The king of England at that time was King Edward "The confessor", he was called the confessor because he prayed a lot and he worked on making churches. Edward was different to the people he ruled, he came from a place called Normandy. The Normans did not have a king because they were part of France, so they were ruled by a Duke named "William, Duke of Normandy". He was also known as King Edward's cousin. After a while King Edward died, he had no children to take over his throne. so William, the Duke of Normandy wanted to take over Edward's throne. No one wanted a foreigner to become their king. Everyone got together and they decided that they wanted Edward's brother in law "King Harold", who was the richest and most powerful Saxon in the land. William the Duke of Normandy got mad over their decision, he wanted to be the next king of England, William decided to go to war with England. luckily he had a stronger group of people so he won the battle against Harold who died in the battle.
Pope Urban ll's Speech was to convince the Christians to fight against the Muslims. The Pope mentioned that if everyone fought in the battle, their sins would be forgiven. He also mentioned that peasants will get the same rights as knights and there won't be so much of a big gap between rich and poor. They could all fight the barbarians and all their sins would be forgiven. He mentioned that Muslims were people who worshiped demons and that they are Pagans as well.
Around 1200 in Medival England most things had to do with a term called "Feudalism". At the bottom of the system is where the peasants belonged, the peasants farmed land that they had rented from the barons. The barons were the wealthier people because they helped out the king at times. The king was on top of the system because he ruled everything, he could do everything he wanted including making people pay tax. The king was supported by the Pope and the Archbishop of Canterbury.
It all started when Henry Plantagenet, to be the king of England owned a very big empire. He was inherited some of France, but he wanted to have to the province of Aquitaine which Queen Elenor owned. Henry decided to marry her so he could own the land, his domain grew massively, he had eight children with Elenor. William, Henry, Matilda, Richard, Geoffery, Eleanor, Joan and his youngest son John. John the youngest son knew that he was never going to become king. But everything changed when William, Henry, and Geoffery died. When Henry the second died, Richard became king, he barely spent and anytime in England. He was off fighting in the crusades, or fighting rebels in France. In 1199 while Richard was trying to take over a castle in Shadow he got wounded and he died. John was crowned king of England, he got inherited a lot of worries. Pressure from the barons and other kings. He failed to protect and expand his father's empire, he never listened to the barons demands. On 1216 King John got washed up with all his treasures after having a rampage with the barons in his own land, he even lost the crown of England in the sea. Then John's son, Henry became King. The country was still a mess, he had to be crowned with a plain gold ring after his father lost the crown of England. So William Marshall, Henry the Third's main advisor helped him create the Magna Carta. As time kept flying by William Marshall would redevelop the Magna Carta, he even made it part of the peace treaty to end the civil war. If any king had a problem they would reissue the Magna Carta and get it approved by the parliament. The Magna Carta was helping step by step to create a fair society for everyone, this was the core of our legal system. One-quarter of the people in the world live in a country where their system was inspired by the Magna Carta.
in 2 years the plague claimed 20 million lives, it all started when the Mongols were fighting against the Italians. the Mongols started to have the plague. when some of Mongol fighters died, they threw them across to the Italians (their enemies) who did not have an idea about the plague until they got it. mice and fleas got infected by the plague which meant it was more common for everyone to get it. The plague was in Asia, The Middle East, and North Africa. The symptoms of the plague were high fever, aching limbs and fatigue (those were probably the first signs) after a while people would start to get black swells on places such as their armpits and their neck. Many people would vomit blood and they would die, no one could find a cure for this disease so people were asking help from God.