1888 - December 1888

Hugo Wolf wrote pieces from Goethe's poetry. It can be divinded into the following groups. Ten songs from 'Wilhelm Meister', four ballands, seventeen songs from the 'West-östliche Divan', and a collection of assorted texts drawn from other Goethe poems.

Spanisches Liederbuch


Written by Hugo Wolf. Are musical settings of translations of 16th and 17th century Spanish and Portuguese poems by Paul Heyse and Emanuel Geibel. There are 10 sacred songs and 34 secular texts. The songs do not sound anything like a stereotypical Spanish song so the only thing that is Spanish about this is the original texts. Some songs from this Liederburch are 'Nun wandre, Maria' and 'Bedeckt mich mit Blumen'.

Wunderhorn-Lieder II

1889 - 1899

By Gustav Mahler.

Italienisches Liederbuch

September 1890 - April 1896

Music by Hugo Wolf and 46 songs with poems by Paul Heyse. There are two Italienisches Liederbuch the first was written between September 1890-December 1891 and the second was written between March and April 1896. Both books contain 24 songs. The songs in these Liederbuch's show off Wolf's talents of connecting the poetry and songs. 'Mein Liebster singt...', 'Wie lange schon..' and 'Auch kleine Dinge..' are just some of the pieces that make up the Italian Songbooks of Hugo Wolf.

Four Last Songs

September 1949

One of Strauss's most popular works written for solo voice and orchestra.